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2.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445223

RESUMO

Smart devices and internet-based applications are largely used in allergic rhinitis and may help to address some unmet needs. However, these new tools need to first of all be tested for privacy rules, acceptability, usability and cost-effectiveness. Secondly, they should be evaluated in the frame of the digital transformation of health, their impact on healthcare delivery and health outcomes. This review (i) summarizes some existing mHealth apps for allergic rhinitis and reviews those in which testing has been published, (ii) discusses apps that include risk factors of allergic rhinitis, (iii) examines the impact of mHealth apps in phenotype discovery, (iv) provides real-world evidence for care pathways, and finally (v) discusses mHealth tools enabling the digital transformation of health and care, empowering citizens and building a healthier society.

4.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328590

RESUMO

Objective: Asthma is a multifaceted disease, and severe asthma is likely to be persistent. Patients with severe asthma have the greatest burden and require more healthcare resources than those with mild-to-moderate asthma. The majority with asthma can be managed in primary care, while some patients with severe asthma warrant referral for expert advice regarding management. In adolescence, this involves a transition from pediatric to adult healthcare. This study aimed to explore how young adults with severe asthma experienced the transition process. Methods: Young adults with severe asthma were recruited from an ongoing Swedish population-based cohort. Qualitative data were obtained through individual interviews (n = 16, mean age 23.4 years), and the transcribed data were analyzed with systematic text condensation. Results: Four categories emerged based on the young adults' experiences: "I have to take responsibility", "A need of being involved", "Feeling left out of the system", and "Lack of engagement". The young adults felt they had to take more responsibility, did not know where to turn, and experienced fewer follow-ups in adult healthcare. Further, they wanted healthcare providers to involve them in self-management during adolescence, and in general, they felt that their asthma received insufficient support from healthcare providers. Conclusions: Based on how the young adults with severe asthma experienced the transition from pediatric to adult healthcare, it is suggested that healthcare providers together with each patient prepare, plan, and communicate in the transition process for continued care in line with transition guidelines.

5.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut oral immunotherapy (pOIT) has showed good short-term outcomes, but allergic reactions may prevent effective up-dosing and is a major cause of stopping OIT. In placebo-controlled trials, omalizumab has been shown to facilitate allergen immunotherapy and increase tolerance to peanut. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that by combining omalizumab with pOIT, and monitor treatment effects with basophil allergen threshold sensitivity tests (CD-sens), peanut allergic patients could safely initiate pOIT and thereafter slowly withdraw omalizumab. METHODS: This is the 2nd part of a one-armed open phase-2 study where peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) started pOIT after an individualized omalizumab treatment. The pOIT dose was increased from 280 to 2800 mg peanut protein in 8 weeks followed by an individualized step-wise withdrawal of omalizumab, based on clinical symptoms and CD-sens levels. pOIT continued for 12 weeks followed by an open peanut challenge. Peanut CD-sens and allergen-binding activity (ABA) and IgE-ab, IgG-ab and IgG4-ab to peanut and its components were measured during the study. RESULTS: All 23 patients successfully reached the 2800 mg maintenance dose. Moderate/systemic allergic reactions were rare while receiving full-dose omalizumab. Eleven of 23 (48%) successfully continued with pOIT after omalizumab was stopped. Compared to treatment failures, median baseline IgE-ab to peanut components Ara h 1-3 and CD-sens to peanut were significantly lower among successfully treated patients and IgG4-ab to peanut, Ara h 2 and 6 increased significantly more during treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study indicates that omalizumab is an effective adjunctive therapy for initiation and rapid up-dosing of pOIT; however, adverse events from pOIT become more frequent as omalizumab doses are decreased. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02402231. EudraCT; 2012-005625-78.

6.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(9): 1225-1234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Response to inhaled corticosteroids is highly variable, and the association between DNA methylation and treatment response is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between peripheral blood DNA methylation and inhaled corticosteroid response in children with persistent asthma. METHODS: Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was analysed in individuals on inhaled corticosteroids in three independent and ethnically diverse cohorts-Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP); Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE); and Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS). Treatment response was evaluated using two definitions, the absence of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations and the absence oral corticosteroid use while on inhaled corticosteroid therapy. CpG sites meeting nominal significance (P < 0.05) for each outcome were combined in a three-cohort meta-analysis with adjustment for multiple testing. DNA methylation was correlated with gene expression using Pearson and partial correlations. RESULTS: In 154 subjects from CAMP, 72 from BAMSE, and 168 from GACRS, relative hypomethylation of cg00066816 (171 bases upstream of IL12B) was associated with the absence of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations (Q = 0.03) in all cohorts and lower IL12B expression (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.01) in BAMSE. Relative hypermethylation of cg04256470 (688 bases upstream of CORT) was associated with the absence of oral corticosteroid use (Q = 0.04) in all cohorts and higher CORT expression (ρ = 0.20, P = 0.045) in CAMP. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Differential DNA methylation of IL12B and CORT are associated with inhaled corticosteroid treatment response in persistent childhood asthmatics. Pharmaco-methylation can identify novel markers of treatment sensitivity in asthma.

8.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 102, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a risk factor for respiratory disease in adulthood. Despite the differences in underlying pathology, patients with a history of BPD are often treated as asthmatics. We hypothesized that pulmonary outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were different in adults born preterm with and without a history of BPD compared to asthmatics and healthy individuals. METHODS: We evaluated 96 young adults from the LUNAPRE cohort ( clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02923648 ), including 26 individuals born preterm with a history of BPD (BPD), 23 born preterm without BPD (preterm), 23 asthmatics and 24 healthy controls. Extensive lung function testing and HRQoL were assessed. RESULTS: The BPD group had more severe airway obstruction compared to the preterm-, (FEV1- 0.94 vs. 0.28 z-scores; p ≤ 0.001); asthmatic- (0.14 z-scores, p ≤ 0.01) and healthy groups (0.78 z-scores, p ≤ 0.001). Further, they had increased ventilation inhomogeneity compared to the preterm- (LCI 6.97 vs. 6.73, p ≤ 0.05), asthmatic- (6.75, p = 0.05) and healthy groups (6.50 p ≤ 0.001). Both preterm groups had lower DLCO compared to healthy controls (p ≤ 0.001 for both). HRQoL showed less physical but more psychological symptoms in the BPD group compared to asthmatics. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function impairment and HRQoL in adults with a history of BPD differed from that in asthmatics highlighting the need for objective assessment of lung health.

9.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(6): 589-597, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968967

RESUMO

What are the implications of a lower than expected forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in childhood on respiratory health later in adulthood? Lung function is known to track with age, and there is evidence from recent epidemiologic studies that impaired lung function early in life is associated with later chronic airflow limitation, or even chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD. This risk seems particularly strong in subjects with persistent and severe forms of childhood asthma. Can we translate findings from longitudinal cohort studies to individual risk predictions and preventive guidelines in our pediatric care? In this review, we discuss the clinical implementations of recent epidemiological respiratory studies and the importance of preserved lung health across the life course. Also, we evaluate available clinical tools, primarily lung function measures, and profiles of risk factors, including biomarkers, that may help identifying children at risk of chronic airway disease in adulthood. We conclude that translating population level results to the individual patient in the pediatric care setting is not straight forward, and that there is a need for studies specifically designed to evaluate performance of prediction of risk profiles for long-term sequelae of childhood asthma and lung function impairment.

10.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(7): 953-968, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory airway disease influenced by environmental factors and possibly their interaction with the human genome causing epigenetic changes. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have mainly investigated DNA methylation and its association with disease or traits, exposure factors or gene expression. This systematic review aimed to identify all EWAS assessing differentially methylated sites associated with asthma in humans. DESIGN: Structured systematic literature search following PRISMA guidelines, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort studies was used for bias assessment. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed and Embase databases from 2005 to 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Epigenome-wide association studies testing association between differential methylation and asthma in humans. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 16 EWAS studies complying with our search criteria. Twelve studies were conducted on children, and 10 were conducted on sample sizes <150 subjects. Four hundred and nineteen CpGs were reported in children studies after correction for multiple testing. In the adult studies, thousands of differentially methylated sites were identified. Differential methylation in inflammatory-related genes correlated with higher levels of gene expressions of inflammatory modulators in asthma. Differentially methylated genes associated with asthma included SMAD3, SERPINC1, PROK1, IL13, RUNX3 and TIGIT. Forty-one CpGs were replicated at least once in blood samples, and 28 CpGs were replicated in nasal samples. CONCLUSION: Although many differentially methylated CpGs in genes known to be involved in asthma have been identified in EWAS to date, we conclude that further studies of larger sample sizes and analyses of differential methylation between different phenotypes are needed in order to comprehensively evaluate the role of epigenetic factors in the pathophysiology and heterogeneity of asthma, and the potential clinical utility to predict or classify patients with asthma.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2011-2013.e1, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029775
12.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923181

RESUMO

Early allergic sensitisation (atopy) is the first step in the development of allergic diseases such as atopic asthma later in life. Genes and pathways associated with atopy and atopic asthma in children and adolescents have not been well characterised.A transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of atopy and atopic asthma in white blood cells (WBCs) or whole blood was conducted in a cohort of 460 Puerto Ricans aged 9-20 years (EVA-PR study) and in a cohort of 250 Swedish adolescents (BAMSE study). Pathway enrichment and network analyses were conducted to further assess top findings, and classification models of atopy and atopic asthma were built using expression levels for the top differentially expressed genes (DEGs).In a meta-analysis of the study cohorts, both previously implicated genes (e.g. IL5RA and IL1RL1) and genes not previously reported in TWASs (novel) were significantly associated with atopy and/or atopic asthma. Top novel genes for atopy included SIGLEC8 (p=8.07×10-13), SLC29A1 (p=7.07×10-12) and SMPD3 (p=1.48×10-11). Expression quantitative trait locus analyses identified multiple asthma-relevant genotype-expression pairs, such as rs2255888/ALOX15 Pathway enrichment analysis uncovered 16 significantly enriched pathways at adjusted p<0.01, including those relevant to T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses. Classification models built using the top DEGs and a few demographic/parental history variables accurately differentiated subjects with atopic asthma from nonatopic control subjects (area under the curve 0.84).We have identified genes and pathways for atopy and atopic asthma in children and adolescents, using transcriptome-wide data from WBCs and whole blood samples.

13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(6): 847-857, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 ( NPSR1) and Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA ) interact biologically, are both known candidate genes for asthma, and are involved in controlling circadian rhythm. Thus, we assessed (1) whether interactions between RORA and NPSR1 specifically affect the nocturnal asthma phenotype and (2) how this may differ from other asthma phenotypes. METHODS: Interaction effects between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RORA and 35 SNPs in NPSR1 on asthma and nocturnal asthma symptoms were determined in 1432 subjects (763 asthmatics [192 with nocturnal asthma symptoms]; 669 controls) from the Multicenter Asthma Genetic in Childhood/International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood studies. The results were validated and extended in children from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (N = 723) and the Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm and Epidemiological cohort (N = 1646). RESULTS: RORA* NPSR1 interactions seemed to affect both asthma and nocturnal asthma. In stratified analyses, however, interactions mainly affected nocturnal asthma and less so asthma without nocturnal symptoms or asthma severity. Results were replicated in two independent cohorts and seemed to remain constant over time throughout youth. CONCLUSION: RORA* NPSR1 interactions appear to be involved in mechanisms specific for nocturnal asthma. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the role of beta 2 receptor polymorphisms in nocturnal asthma as a feature of asthma control or severity in general, our data suggest that changes in circadian rhythm control are associated with nighttime asthma symptoms.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1972-1973, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876725
16.
Allergy ; 74(6): 1166-1175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of allergic sensitization has a major influence on the development and course of common childhood conditions such as asthma and rhinitis. The etiology of allergic sensitization is poorly understood, and its underlying biological mechanisms are not well established. Several studies showed that DNA methylation (DNAm) at some CpGs is associated with allergic sensitization. However, no studies have focused on the critical adolescence period. METHODS: We assessed the association of pre- and postadolescence genome-wide DNAm with allergic sensitization against indoor, outdoor and food allergens, using linear mixed models. We hypothesized that DNAm is associated with sensitization in general, and with poly-sensitization status, and these associations are age- and gender-specific. We tested these hypotheses in the IoW cohort (n = 376) and examined the findings in the BAMSE cohort (n = 267). RESULTS: Via linear mixed models, we identified 35 CpGs in IoW associated with allergic sensitization (at false discovery rate of 0.05), of which 33 were available in BAMSE and replicated with respect to the direction of associations with allergic sensitization. At the 35 CpGs except for cg19210306 on C13orf27, a reduction in methylation among atopic subjects was observed, most notably for cg21220721 and cg11699125 (ACOT7). DNAm at cg10159529 was strongly correlated with expression of IL5RA in peripheral blood (P-value = 6.76 × 10-20 ). Three CpGs (cg14121142, cg23842695, and cg26496795) were identified in IoW with age-specific association between DNAm and allergic sensitization. CONCLUSION: In adolescence, the status of allergic sensitization was associated with DNAm differentiation and at some CpGs the association is likely to be age-specific.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis are associated with worse asthma control. However, it is unclear how IgE sensitization and/or rhinitis are associated with lung function. We therefore evaluated the effect of rhinitis and sensitization on lung function, including the periphery of the airway system, and inflammatory biomarkers in individuals with and without asthma. METHODS: Participants in the BAMSE longitudinal birth cohort study underwent measures of spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and FeNO at age 16 years. Questionnaires were used to obtain data on asthma and rhinitis. Blood samples were analyzed for eosinophils and allergen-specific IgE. RESULTS: Groups based on the combination of asthma, rhinitis, and sensitization were compared to a healthy reference group. Lower FEV1 /FVC levels were seen for groups with asthma only (adjusted mean difference -2.8% units (95% CI -4.7; -1.0), P < 0.01), asthma with sensitization (-2.0 (-3.9; -0.2), P < 0.05), and asthma with sensitization and rhinitis (-2.5 (-3.6; -1.4), P < 0.001). The index of peripheral airway resistance R5-20 was higher in groups with asthma and sensitization (adjusted median difference 94.9 Pa L-1  s-1 (95% CI 60.4; 129.3), P < 0.001), as well as asthma with sensitization and rhinitis (36.9(15.0; 58.8), P < 0.01). These groups also had increased FeNO and blood eosinophil levels. CONCLUSIONS: We found signs of peripheral airway obstruction and increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers in the presence of allergic asthma, irrespective of rhinitis status. Despite having a reduced FEV1 /FVC, peripheral airway engagement was not seen in non-sensitized adolescents with asthma. We suggest that small airway disease is a feature related to the eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma in adolescence.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1510-1514.e2, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about early-life risk factors for food allergy in children. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perinatal characteristics and future risk of food allergy in offspring. METHODS: This nationwide Swedish cohort study of 1,086,378 children born in Sweden in 2001-2012 used prospectively recorded data from health care registers. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for the association between perinatal characteristics (eg, cesarean delivery and preterm birth) and food allergy as defined by diagnoses in the National Patient Register, adjusting for infant sex and maternal factors (age at delivery, country of birth, parity, smoking, body mass index, and asthma/pulmonary disease). RESULTS: During the 13-year follow-up, 26,732 (2.5%) children were given a diagnosis of food allergy. Food allergy was positively associated with cesarean delivery (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.25), large for gestational age (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), and low 5-minute Apgar score (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36) but negatively associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98). No association was found between food allergy and moderately preterm birth, low birth weight, or small for gestational age. Risk estimates were similar when the outcome was restricted to 2 records of diagnosed food allergy. In 1,000 children undergoing cesarean delivery, an extra 5 developed food allergy compared with the reference group, suggesting that 17% of food allergy in children born by means of cesarean delivery can be explained by this exposure (attributable fraction). CONCLUSIONS: Cesarean delivery was associated with increased risk of food allergy, whereas very preterm birth decreased risk.

20.
Respir Med ; 139: 48-54, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858001

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Little is known about how perinatal and childhood factors influence lung function change between childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible early life predictors of change in FEV1 between age 8 and 16 years. In addition, to investigate possible predictors of having persistently low lung function (FEV1 <25th percentiles both at age 8 and 16) up to adolescence. METHODS: The BAMSE birth cohort study collected data throughout childhood on environmental factors, individual characteristics, and spirometric measures at 8 and 16 years (n = 1425). Associations between early life predictors (n = 31) and FEV1 increase between 8 and 16 years were assessed with linear regression. Predictors of having persistently low lung function were examined. RESULTS: Few factors were consistently associated with altered lung function growth, although low birth weight, asthma heredity (paternal), secondhand smoke in infancy, and season of birth had a significant impact (p-value ≤0.01). The majority of subjects stayed however within the same category of lung function between ages 8 and 16 years (in total 821/1425 = 58%). Predictors associated with having persistently low lung function were gestational age, secondhand smoke (at 2 and 8 years of age), and factors related to lower respiratory tract infections in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, rather few exposures in childhood were identified to have a significant impact on lung function growth between childhood and adolescence. Our data support previous study findings indicating that lung function development is influenced by factors before birth and in infancy, including second hand tobacco smoke.

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