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2.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974732

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Evidence that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and/or the GIP receptor (GIPR) are involved in cardiovascular biology is emerging. We hypothesised that GIP has untoward effects on cardiovascular biology, in contrast to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and therefore investigated the effects of GIP and GLP-1 concentrations on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk. METHODS: GIP concentrations were successfully measured during OGTTs in two independent populations (Malmö Diet Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort [MDC-CC] and Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes in Botnia [PPP-Botnia]) in a total of 8044 subjects. GLP-1 (n = 3625) was measured in MDC-CC. The incidence of CVD and mortality was assessed via national/regional registers or questionnaires. Further, a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (2SMR) analysis between the GIP pathway and outcomes (coronary artery disease [CAD] and myocardial infarction) was carried out using a GIP-associated genetic variant, rs1800437, as instrumental variable. An additional reverse 2SMR was performed with CAD as exposure variable and GIP as outcome variable, with the instrumental variables constructed from 114 known genetic risk variants for CAD. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, higher fasting levels of GIP were associated with risk of higher total mortality (HR[95% CI] = 1.22 [1.11, 1.35]; p = 4.5 × 10-5) and death from CVD (HR[95% CI] 1.30 [1.11, 1.52]; p = 0.001). In accordance, 2SMR analysis revealed that increasing GIP concentrations were associated with CAD and myocardial infarction, and an additional reverse 2SMR revealed no significant effect of CAD on GIP levels, thus confirming a possible effect solely of GIP on CAD. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In two prospective, community-based studies, elevated levels of GIP were associated with greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality within 5-9 years of follow-up, whereas GLP-1 levels were not associated with excess risk. Further studies are warranted to determine the cardiovascular effects of GIP per se.

3.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the triage model Sepsis Alert for Emergency Departments results in improved initial care of patients with severe infections. DESIGN: Interventional study comparing patient care before and after the start of a new triage model, including 90-day follow-up. SETTING: Eight emergency departments in Skåne County, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Patients with suspected severe infection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients with severely deviating vital signs and suspected infection were triaged into a designated sepsis line called Sepsis Alert, for rapid evaluation supported by an infectious disease specialist. Also, all emergency department staff participated in a designated sepsis education before the model was introduced. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Medical records were evaluated for a 3-month period 1 year before the triage system was started in 2016 and for a 3-month period 1 year after. Of 195,607 patients admitted to these emergency departments during two 3-month periods, a total of 5,321 patients presented severely abnormal vital signs. Of these, 1,066 patients who presented with fever greater thanor equal to 38°C or history of fever/chills were considered to be patients at risk of having severe sepsis. Among patients triaged according to Sepsis Alert, 89.3% received antibiotic treatment within 1 hour after arrival to the emergency department (median time to antibiotics, 26 min), which was significantly better than before the start of the new triage: 67.9% (median time to antibiotics, 37 min) (p < 0.001). Additionally, sepsis treatment quality markers were significantly improved after the introduction of Sepsis Alert, including number of blood cultures and lactate measurements taken, percentage of patients receiving IV fluids, and appropriate initial antibiotic treatment. There were no differences in 28- or 90-day mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the new triage model Sepsis Alert with special attention to severe sepsis patients led to faster and more accurate antibiotic treatment and improved diagnostic procedures and supportive care.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 295: 25-30, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genetic loci associated with CHD show different relationships with intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMT-CCA) and in the bulb (IMT-bulb). We evaluated if IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb differ also with respect to circulating protein profiles and risk of incident atherosclerotic disease. METHODS: In three Swedish cohorts (MDC, IMPROVE, PIVUS, total n > 7000), IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb were assessed by ultrasound at baseline, and 86 cardiovascular-related proteins were analyzed. In the PIVUS study only, IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb were investigated in relation to incident atherosclerotic disease over 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis of the analysis performed separately in the cohorts, three proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), were associated with IMT-CCA when adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Five proteins were associated with IMT-bulb (MMP-12, growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), osteoprotegerin, growth hormone and renin). Following adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, IMT-bulb was significantly more closely related to incident stroke or myocardial infarction (total number of cases, 111) than IMT-CCA in the PIVUS study (HR 1.51 for 1 SD, 95%CI 1.21-1.87, p < 0.001 vs HR 1.17, 95%CI 0.93-1.47, p = 0.16). MMP-12 levels were related to this combined end-point (HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.56, p = 0.0061). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of MMP-12 were associated with both IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb, but other proteins were significantly related to IMT in only one of these locations. The finding that IMT-bulb was more closely related to incident atherosclerotic disease than IMT-CCA emphasizes a difference between these measurements of IMT.

5.
Resuscitation ; 146: 74-79, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death globally, commonly through sudden cardiac death. Cardiac arrest of cardiac origin (CA) is associated with a poor prognosis and there is a great need for risk assessment and intensified preventive actions. In this study we aim to assess if a genetic risk score for CHD, composed of 50 common CHD susceptibility variants (GRS), predicts CA and to evaluate a novel composite risk score including traditional risk factors as well as GRS. METHODS: The GRS score alone and in combination with traditional CHD risk factors were examined in relation to CA incidence among 23 000 middle aged subjects during 18.9 years of follow-up. The cohort excluded patients with a diagnosed history of CHD, heart failure or stroke. RESULTS: Two-hundred-fifty-two patients suffered a cardiac arrest during the follow up, of which 181 were CA. In a multivariate model with CHD risk factors, high versus low genetic risk predicted CA with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.49 {(95% CI 1.50-4.12) (P < 0.001)}, surpassed only by higher estimates for male sex {HR = 2.91 (95% CI 2.09-4.06) (P < 0.001)}, ages 50-65 {HR = 2.74 (95% CI 1.42-5.25) (P = 0.003)} and ages 65-74 {HR = 5.10 (95% CI 2.56-10.16) (P < 0.001)}. Smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus also predicted CA but with lower HRs than GRS. A novel composite risk score including CHD risk factors as well as GRS predicted CA with a HR = 110.81 {(95% CI 15.43-795.63) (P < 0.001)} for the highest (5) versus the lowest quintile (1) of the risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk of CHD is strongly associated with incident CA and when combined with traditional CHD risk factors may identify individuals who benefit from intensified preventive pharmacological treatment.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1862-1878, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of our study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n = 1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (pTWAS = 1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (pTWAS = 3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (pTWAS = 6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influences lung cancer risk.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 366-373, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with dyslipidemia, but the detailed alterations in lipid species preceding the disease are largely unknown. We aimed to identify plasma lipids associated with development of T2DM and investigate their associations with lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At baseline, 178 lipids were measured by mass spectrometry in 3,668 participants without diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. The population was randomly split into discovery (n = 1,868, including 257 incident cases) and replication (n = 1,800, including 249 incident cases) sets. We used orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses, extracted a predictive component for T2DM incidence (lipid-PCDM), and assessed its association with T2DM incidence using Cox regression and lifestyle factors using general linear models. RESULTS: A T2DM-predictive lipid-PCDM derived from the discovery set was independently associated with T2DM incidence in the replication set, with hazard ratio (HR) among subjects in the fifth versus first quintile of lipid-PCDM of 3.7 (95% CI 2.2-6.5). In comparison, the HR of T2DM among obese versus normal weight subjects was 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6). Clinical lipids did not improve T2DM risk prediction, but adding the lipid-PCDM to all conventional T2DM risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve by 3%. The lipid-PCDM was also associated with a dietary risk score for T2DM incidence and lower level of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: A lifestyle-related lipidomic profile strongly predicts T2DM development beyond current risk factors. Further studies are warranted to test if lifestyle interventions modifying this lipidomic profile can prevent T2DM.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 418-425, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MHC region harbors the strongest loci for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); however, the strength of association is likely attenuated compared with that for childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. In this study, we recapitulate independent effects in the MHC class I region in a population with type 1 diabetes and then determine whether such conditioning in LADA yields potential genetic discriminators between the two subtypes within this region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Chromosome 6 was imputed using SNP2HLA, with conditional analysis performed in type 1 diabetes case subjects (n = 1,985) and control subjects (n = 2,219). The same approach was applied to a LADA cohort (n = 1,428) using population-based control subjects (n = 2,850) and in a separate replication cohort (656 type 1 diabetes case, 823 LADA case, and 3,218 control subjects). RESULTS: The strongest associations in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.44 [0.05]), as well as the independent effect of MHC class I genes, on type 1 diabetes risk, particularly HLA-B*39 (ß [SE] = 1.36 [0.17]), were confirmed. The conditional analysis in LADA versus control subjects showed significant association in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.14 [0.06]); however, we did not observe significant independent effects of MHC class I alleles in LADA. CONCLUSIONS: In LADA, the independent effects of MHC class I observed in type 1 diabetes were not observed after conditioning on the leading MHC class II associations, suggesting that the MHC class I association may be a genetic discriminator between LADA and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821404

RESUMO

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with increased risk of trauma and cardiovascular events. Recent studies have identified new genetic variants that influence orthostatic blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of candidate gene loci with orthostatic BP responses in older adults. A total of 3,430 participants aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) with BP measures and genetic data from twelve single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linked to BP responses were analysed. Orthostatic BP responses were recorded at each 10 second interval and were defined as OH (SBP drop ≥20mmHg or DBP drop ≥10mmHg) at the time-points 40, 90 and 110 seconds. We defined sustained OH (SOH) as a drop that exceeded consensus BP thresholds for OH at 40, 90 and 110 seconds after standing. Logistic regression analyses modelled associations between the candidate SNP alleles and OH. We report no significant associations between OH and measured SNPs after correction for multiple comparisons apart from the SNP rs5068 where proportions of the minor allele was significantly different between cases and controls for SOH 40 (p=0.002). After adjustment for covariates in a logistic regression, those with the minor G allele (compared to the A allele) had a decreased incidence rate ratio (IRR) for SOH 40 (IRR 0.45, p=0.001, 95% CI 0.29-0.72). Only one SNP linked with increased natriuretic peptide concentrations was associated with OH. These results suggest that genetic variants may have a weak impact on OH but needs verification in other population studies.

11.
Lancet ; 394(10215): 2173-2183, 2019 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. METHODS: In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. FINDINGS: Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48·7%] women; median age 51·0 years [IQR 40·7-59·7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48·4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49·1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43·6 years (median 13·5 years, IQR 7·0-20·1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease event-rates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7·7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2·6 mmol/L to 33·7% for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 12·8% to 43·6% in men; p<0·0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2·6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1·1, 95% CI 1·0-1·3 for non-HDL cholesterol 2·6 to <3·7 mmol/L to 1·9, 1·6-2·2 for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 1·1, 1·0-1·3 to 2·3, 2·0-2·5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. INTERPRETATION: Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme, UK Medical Research Council, and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Clin Proteomics ; 16: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832026

RESUMO

Background: Though subjective, poor self-rated health (SRH) has consistently been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying mechanism is unclear. This study evaluates the associations of SRH with biomarkers for CVD, aiming to explore potential pathways between poor SRH and CVD. Methods: Based on the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort study, a targeted proteomics approach was used to assess the associations of SRH with 88 cardiovascular risk proteins, measured in plasma from 4521 participants without CVD. The false discovery rate (FDR) was controlled using the Benjamini and Hochberg method. Covariates taken into consideration were age, sex, traditional CVD risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication, diabetes, body mass index, smoking), comorbidity, life-style and psycho-social factors (education level, living alone, alcohol consumption, low physical activity, psychiatric medication, sleep duration, and unemployment). Results: Age and sex-adjusted associations with SRH was found for 34 plasma proteins. Nine of them remained significant after adjustments for traditional CVD risk factors. After further adjustment for comorbidity, life-style and psycho-social factors, only leptin (ß = - 0.035, corrected p = 0.016) and C-C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20; ß = - 0.054, corrected p = 0.016) were significantly associated with SRH. Conclusions: Poor SRH was associated with raised concentrations of many plasma proteins. However, the relationships were largely attenuated by adjustments for CVD risk factors, comorbidity and psycho-social factors. Leptin and CCL20 were associated with poor SRH in the present study and could potentially be involved in the SRH-CVD link.

13.
BMC Emerg Med ; 19(1): 75, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major challenge for physicians to predict and manage. Proenkephalin A 119-159 (penKid) is a reliable surrogate marker for the more unstable endogenous opioid peptide enkephalin, which has previously been shown to predict both acute and chronic kidney disease. The aim of this prospective observational study was to assess penKid as a predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI), multi-organ failure and mortality in sepsis among unselected sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHOD: We enrolled 644 patients consecutively during office-hours (6 AM-6 PM) between December 1, 2013 and February 1, 2015. Fifty-six patients were excluded due to incomplete data. We measured penKid in 588 adult patients (patients under 18 years of age were excluded) with sepsis (≥2SIRS criteria + suspected infection) upon admission to the ED at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. Logistic regression analysis was used to relate levels of penKid at presentation to AKI, multi-organ failure, 28-day mortality and progression of renal SOFA subscore. Odds ratios are presented as the number of standard deviations from the mean of log-transformed penKid. RESULTS: In age and sex adjusted models, penKid predicted AKI within 48 h and 7 days, but these associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for estimated creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In models adjusted for age, sex and eGFR, penKid significantly predicted progression from rSOFA = 0 and ≤ 1 to higher rSOFA scores as well as multi-organ failure and mortality. In contrast, eGFR did not predict 28-day mortality. CONCLUSION: PenKid is an effective predictor of renal injury, severe multi-organ failure and mortality in unselected sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department.

14.
Physiol Behav ; 212: 112725, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effect of hydration status on appetite for food in healthy adults. Prior work suggests hydration status does not alter appetite or energy intake, with mixed findings regarding appetite hormone secretion. However, an extensive investigation into both the psychological and physiological appetitive responses to hydration status has never been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hydration status on multiple facets of appetite. DESIGN: After 3 days pre-trial standardization, a range of appetite tasks were conducted when hypohydrated (HYPO) and euhydrated (EUHY) in 16 healthy participants (8 men). Hydration status was manipulated via dehydration in a heat tent for 60 min and subsequent fluid restriction (HYPO) or replacement (EUHY). The next day, a food reward computer task was completed followed by an ad libitum pasta meal. Pre- and post-prandial visual analogue scales assessing hunger, fullness, and flavour desires (sweet, salty, savoury and fatty) were additionally completed. Blood samples were taken the previous day before the hydration interventions in a euhydrated state, and in the fasted and post-prandial state during HYPO and EUHY. RESULTS: HYPO induced -1.9 ±â€¯1.2% body mass change, compared to -0.2 ±â€¯0.6% , with accompanying changes in markers of hypohydration which were not seen during EUHY. A higher desire for foods was associated with a higher water content but the association was weaker in EUHY compared to HYPO, (ß= -0.33 mm/g of food water content, p < 0.001) in the food reward task. Visual analogue scales showed similar hunger and fullness between interventions, but during HYPO there was consistently higher thirst (average range in difference 27-32 mm across all time points) and lower fasted desire for salt (-23, 95% CI -10, -35 mm). Ad libitum energy intake (HYPO 1953 ±â€¯742 kJ, EUHY 2027 ±â€¯926 kJ; p = 0.542) and post-prandial ghrelin concentrations (HYPO 180 ±â€¯65 pg mL-1, EUHY 188 ±â€¯71 pg mL-1; p = 0.736) were similar by hydration status. CONCLUSIONS: An acute manipulation to hydration status altered desire for salt and foods of differing water contents, but did not influence energy intake at an ad libitum pasta meal. Further research should investigate whether these appetites would alter food choice.

15.
Heart ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We recently identified a health conscious food pattern (HCFP) associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. However, the molecular events linking the healthy food pattern to reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease are unknown. Our aim was to identify plasma metabolites associated with the HCFP and test if such metabolites predict cardiometabolic disease and mortality. METHODS: Using liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry, 112 plasma metabolites were measured in 3236 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Metabolites associated with the HCFP were identified using multivariable adjusted linear regressions followed by Bonferroni correction. The healthy dietary biomarkers were subsequently related to risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality during long-term follow-up with multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 21.4 years, 603 participants developed CVD, 362 developed diabetes mellitus and 843 participants died. Five healthy dietary biomarkers were associated with the HCFP at baseline (p<0.0004) and four predicted at least one of the studied end points (p<0.05). Ergothioneine was the metabolite most strongly connected to the HCFP and was associated with a lower risk of coronary disease (HR per 1 SD increment of ergothioneine, HR=0.85, p=0.01), cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.79, p=0.002) and overall mortality (HR=0.86, p=4e-5). CONCLUSIONS: We identified that higher ergothioneine was an independent marker of lower risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality, which potentially can be induced by a specific healthy dietary intake.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 6: 154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709267

RESUMO

Introduction: Syncope and orthostatic intolerance in paced patients constitute a common clinical dilemma. We, thus, aimed to determine the etiology of syncope and/or symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in paced patients. Methods: Among 1,705 patients with unexplained syncope and/or orthostatic intolerance that were investigated by cardiovascular autonomic tests, including Valsalva maneuver, active standing, carotid sinus massage, and tilt-testing, 39 patients (2.3%; age 65.6 years; 39% women) had a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). We explored past medical history, diagnoses found during cardiovascular autonomic tests, and the further clinical workup, in case of negative initial evaluation. Results: An etiology was identified during cardiovascular autonomic tests in 36 of the 39 patients. Orthostatic hypotension (n = 16; 41%) and vasovagal syncope (n = 12; 31%) were the most common diagnoses. There were no cases of pacemaker dysfunction. The original pacing indications followed guidelines (sick-sinus-syndrome in 16, atrioventricular block in 16, atrial fibrillation with bradycardia in five). Twenty-two of the 39 patients (56%) had experienced syncope prior to the original CIED implantation. Orthostatic hypotension was diagnosed in seven (32%) and vasovagal syncope in nine (41%) of these patients. Of the 17 patients that had not experienced syncope prior to the original CIED implantation, nine patients (53%) were diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension and vasovagal syncope was diagnosed in three (18%). Of the 39 patients, two had implantable cardioverter-defibrillators to treat malignant ventricular arrhythmias diagnosed after syncopal episodes. Conclusion: Cardiovascular autonomic tests reveal the etiology of syncope and/or orthostatic intolerance in the majority of paced patients. The most common diagnosis was orthostatic hypotension (40%) followed by vasovagal syncope (30%), whereas there were no cases of pacemaker dysfunction. Our results emphasize the importance of a complete diagnostic work-up, including cardiovascular autonomic tests, in paced patients that present with syncope and/or orthostatic intolerance.

17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2385-2393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695358

RESUMO

Background: Patients with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure (AHRF) are often treated with Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV). In this heterogeneous patient group, there is a lack of clinical tools for predicting mortality and outcome. Aims: In order to facilitate the choice of treatment in patients with AHRF we evaluated the protein ST2, an established biomarker for cardiac stress, and its role in predicting mortality in patients with AHRF treated with NPPV. We also examined if ST2 baseline levels and changes during the first 12 hrs of treatment were predictive of treatment outcome. Methods: The study population consisted of 46 patients treated with NPPV for AHRF. Background data and clinical parameters were obtained and blood samples taken at various time points during the treatment. During the follow-up period of 18 months, the prognostic value of ST2 with regards to mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Of the 46 patients, there were 3 subgroups in regards to primary diagnosis: Acute Exacerbation of COPD (n=34), Acute Heart Failure (n=8) and Acute Exacerbation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (n=4). We found that ST2 was an independent predictor of both short-term and long-term mortality during the follow-up period. The Hazard Ratio (HR) per 1-SD increment of ST2 for 28-day mortality was 11.00 (95% CI 1.8-67.2, p 0.009) and for 18-month mortality 2.11 (95% CI 1.4-3.2, p 0.001). The results seem to be driven by the largest subgroup of patients, with Acute Exacerbation of COPD, and deaths within the first 28 days. Furthermore, changes in ST2 values during the first 12 hrs of treatment were not predictive of treatment outcome. Conclusion: Our results show that ST2 is a target to explore further as a predictor of short-term mortality in patients with AHRF treated with NPPV.

18.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000443, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626640

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with changes in the plasma lipids. Although simple lipid quantification is routinely used, plasma lipids are rarely investigated at the level of individual molecules. We aimed at predicting different measures of obesity based on the plasma lipidome in a large population cohort using advanced machine learning modeling. A total of 1,061 participants of the FINRISK 2012 population cohort were randomly chosen, and the levels of 183 plasma lipid species were measured in a novel mass spectrometric shotgun approach. Multiple machine intelligence models were trained to predict obesity estimates, i.e., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat percentage (BFP), and validated in 250 randomly chosen participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC). Comparison of the different models revealed that the lipidome predicted BFP the best (R2 = 0.73), based on a Lasso model. In this model, the strongest positive and the strongest negative predictor were sphingomyelin molecules, which differ by only 1 double bond, implying the involvement of an unknown desaturase in obesity-related aberrations of lipid metabolism. Moreover, we used this regression to probe the clinically relevant information contained in the plasma lipidome and found that the plasma lipidome also contains information about body fat distribution, because WHR (R2 = 0.65) was predicted more accurately than BMI (R2 = 0.47). These modeling results required full resolution of the lipidome to lipid species level, and the predicting set of biomarkers had to be sufficiently large. The power of the lipidomics association was demonstrated by the finding that the addition of routine clinical laboratory variables, e.g., high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- or low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol did not improve the model further. Correlation analyses of the individual lipid species, controlled for age and separated by sex, underscores the multiparametric and lipid species-specific nature of the correlation with the BFP. Lipidomic measurements in combination with machine intelligence modeling contain rich information about body fat amount and distribution beyond traditional clinical assays.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10-8 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10-7 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10-7 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10-8 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.

20.
J Appl Lab Med ; 3(6): 943-953, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ubiquitously expressed dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is involved in protein metabolism, blood pressure regulation, and pain modulation. These diverse functions of DPP3 are attributed to the degradation of bioactive peptides like angiotensin II. However, because of limitations in currently available assays for determination of active DPP3 in plasma, the exact physiological function of DPP3 and its role in the catabolism of bioactive peptides is understudied. Here, we developed 2 assays to specifically detect and quantify DPP3 protein and activity in plasma and validated DPP3 quantification in samples from critically ill patients. METHODS: Assay performance was evaluated in a sandwich-type luminometric immunoassay (LIA) and an enzyme capture activity assay (ECA). DPP3 plasma concentrations and activities were detected in a healthy, population-based cohort and in critically ill patients suffering from severe sepsis and septic shock. RESULTS: The DPP3-LIA and DPP3-ECA show an almost ideal correlation and very similar and robust performance characteristics. DPP3 activity is detectable in plasma of predominantly healthy subjects with a mean (±SD) of 58.6 (±20.5) U/L. Septic patients show significantly increased DPP3 plasma activity at hospital admission. DPP3 activities further increase in patients with more severe conditions and high mortality risk. CONCLUSION: We developed 2 highly specific assays for the detection of DPP3 in plasma. These assays allow the use of DPP3 as a biomarker for the severity of acute clinical conditions and will be of great value for future investigations of DPP3's role in bioactive peptide degradation in general and the angiotensin II pathway in specific.

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