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1.
Circ Res ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476962

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as potential targets for lowering vascular risk. Experimental evidence and Mendelian randomization suggest a role of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in atherosclerosis and stroke. However, data from large-scale observational studies are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with risk of incident stroke in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used previously unpublished data on 17,180 stroke-free individuals (mean age 56.7{plus minus}8.1 years; 48.8% males) from six population-based prospective cohort studies and explored associations between baseline circulating MCP-1 levels and risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke over a mean follow-up interval of 16.3 years (280,522 person-years at risk; 1,435 incident stroke events). We applied Cox proportional hazard models and pooled hazard ratios (HR) using random-effects meta-analyses. Following adjustments for age, sex, race, and vascular risk factors, higher MCP-1 levels were associated with increased risk of any stroke (HR per 1 SD increment in ln-transformed MCP-1: 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01-1.14). Focusing on stroke subtypes, we found a significant association between baseline MCP-1 levels and higher risk of ischemic stroke (HR: 1.11, [1.02-1.21]), but not hemorrhagic stroke (HR: 1.02, [0.82-1.29]). The results followed a dose-response pattern with a higher risk of ischemic stroke among individuals in the upper quartiles of MCP-1 levels as compared to the 1st quartile (HRs: 2nd quartile: 1.19 [1.00-1.42]; 3rd quartile: 1.35, [1.14-1.59]; 4th quartile: 1.38, [1.07-1.77]). There was no indication for heterogeneity across studies and in a sub-sample of four studies (12,516 individuals) the risk estimates were stable after additional adjustments for circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with increased long-term risk of stroke. Our findings along with genetic and experimental evidence suggest that MCP-1-signaling might represent a therapeutic target to lower stroke risk.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4921-4930, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502646

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Metabolomics has the potential to generate biomarkers that can facilitate understanding relevant pathways in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Nontargeted metabolomics was performed, via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in a discovery case-cohort study from the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP), which consisted of 698 metabolically healthy participants, of whom 202 developed T2DM within a follow-up time of 6.3 years. Metabolites that were significantly associated with T2DM were replicated in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC) (N = 3423), of whom 402 participants developed T2DM within a follow-up time of 18.2 years. RESULTS: Using nontargeted metabolomics, we observed alterations in nine metabolite classes to be related to incident T2DM, including 11 identified metabolites. N2,N2-dimethylguanosine (DMGU) (OR = 1.94; P = 4.9e-10; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.39) was the metabolite most strongly associated with an increased risk, and beta-carotene (OR = 0.60; P = 1.8e-4; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.78) was the metabolite most strongly associated with a decreased risk. Identified T2DM-associated metabolites were replicated in MDC-CC. Four metabolites were significantly associated with incident T2DM in both the MPP and the replication cohort MDC-CC, after adjustments for traditional diabetes risk factors. These included associations between three metabolites, DMGU, 7-methylguanine (7MG), and 3-hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML), and incident T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: We used nontargeted metabolomics in two Swedish prospective cohorts comprising >4000 study participants and identified independent, replicable associations between three metabolites, DMGU, 7MG, and HTML, and future risk of T2DM. These findings warrant additional studies to investigate a potential functional connection between these metabolites and the onset of T2DM.

3.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384930

RESUMO

AIMS : Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia with diverse other symptoms, including neurocognitive deficits. Cerebral oximetry non-invasively measures cerebral tissue saturation (SctO2) and has been shown to be informative in syncope evaluation. We aimed to assess SctO2 in POTS patients and those with normal response to orthostatic provocation, relative to haemodynamic parameters and symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS : Thirty-four patients with POTS (29.1 ± 9.5 years; 26 females) and 34 age-/sex-matched controls with normal head-up tilt tests (HUTs) were included. SctO2 at rest and during HUT were compared between POTS and controls. The relation between SctO2, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) during HUT was linearly assessed. SctO2 values were related to dizziness or syncope during HUT. The minimum SctO2-value during HUT was lower (65.4 ± 5.6 vs. 68.2 ± 4.2%, P = 0.023) and changes in SctO2 from supine to minimum HUT value were more pronounced in POTS patients (-5.7 ± 2.9% vs. -4.3 ± 2.1%, P = 0.028). Decrease in SBP from supine to minimum HUT value (P = 0.004) and increase in HR from supine to HUT value at 3 min (P = 0.022) correlated with more pronounced SctO2 decrease in POTS but not controls. SctO2 did not predict syncope or dizziness during HUT. CONCLUSION : Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients have lower cerebral tissue saturation during orthostatic provocation compared with those subjects having normal haemodynamic response to tilt. Orthostatic decrease in cerebral saturation only weakly correlates with HR increase and does not predict vasovagal reflex in POTS. Other hitherto unknown factors may affect cerebral tissue saturation in POTS.

5.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319868320, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409109

RESUMO

AIMS: The CHA2DS2VASc score is used to evaluate the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We assessed the prognostic yield of CHA2DS2VASc for new-onset atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a non-atrial fibrillation population. METHODS: We analysed a population-based cohort of 22,179 middle-aged individuals with (n = 3542) and without (n = 18,367) a history of atrial fibrillation; we grouped the population into five CHA2DS2VASc strata (0-1-2-3-≥4), and compared the risk of major adverse cerebro-cardiovascular events and mortality. Furthermore, we analysed the annual incidence of atrial fibrillation across different CHA2DS2VASc strata. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 15 years, 1572 patients (6.9%) had ischaemic strokes, 2162 (9.5%) coronary events and 5899 (26%) died. The cumulative incidence of ischaemic stroke in CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 4 subjects without atrial fibrillation was similar to patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2VASc 2, with a 10-year crude incidence rate of 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.19) and 1.13 (95% CI 0.93-1.36) ischaemic strokes per 100 patient-years, respectively. CHA2DS2VASc in a non-atrial fibrillation population showed higher predictive accuracy for ischaemic stroke compared with an atrial fibrillation population (area under the curve 0.60 vs. 0.56; P = 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 2 was an independent predictor of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.58; 95% CI 2.42-2.76), cardiovascular death (aHR 3.40; 95% CI 2.98-3.89), ischaemic stroke (aHR 2.20; 95% CI 1.92-2.53) and coronary events (aHR 1.83; 95% CI 1.63-2.04). The cumulative incidence of atrial fibrillation was greater with increasing CHA2DS2VASc strata, with an absolute annual incidence of more than 2% per year if CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 4. CONCLUSION: The CHA2DS2VASc score is a sensitive tool for predicting new-onset atrial fibrillation and adverse outcomes in subjects both with and without atrial fibrillation.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404994

RESUMO

Selenoprotein-P (SELENOP) is the main carrier of selenium to target organs and reduces tissue oxidative stress both directly and by delivering selenium to protective selenoproteins. We tested if the plasma concentration of SELENOP predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the primary preventive setting. SELENOP was measured from the baseline exam in 2002-2006 of the Malmö Preventive Project, a population-based prospective cohort study, using a validated ELISA. Quintiles of SELENOP concentration were related to the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and a first cardiovascular event in 4366 subjects during a median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 9.3 (8.3-11) years using Cox proportional Hazards Model adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Compared to subjects in the lowest quintile of SELENOP, the risk of all three endpoints was significantly lower in quintiles 2-5. The risk (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI) decreased gradually with the lowest risk in quintile 4 for all-cause mortality (0.57, 0.48-0.69) (p < 0.001), cardiovascular mortality (0.52, 0.37-0.72) (p < 0.001), and first cardiovascular event (0.56, 0.44-0.71) (p < 0.001). The lower risk of a first cardiovascular event in quintiles 2-5 as compared to quintile 1 was significant for both coronary artery disease and stroke. We conclude that the 20% with lowest SELENOP concentrations in a North European population without history of cardiovascular disease have markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and preventive selenium supplementation studies stratified for these subjects are warranted.

7.
Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430798

RESUMO

Studies evaluating the relationship between platelet indices and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes yielded conflicting results. We assessed the incidence of adverse events according to baseline quintiles of platelet indices in the prospective cohort of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. A total of 30,314 individuals (age 57 ± 8 years) were followed for a median of 16 years (468,490 person-years). Outcome measures included all-cause death, CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke. The fifth quintile of platelet count (> 274.6 × 109/L) was associated with higher incidence of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.32, p < 0.001), CV death (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.42; p = 0.044), MI (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.54; p = 0.001), and ischemic stroke (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.50, p = 0.004) compared with the first quintile (≤ 185 × 109/L), and also associated with a lower survival, regardless of previous history of MI (p for interaction = 0.58) or stroke (p for interaction = 0.42). In the highest quintile, history of stroke had a higher risk of CV death (HR 3.18, 95% CI 1.54-6.54) compared with no previous stroke (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.96-1.31). The risk of MI and stroke was greatest in the fifth quintile, regardless of previous MI or previous stroke, respectively. The risk of all adverse events was similar across different quintiles of mean platelet volume. In conclusion, elevated platelet count is associated with higher mortality and risk of CV events, regardless of previous MI and stroke. Platelet count may thus be a useful marker for further stratification of CV risk, and especially of death.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339668

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of biomarkers, associated with cardiovascular stress and its neuroendocrine response as well as renal function, in relation to mortality and risk of re-hospitalization among consecutive patients admitted because of heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 286 patients (mean age, 75 years; 29% women) hospitalized for newly diagnosed or exacerbated HF were analysed. Associations between circulating levels of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), copeptin, C-terminal pro-endothelin-1, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cystatin C, and all-cause mortality as well as risk of re-hospitalization due to cardiac causes were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. A two-sided Bonferroni-corrected P-value of 0.05/5 = 0.010 was considered statistically significant. All biomarkers were related to echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions and function. A total of 57 patients died (median follow-up time, 17 months). In the multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses, all biomarkers, except C-terminal pro-endothelin-1, were significantly associated with increased mortality: NT-proBNP [hazard ratio (HR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.17; P = 4.0 × 10-4 ], MR-proADM (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.36-2.75; P = 2.2 × 10-4 ), copeptin (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002), and cystatin C (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.56-2.86; P = 1.0 × 10-6 ). A total of 90 patients were re-hospitalized (median time to re-hospitalization, 5 months). In multivariable Cox regression analyses, NT-proBNP was the only biomarker that showed significant association with risk of re-hospitalization due to cardiac causes (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10-1.87; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for HF, elevated plasma levels of NT-proBNP, MR-proADM, copeptin, and cystatin C are associated with higher mortality after discharge, whereas NT-proBNP is the only biomarker that predicts the risk of re-hospitalization due to cardiac causes.

10.
Biomarkers ; 24(6): 615-621, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215249

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate plasma biomarkers as predictors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Materials and methods: Prospective longitudinal cohort study of middle-aged individuals from the cardiovascular cohort of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDCS) (n = 5550; 1991-94). Cystatin C, copeptin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), and conventional risk factors were measured at baseline. The diagnosis of symptomatic PAD was validated in 97% of the cases. Results: Cumulative incidence of PAD during median follow up of 23.4 years was 4.4% (men 5.9%, women 3.3%). Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and total cholesterol, copeptin (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.80), N-BNP (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.11-1.48), and cystatin C (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.10-1.29) were independently associated with incident PAD. Subjects with the three biomarkers copeptin, N-BNP, and cystatin C in the highest quartiles, ran a high risk of incident PAD (HR 3.29; 95% CI 1.76-6.17) compared to those with no biomarker in the highest quartile. Conclusion: Copeptin, N-BNP, and cystatin C were associated with incident symptomatic PAD, implying that these biomarkers are sensitive indicators of early subclinical PAD. Clinical significance First prospective longitudinal cohort study evaluating Cystatin C, copeptin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) as predictors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Copeptin, N-BNP, and Cystatin C where independently associated with incident symptomatic PAD after adjustment for conventional risk factors. Copeptin, N-BNP, and Cystatin C seem to be sensitive indicators of early subclinical PAD.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1582-1588, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HER2/ErbB2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family. It is widely used as a tumor marker, but it also has recently been associated with insulin resistance. Both ErbB2 and diabetes have been associated with cancer; however, the relationship between ErbB2 and diabetes has not been well explored. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to assess the association between plasma ErbB2 and incidence of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population included participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort (age range 46-68 years). After excluding participants with a history of diabetes and those missing data for ErbB2 and other covariates, the final study population consisted of 4,220 individuals. Incidence of diabetes was followed through linkages to local and national registers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the incidence of diabetes in relation to quartiles of ErbB2, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Plasma ErbB2 was significantly and positively associated with glucose, insulin, and HbA1c after being adjusted for potential confounding factors. During a mean ± SD follow-up period of 20.20 ± 5.90 years, 615 participants (14.6%) were diagnosed with new-onset diabetes. Individuals with high levels of ErbB2 had a significantly higher risk of diabetes than those with low levels of ErbB2. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 1.31 (95% CI 1.03-1.66; P < 0.05) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of ErbB2 and was 1.15 (95% CI 1.05-1.25; P < 0.05) per 1-SD increase in ErbB2. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of ErbB2 are associated with increased incidence of diabetes.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(12): e012559, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208249

RESUMO

Background Vasovagal reflex is the most common form of syncope, but the pathophysiological mechanisms that initiate the reflex are not well understood. We aimed to study supine and early orthostatic levels of the neurohormones involved in control of circulatory homeostasis in relation to the onset of tilt-induced vasovagal syncope (VVS). Methods and Results A total of 827 patients who were investigated for unexplained syncope with head-up tilt test (HUT) and optional nitroglycerin provocation (Italian protocol) had blood samples collected while supine and after 3-minutes of HUT. Of these, 173 (20.9%) patients developed VVS during drug-free HUT, 161 of whom (males 44.7%; age 45±21 years) had complete data. We analyzed levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin, C-terminal endothelin-1, and midregional fragments of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin in relation to time from tilt-up to onset of VVS. We applied a linear regression model adjusted for age and sex. The mean time to syncope was 11±7 minutes. Older age (ß=0.13; SE=0.03, P<0.001), higher supine systolic blood pressure (ß=0.06; SE=0.03, P=0.02), and higher supine midregional fragment of pro-adrenomedullin predicted longer time to syncope (ß=2.31; SE=0.77, P=0.003), whereas supine levels of other neurohormones were not associated with time to syncope. Among 151 patients who developed VVS later than 3 minutes of HUT, increase in epinephrine (ß=-3.24; SE=0.78, P<0.001) and C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin (ß=-2.07; SE=0.61, P=0.001) at 3 minutes of HUT were related to shorter time to syncope. Conclusions Older age, higher blood pressure, and higher level of pro-adrenomedullin are associated with later onset of VVS during tilt testing, whereas greater increase of tilt-induced epinephrine and vasopressin release correlate with shorter time to syncope.

13.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 85, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Copeptin is the stable surrogate marker of vasopressin (VP), which is released in response to elevated plasma osmolality or low blood pressure. Elevated plasma copeptin levels are associated with higher risk of insulin resistance-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular disease, and experimental reduction of circulating VP levels is shown to significantly decrease hepatic fat content in obese rats, independently from body adiposity. However, the association between copeptin and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) in humans has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between plasma copeptin and the presence/severity of NAFLD/NASH. METHODS: For this study, we recruited 60 obese patients candidate to bariatric surgery for clinical purposes in which intraoperative liver biopsies were performed for diagnosing NAFLD/NASH. Circulating copeptin levels were also assessed in 60 age- and sex-comparable non-obese individuals without NAFLD at liver ultrasonography. Plasma copeptin was measured by sandwich immunoluminometric assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific). RESULTS: Obese patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (53%) had significantly higher copeptin levels than both obese individuals without NAFLD and non-obese subjects (ob/NAFLD+ 9.5 ± 4.9; ob/NAFLD- 6.4 ± 2.6; and non-ob/NAFLD- 7.4 ± 5.1 pmol/L; p = 0.004 and p = 0.01 respectively). Plasma copeptin concentration positively correlated with hepatic macro- and micro-vesicular steatosis (r = 0.36, p = 0.026; r = 0.31, p = 0.05), lobular inflammation (r = 0.37, p = 0.024) and significantly increased throughout degrees of NASH severity, as expressed as absence, borderline, and overt NASH at the liver biopsy (r = 0.35, p = 0.01). Greater circulating copeptin predicted the presence of NASH with OR = 1.73 (95% CI = 1.02-2.93) after multivariate adjustment for age, sex, renal function and presence of T2DM and MS components. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma copeptin is independently associated with the presence and severity of NAFLD and NASH, pointing to a novel mechanism behind human fatty liver disease potentially modifiable by pharmacological treatment and lifestyle intervention.

14.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(5): 466-473, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end product is an established risk marker in diabetic vascular disease, but its possible associations with atherosclerosis in a general population are yet to be investigated. We studied the degree of carotid atherosclerosis and its association with skin autofluorescence in an elderly population. METHODS: Carotid ultrasound and skin autofluorescence measurements were performed in a subpopulation within the 'Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort' re-examination study (n = 523). Total plaque area including all prevalent plaques in the right carotid artery was calculated. Complete data on all variables were available for 496 subjects (mean age 72 years). RESULTS: Each 1 standard deviation increment of skin autofluorescence was associated with increased risk of prevalent large plaques (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.66; p = 0.018) independently of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. The top versus bottom tertile of the skin autofluorescence was associated with an approximately twofold risk of being in the population with the highest plaque burden [top quartile with total plaque area ⩾ 35 mm2 (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.39; p for trend = 0.027)] in fully adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: In an elderly population, skin autofluorescence was associated with increasing degree of carotid atherosclerosis measured as total plaque area, independently of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors.

15.
Physiol Behav ; 207: 159-166, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defensive coping (DefS) was associated with a vulnerable cardiovascular profile in blacks. The copeptin/vasopressin system is a manifestation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and may act as an acute compensatory mechanism when there is a disruption in volume-loading homeostasis, i.e. when cardiac stress is evident. Whether DefS will influence associations between copeptin and cardiac stress markers, remains unclear. Here we aimed to determine associations between acute mental stress responses of copeptin, vascular responsiveness and biomarkers of cardiomyocyte injury [cardiac troponin T (cTnT)] and cardiac wall-stress [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)] in DefS race groups. METHODS: South African black and white teachers (n = 378) of both sexes, participated in this target population study. Cases with a history of myocardial infarction, stroke and atrial fibrillation were excluded. We obtained coping scores (Coping Strategy Indicator), beat-to-beat blood pressure and fasting blood samples at rest and after 1-min exposure to the Stroop-Colour-Word-Conflict-test. RESULTS: Interaction effects (p < .05) for copeptin percentage change (%) during the Stroop-Colour-Word-Conflict-test determined stratification of participants into race and DefS (≥26, above-median score) groups. In DefS blacks, Stroop-Colour-Word-Conflict-test exposure elicited increases in cTnT%, NT-proBNP% and diastolic-blood pressure%. Again, in these individuals, multiple regression analyses showed positive associations between copeptin% and total peripheral resistance%; with inverse associations between copeptin% and cTnT% (p < .05). None of these associations were found in DefS whites. CONCLUSIONS: Utilisation of DefS in blacks provoked vascular hyper-responsiveness and cardiac wall stress (elevated cTnT and NT-proBNP); possibly mediated via the copeptin/vasopressin system. However, a presumably hypo-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis during stress exposure could not counteract coronary perfusion deficits via additional copeptin/vasopressin release. The presence of defensiveness may have clinical implications in preventive cardiology.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5609, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948779

RESUMO

Long follow up is needed in prospective cohort study evaluation of plasma biomarkers for incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) Middle-aged PAD-free individuals from the cardiovascular cohort of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (n = 5550; 1991-94) were followed prospectively for a median time of 23.4 years. The plasma biomarkers lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and mass, proneurotensin, and CRP, were studied in relation to incidence of PAD until December 31st, 2016. The diagnosis of PAD could be validated and confirmed in 98%. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) per 1 standard deviation increment of each respective log transformed plasma biomarker. Cumulative incidence of PAD was 4.4% (men 5.9%, women 3.3%). Adjusting for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Lp-PLA2 activity (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.52), Lp-PLA2 mass (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37) and CRP (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.36-1.76) remained independently associated with incident PAD. The plasma biomarkers Lp-PLA2 activity and mass, and CRP were markers of PAD risk, implying that they might be useful biomarkers for subclinical atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic disease.

19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 150: 174-183, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878389

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the association between baseline level of C-peptide and all-cause death, cardiovascular death and cardiovascular complications among persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The Skaraborg Diabetes Register contains data on baseline C-peptide concentrations among 398 persons <65 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes 1996-1998. National registries were used to determine all-cause death, cardiovascular death and incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke until 31 December 2014. The association between baseline C-peptide and outcomes were evaluated with adjustment for multiple confounders by Cox regression analysis. Missing data were handled by multiple imputation. RESULTS: In the imputed and fully adjusted model there was a significant association between 1 nmol/l increase in C-peptide concentration and all-cause death (HR 2.20, 95% CI 1.49-3.25, p < 0.001, number of events = 104), underlying cardiovascular death (HR 2.69, 1.49-4.85, p = 0.001, n = 35) and the composite outcome of underlying cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (HR 1.61, 1.06-2.45, p = 0.027, n = 90). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated C-peptide levels at baseline in persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. C-peptide might be used to identify persons at high risk of cardiovascular complications and premature death.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Peptídeo C/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(5): 925-933, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917679

RESUMO

Objective- RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) are immune receptors for proinflammatory mediators. These receptors can also be found in a soluble form in the circulation. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) has shown atheroprotective properties in animal studies, possibly by acting as a decoy receptor for its ligands. Whether sEMMPRIN (soluble EMMPRIN) has similar roles is unknown. We hypothesized that sRAGE and sEMMPRIN might be associated with vascular disease progression, incident coronary events, and mortality. Approach and Results- We measured baseline sRAGE and sEMMPRIN in 4612 cardiovascular disease-free individuals from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Measurements of intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery were performed at inclusion and after a median of 16.5 years. sRAGE was negatively correlated with carotid intima-media thickness progression, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and hsCRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein). Additionally, sRAGE was associated with decreased risk for major adverse coronary events (hazard ratio=0.90 [0.82-0.97]; P=0.009) and mortality (hazard ratio=0.93 [0.88-0.99]; P=0.011) during a follow-up period of 21 years. The relationship with mortality was independent of all considered potential confounders. We found no correlations between EMMPRIN, intima-media thickness progression, or prognosis. Conclusions- Individuals with high levels of circulating sRAGE have a slower rate of carotid artery disease progression and a better prognosis. Although its predictive value was too weak to promote sRAGE as a useful clinical biomarker in the population, the findings support further research into the potential anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of this soluble receptor.

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