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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105403, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma biomarkers may be useful to detect healthy individuals at increased risk for atherosclerotic manifestations, such as carotid artery stenosis. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate new biomarkers in relation to C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for carotid artery stenosis during long term follow-up METHODS: The following markers were measured in 5550 middle-aged subjects: C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, proneurotensin, midregional pro-adrenomedullin, midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, copeptin, and cystatin C. Subjects with prevalent carotid artery stenosis were excluded. Subjects were followed in national patient registers for 23.4 (interquartile range 19.5-24.3) years regarding incident carotid artery stenosis, both operated and non-operated. RESULTS: When including conventional risk markers in Cox regression, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratio 1.36; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.65; p = 0.002) was independently associated with incident carotid artery stenosis, whereas there were trends for C-reactive protein (HR 1.20; 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.48; p = 0.071), and midregional pro-adrenomedullin (Hazard ratio 1.21; 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.47; p = 0.061). Midregional pro-adrenomedullin (Hazard ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.65; p = 0.029) was independently associated with incident surgery for carotid artery stenosis, whereas there was a trend for N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.72; p = 0.052). CONCLUSIONS: N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide and midregional pro-adrenomedullin can be used as predictors for clinically detected carotid artery stenosis during long-term follow-up of healthy subjects.

2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 636, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers can be of help to understand critical illness and to identify and stratify sepsis. Adrenomedullin is a vasoactive hormone, with reported prognostic and potentially therapeutic value in sepsis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association of circulating bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) levels at intensive care unit (ICU) admission with mortality in sepsis patients and in a general ICU population. Secondary aims included the association of bio-ADM with organ failure and the ability of bio-ADM to identify sepsis. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, adult patients admitted to one of four ICUs during 2016 had admission bio-ADM levels analysed. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI for log-2 transformed bio-ADM, and Youden's index derived cut-offs were calculated. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality, and secondary outcomes included the need for organ support and the ability to identify sepsis. RESULTS: Bio-ADM in 1867 consecutive patients were analysed; 632 patients fulfilled the sepsis-3 criteria of whom 267 had septic shock. The median bio-ADM in the entire ICU population was 40 pg/mL, 74 pg/mL in sepsis patients, 107 pg/mL in septic shock and 29 pg/mL in non-septic patients. The association of elevated bio-ADM and mortality in sepsis patients and the ICU population resulted in ORs of 1.23 (95% CI 1.07-1.41) and 1.22 (95% CI 1.12-1.32), respectively. The association with mortality remained after additional adjustment for lactate in sepsis patients. Elevated bio-ADM was associated with an increased need for dialysis with ORs of 2.28 (95% CI 2.01-2.59) and 1.97 (95% CI 1.64-2.36) for the ICU population and sepsis patients, respectively, and with increased need of vasopressors, OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.23-1.42) (95% CI 1.17-1.50) for both populations. Sepsis was identified with an OR of 1.78 (95% CI 1.64-1.94) for bio-ADM, after additional adjustment for severity of disease. A bio-ADM cut-off of 70 pg/mL differentiated between survivors and non-survivors in sepsis, but a Youden's index derived threshold of 108 pg/mL performed better. CONCLUSIONS: Admission bio-ADM is associated with 30-day mortality and organ failure in sepsis patients as well as in a general ICU population. Bio-ADM may be a morbidity-independent sepsis biomarker.

3.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 31: 1-7, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We explored the association of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with metabolic traits in a bi-ethnic African-Caucasian cohort. METHODS: Baseline examinations of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African (SABPA) prospective cohort study were performed between 2008 and 2009, and re-examination after a three-year follow up in South African teachers (black African, n = 194; Caucasian, n = 203). RESULTS: Each one standard deviation increment of NT-proBNP was significantly inversely associated with body mass index ( ß -1.01), glycated haemoglobin ( ß -0.14 %), waist circumference (ß -1.82), HOMA-IR (ß -0.47), insulin (ß -1.66) and triglyceride levels (ß -0.04). Each one standard deviation increment of NT-proBNP was also associated with reduced odds of incident diabetes, and subjects within the highest quartile of NT-proBNP were at lowest risk (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-0.96; p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: In the SABPA cohort, Africans and Caucasians had similar NT-proBNP levels; however, the associations for Africans were stronger. Those findings suggest that BNP may affect the propensity for metabolic disturbances differently in Africans and Caucasians.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222051

RESUMO

As cardio metabolic disease manifestations tend to cluster in families there is a need to better understand the underlying mechanisms in order to further develop preventive strategies. In fact, genetic markers used in genetic risk scores, important as they are, will not be able alone to explain these family clusters. Therefore, the search goes on for the so called missing heritability to better explain these associations. Shared lifestyle and social conditions in families, but also early life influences may be of importance. Gene-environmental interactions should be explored. In recent years interest has grown for the role of diet-microbiota associations, as microbiota patterns may be shared by family members. In the Malmö Offspring Study that started in 2013, we have so far been able to examine about 4700 subjects (18-71 years) representing children and grandchildren of index subjects from the first generation, examined in the Malmö Diet Cancer Study during 1991 to 1996. This will provide rich data and opportunities to analyse family traits of chronic disease across three generations. We will provide extensive genotyping and phenotyping including cardiovascular and respiratory function, as well as markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, also cognitive function will be assessed. A 4-day online dietary recall will be conducted and gut as well as oral microbiota analysed. The ambition is to provide one of the first large-scale European family studies with individual data across three generations, which could deepen our knowledge about the role of family traits for chronic disease and its underlying mechanisms.

5.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12015449, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222547

RESUMO

The clinical value of the polygenetic component of blood pressure (BP) is commonly questioned. We evaluated a genetic risk score for BP (BP-GRS858), based on the most recently published genome-wide association studies variants that were significantly associated with either systolic BP or diastolic BP, for prediction of hypertension and cardiovascular end points. The genotyping was performed in 2 urban-based prospective cohorts: the Malmö Diet and Cancer (n=29 295) and the Malmö Preventive Project (n=9367) and a weighted BP-GRS858 based on 858 SNPs was calculated. At baseline, we found a difference of 9.0 mm Hg (systolic BP) and 4.8 mm Hg (diastolic BP) between the top and the bottom quartile of BP-GRS858. In Malmö Preventive Project, the top versus bottom quartile of BP-GRS858 was associated with a doubled risk of incident hypertension (odds ratio, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.75-2.39], P=1.4×10-21), a risk higher than that of body mass index, as evaluated in quartiles. In Malmö Diet and Cancer, significant association was found between the age and sex-adjusted BP-GRS858 and the incidence of total cardiovascular events, stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and total mortality. Most of these associations remained significant after adjusting for traditional risk factors, including hypertension. BP-GRS858 could contribute predictive information regarding future hypertension, with an effect size comparable to other well-known risk factors such as obesity, and predicts cardiovascular events. Given that the exposure to high polygenetic risk starts at birth, we suggest that the BP-GRS858 might be useful to identify children or adolescents who would benefit from early hypertension screening and treatment.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While existing evidence supports beneficial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), emerging studies suggest that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and/or signaling via the GIP receptor may have untoward cardiovascular effects. Indeed, recent studies show that fasting physiological GIP levels are associated with total mortality and cardiovascular mortality, and it was suggested that GIP plays a role in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated the associations between fasting and postchallenge GIP and GLP-1 concentrations and subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by mean intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMTmeanCCA) and maximal intima-media thickness in the carotid bifurcation (IMTmaxBulb). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants at reexamination within the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort study (n = 3,734, mean age 72.5 years, 59.3% women, 10.8% subjects with diabetes, fasting GIP available for 3,342 subjects, fasting GLP-1 available for 3,299 subjects) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing and carotid ultrasound. RESULTS: In linear regression analyses, each 1-SD increment of fasting GIP was associated with increased (per mm) IMTmeanCCA (ß = 0.010, P = 0.010) and IMTmaxBulb (ß = 0.014; P = 0.040) in models adjusted for known risk factors and glucose metabolism. In contrast, each 1-SD increment of fasting GLP-1 was associated with decreased IMTmaxBulb (per mm, ß = -0.016, P = 0.014). These associations remained significant when subjects with diabetes were excluded from analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In a Swedish elderly population, physiologically elevated levels of fasting GIP are associated with increased IMTmeanCCA, while GLP-1 is associated with decreased IMTmaxBulb, further emphasizing diverging cardiovascular effects of these two incretin hormones.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146689

RESUMO

Importance: Human genetics and studies in experimental models support a key role of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in atherosclerosis. Yet, the associations of circulating MCP-1 levels with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular death in the general population remain largely unexplored. Objective: To explore whether circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with risk of incident coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Data Sources and Selection: Population-based cohort studies, identified through a systematic review, that have examined associations of circulating MCP-1 levels with cardiovascular end points. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Using a prespecified harmonized analysis plan, study-specific summary data were obtained from Cox regression models after excluding individuals with overt cardiovascular disease at baseline. Derived hazard ratios (HRs) were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and unstable angina), nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death (from cardiac or cerebrovascular causes). Results: The meta-analysis included 7 cohort studies involving 21 401 individuals (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [10.2] years; 10 012 men [46.8%]). Mean (SD) follow-up was 15.3 (4.5) years (326 392 person-years at risk). In models adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, higher MCP-1 levels at baseline were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (HR per 1-SD increment in MCP-1 levels: 1.06 [95% CI, 1.01-1.11]; P = .01), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.13]; P = .02), and cardiovascular death (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.05-1.20]; P < .001). In analyses comparing MCP-1 quartiles, these associations followed dose-response patterns. After additionally adjusting for vascular risk factors, the risk estimates were attenuated, but the associations of MCP-1 levels with cardiovascular death remained statistically significant, as did the association of MCP-1 levels in the upper quartile with coronary heart disease. There was no significant heterogeneity; the results did not change in sensitivity analyses excluding events occurring in the first 5 years after MCP-1 measurement, and the risk estimates were stable after additional adjustments for circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions and Relevance: Higher circulating MCP-1 levels are associated with higher long-term cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling individuals free of overt cardiovascular disease. These findings provide further support for a key role of MCP-1-signaling in cardiovascular disease.

8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): 669-676, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112256

RESUMO

Context: Obesity and cardiometabolic diseases are associated with higher long-term glucocorticoid levels, measured as scalp hair cortisol (HairF) and cortisone (HairE). Cardiometabolic diseases have also been associated with copeptin, a stable surrogate marker for the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) system. Since AVP is, together with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) an important regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), we hypothesize that AVP contributes to chronic hypercortisolism in obesity. Objective: To investigate whether copeptin levels are associated with Higher HairF and HairE levels in obesity. Design: A cross-sectional study in 51 adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Methods: Associations and interactions between copeptin, HairF, HairE, and cardiometabolic parameters were cross-sectionally analyzed. Results: Copeptin was strongly associated with BMI and waist circumference (WC) (rho = 0.364 and 0.530, P = 0.008 and <0.001, respectively), also after correction for confounders. There were no associations between copeptin and HairF or HairE on a continuous or dichotomized scale, despite correction for confounders. Conclusion: In patients with obesity, AVP seems not a major contributor to the frequently observed high cortisol levels. Other factors which stimulate the HPA axis or affect cortisol synthesis or breakdown may be more important than the influence of AVP on long-term glucocorticoid levels in obesity.


Assuntos
Cortisona/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Arginina Vasopressina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo
9.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 70-75, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine potential associations between endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, measured by peripheral arterial tonometry, and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) assessed by computed tomography (CT). METHODS AND RESULTS: The BIG3 study is a prospective longitudinal, non-interventional, pulmonary-cardiovascular cohort study exploring the three major smoking-induced diseases: cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer, in a 45-75 aged cohort (mean 62 years), enriched in smokers. Computed tomography of the chest with assessment of CACS was performed in a selected subset of the participants (n = 2080). Peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT) was used to assess endothelial function and arterial stiffness measured as reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AI), respectively. We observed significant associations of CACS, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffness with several risk factors for coronary heart disease including age, sex, BMI, diabetes mellitus, and blood pressure. There was significant association of CACS, classified into three levels of severity, with RHI and AI (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0009, respectively). For groups of increasing CACS (0, 1-400 and > 400 Agatston score), RHI decreased from median 1.89 (1.58-2.39), and 1.93 (1.62-2.41) to 1.77 (1.51-2.10). AI increased from median 14.3 (5.7-25.2), and 16.4 (8.1-27.6) to 18.0 (9.1-29.2). RHI, but not AI, remained significantly associated with CACS after risk factors adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of coronary artery calcium and vascular function, we found an association between CACS and both endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, indicating that they may reflect similar mechanisms for development of cardiovascular disease.

10.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the first carpometacarpal (CMC-1) joint is a common hand disorder with symptoms including pain and weakness of the thumb. Previous studies have associated high BMI with OA of weight-bearing joints, whereas studies regarding non-weight-bearing joints have shown conflicting results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on incident OA of the CMC-1 joint. METHOD: During 1974 to 1992, 33 346 participants aged 26-61 years were included in the population-based cohort Malmö Preventive Project. Endpoint data were retrieved from Swedish national registers until end of 2018. Sex-stratified Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders were calculated using BMI as a continuous variable and stratified for normal weight, overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 36 years for men and 32 years for women. A one-unit increment of BMI was independently associated with incident OA of the CMC-1 joint in men (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.15, p<0.001) and women (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.08, p<0.001). Stratifying for BMI groups, obesity was independently associated with OA of the CMC-1 joint in men (HR 3.57; 95% CI 2.68 to 4.77, p<0.001) and women (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.73, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: High BMI and obesity are major risk factors for OA of the CMC-1 joint. The association was stronger among men but could be demonstrated also among women. Future studies are warranted to clarify underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for this association, enabling identification of potential therapeutic targets related to obesity in order to prevent the development of OA of the CMC-1 joint.

11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077017

RESUMO

It is unclear if mild-to-moderate dehydration independently affects mood without confounders like heat exposure or exercise. This study examined the acute effect of cellular dehydration on mood. Forty-nine adults (55 % female, age 39 (sd 8) years) were assigned to counterbalanced, crossover trials. Intracellular dehydration was induced with 2-h (0·1 ml/kg per min) 3 % hypertonic saline (HYPER) infusion or 0·9 % isotonic saline (ISO) as a control. Plasma osmolality increased in HYPER (pre 285 (sd 3), post 305 (sd 4) mmol/kg; P < 0·05) but remained unchanged in ISO (pre 285 (sd 3), post 288 (sd 3) mmol/kg; P > 0·05). Mood was assessed with the short version of the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). The POMS sub-scale (confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia) increased in HYPER compared with ISO (P < 0·05). Total mood disturbance score (TMD) assessed by POMS increased from 10·3 (sd 0·9) to 16·6 (sd 1·7) in HYPER (P < 0·01), but not in ISO (P > 0·05). When TMD was stratified by sex, the increase in the HYPER trial was significant in females (P < 0·01) but not in males (P > 0·05). Following infusion, thirst and copeptin (surrogate for vasopressin) were also higher in females than in males (21·3 (sd 2·0), 14·1 (sd 1·4) pmol/l; P < 0·01) during HYPER. In conclusion, cellular dehydration acutely degraded specific aspects of mood mainly in women. The mechanisms underlying sex differences may be related to elevated thirst and vasopressin.

12.
Nat Metab ; 2(10): 1135-1148, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067605

RESUMO

Circulating proteins are vital in human health and disease and are frequently used as biomarkers for clinical decision-making or as targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we map and replicate protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) for 90 cardiovascular proteins in over 30,000 individuals, resulting in 451 pQTLs for 85 proteins. For each protein, we further perform pathway mapping to obtain trans-pQTL gene and regulatory designations. We substantiate these regulatory findings with orthogonal evidence for trans-pQTLs using mouse knockdown experiments (ABCA1 and TRIB1) and clinical trial results (chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5), with consistent regulation. Finally, we evaluate known drug targets, and suggest new target candidates or repositioning opportunities using Mendelian randomization. This identifies 11 proteins with causal evidence of involvement in human disease that have not previously been targeted, including EGF, IL-16, PAPPA, SPON1, F3, ADM, CASP-8, CHI3L1, CXCL16, GDF15 and MMP-12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of large-scale mapping of the genetics of the proteome and provide a resource for future precision studies of circulating proteins in human health.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e016737, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076748

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but the pathogenesis is not completely understood. The application of metabolomics could help in discovering new metabolic pathways involved in the development of the disease. Methods and Results We measured 112 baseline fasting metabolites of 3770 participants in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study; these participants were free of prevalent AF. Incident cases of AF were ascertained through previously validated registers. The associations between baseline levels of metabolites and incident AF were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. During 23.1 years of follow-up, 650 cases of AF were identified (incidence rate: 8.6 per 1000 person-years). In Cox regression models adjusted for AF risk factors, 7 medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines were associated with higher risk of incident AF (hazard ratio [HR] ranging from 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18 to 1.14, 95% CI, 1.05-1.24 per 1 SD increment of acylcarnitines). Furthermore, caffeine and acisoga were also associated with an increased risk (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28 and 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18, respectively), while beta carotene was associated with a lower risk (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99). Conclusions For the first time, we show associations between altered acylcarnitine metabolism and incident AF independent of traditional AF risk factors in a general population. These findings highlight metabolic alterations that precede AF diagnosis by many years and could provide insight into the pathogenesis of AF. Future studies are needed to replicate our finding in an external cohort as well as to test whether the relationship between acylcarnitines and AF is causal.

14.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 162, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proven successful in predicting genetic risk of disease using single-locus models; however, identifying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions at the genome-wide scale is limited due to computational and statistical challenges. We addressed the computational burden encountered when detecting SNP interactions for survival analysis, such as age of disease-onset. To confront this problem, we developed a novel algorithm, called the Efficient Survival Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (ES-MDR) method, which used Martingale Residuals as the outcome parameter to estimate survival outcomes, and implemented the Quantitative Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method to identify significant interactions associated with age of disease-onset. METHODS: To demonstrate efficacy, we evaluated this method on two simulation data sets to estimate the type I error rate and power. Simulations showed that ES-MDR identified interactions using less computational workload and allowed for adjustment of covariates. We applied ES-MDR on the OncoArray-TRICL Consortium data with 14,935 cases and 12,787 controls for lung cancer (SNPs = 108,254) to search over all two-way interactions to identify genetic interactions associated with lung cancer age-of-onset. We tested the best model in an independent data set from the OncoArray-TRICL data. RESULTS: Our experiment on the OncoArray-TRICL data identified many one-way and two-way models with a single-base deletion in the noncoding region of BRCA1 (HR 1.24, P = 3.15 × 10-15), as the top marker to predict age of lung cancer onset. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of our extensive simulations and analysis of a large GWAS study, we demonstrated that our method is an efficient algorithm that identified genetic interactions to include in our models to predict survival outcomes.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047884

RESUMO

AIMS: The epidemiological association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease is well established, but the pathophysiological link is complex and multifactorial. We investigated seven proteins, previously linked to incident diabetes mellitus, and their association with cardiovascular disease and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples from 1713 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Preventive Project (mean age 67.4 ± 6.0 years; 29.1% women) were analysed with a proximity extension assay panel. Seven proteins [scavenger receptor cysteine rich type 1 protein M130 (CD163), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFB2), cathepsin D (CTSD), galectin-4 (GAL4), and paraoxonase-3 (PON3)] previously shown to be associated with incident diabetes were analysed for associations with all-cause mortality (ACM), cardiovascular mortality (CVM), incident coronary events (CEs), and incident heart failure (HF). After exclusion of prevalent cases of respective outcome, proteins that met Bonferroni-corrected significance were analysed in multivariable Cox regression models. Significant associations were identified between five proteins [GAL4 (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.41), CTSD (1.15-1.37), CD163 (1.09-1.30), IGFBP2 (1.05-1.30), and FABP4 (1.04-1.29)] and ACM and four proteins [GAL4 (1.38-1.56), CTSD (1.14-1.43), CD163 (1.09-1.36), and IGFBP2 (1.03-1.35)] with CVM. Three proteins [GAL4 (1.14-1.57), CTSD (1.12-1.50), and FABP4 (1.05-1.55)] were significantly associated with incident CE and two [GAL4 (1.03-1.54) and CTSD (1.01-1.46)] were associated with incident HF after adjusting for traditional risk factors including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: In a general Swedish population, four proteins previously shown to be associated with diabetes were associated with ACM and CVM. Three proteins were associated with incident CE. Finally, GAL4 and CTSD displayed novel associations with incident HF and were the only proteins associated with all outcomes.

16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

17.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889700

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

19.
Prostate ; 80(16): 1405-1412, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in blood are widely used and associated with prostate cancer risk and outcome. After puberty, PSA levels increase by age and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found to be associated with PSA levels. However, the relationship between the effects of SNPs and age on PSA remains unknown. METHODS: To test for SNP × age interaction, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 2394 men without prostate cancer diagnosis from Malmö, Sweden as a discovery set and 2137 men from the eMERGE study (USA) for validation. Linear regression was used to identify significant interactions between SNP and age (p < 1 × 10-4 for discovery, p < .05 for validation). RESULTS: The 15 SNPs from three different loci (8p11.22, 8p12, 3q25.31) are found to have age-specific effect on PSA levels. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) analysis shows that 12 SNPs from 3q25.31 locus affect the expression level of three genes: KCNAB1, SLC33A1, PLCH1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SNPs may have age-specific effect on PSA levels, which provides new direction to study genetic markers for PSA.

20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2738-2746, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of a genome-wide polygenic score for coronary artery disease (GPSCAD) with lifetime trajectories of CAD risk, directly compare its predictive capacity to traditional risk factors, and assess its interplay with the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) clinical risk estimator. Approach and Results: We studied GPSCAD in 28 556 middle-aged participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, of whom 4122 (14.4%) developed CAD over a median follow-up of 21.3 years. A pronounced gradient in lifetime risk of CAD was observed-16% for those in the lowest GPSCAD decile to 48% in the highest. We evaluated the discriminative capacity of the GPSCAD-as assessed by change in the C-statistic from a baseline model including age and sex-among 5685 individuals with PCE risk estimates available. The increment for the GPSCAD (+0.045, P<0.001) was higher than for any of 11 traditional risk factors (range +0.007 to +0.032). Minimal correlation was observed between GPSCAD and 10-year risk defined by the PCE (r=0.03), and addition of GPSCAD improved the C-statistic of the PCE model by 0.026. A significant gradient in lifetime risk was observed for the GPSCAD, even among individuals within a given PCE clinical risk stratum. We replicated key findings-noting strikingly consistent results-in 325 003 participants of the UK Biobank. CONCLUSIONS: GPSCAD-a risk estimator available from birth-stratifies individuals into varying trajectories of clinical risk for CAD. Implementation of GPSCAD may enable identification of high-risk individuals early in life, decades in advance of manifest risk factors or disease.

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