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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five SNPs at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate 2 loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5,662 cases and 9,237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF]=0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=0.83, P=3.62x10-13). rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5,510 cases and 12,817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF=0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.20, P=2.31x10-12). This SNP is 29,426 bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown an association between use of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibitors and increased risk of serious infection in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data on this topic for paediatric patients are scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the use of TNFα inhibitors and the risk of serious infection in children with IBD. METHODS: In this nationwide Danish cohort study, we searched health registers (from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2016) to identify episodes of children and adolescents (<18 years) with at least two recorded IBD diagnoses in specialist care. We categorised follow-up time in mutually exclusive episodes of incident TNFα inhibitor use or no TNFα inhibitor use from specialist care records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting using propensity score weighting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, treatment history, health-care use, and indicators of disease severity. The primary outcome, incident serious infection, was defined as infection requiring a stay in hospital and was identified through hospital records. FINDINGS: Among 2817 paediatric patients with IBD, we identified 618 episodes of incident TNFα inhibitor use and 2925 episodes of no TNFα inhibitor use. In the cohort of exposed and not exposed episodes that was propensity-score weighted, 53·9% were of male sex, the mean age was 15·1 (SD 1·7) years, 69·9% had Crohn's disease, and 30·1% had ulcerative colitis or IBD-unclassified; median follow-up was 1·4 years (IQR 0·4-3·0). The weighted incidence of serious infection was 54·6 events per 1000 patient-years for the TNFα inhibitor episodes and 61·9 events per 1000 patient-years for the no-use episodes. The weighted HR of serious infection associated with TNFα inhibitor use was 0·81 (95% CI 0·54-1·21). INTERPRETATION: There was no significant association between use of TNFα inhibitors and the risk of serious infection in children with IBD, and, based on the upper bound of the confidence interval, a relatively small risk increase seems unlikely, contrary to previous findings in adults. Observational data such as these can support paediatric clinical practice. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council, Frimurare Barnhuset Foundation, and the Åke Wiberg Foundation.

4.
BMJ ; 366: l4693, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between pregnancy duration and risk of endometrial cancer. DESIGN: Nationwide register based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish women born from 1935 to 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (incidence rate ratio) of endometrial cancer by pregnancy number, type, and duration, estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 2 311 332 Danish women with 3 947 650 pregnancies, 6743 women developed endometrial cancer during 57 347 622 person years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, period, and socioeconomic factors, a first pregnancy was associated with a noticeably reduced risk of endometrial cancer, whether it ended in induced abortion (adjusted relative risk 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.64) or childbirth (0.66, 0.61 to 0.72). Each subsequent pregnancy was associated with an additional reduction in risk, whether it ended in induced abortion (0.81, 0.77 to 0.86) or childbirth (0.86, 0.84 to 0.89). Duration of pregnancy, age at pregnancy, spontaneous abortions, obesity, maternal birth cohort, fecundity, and socioeconomic factors did not modify the results. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of endometrial cancer is reduced regardless of whether a pregnancy ends shortly after conception or at 40 weeks of gestation. This reduction in risk could be explained by a biological process occurring within the first weeks of pregnancy, as pregnancies ending in induced abortions were associated with similar reductions in risk as pregnancies ending in childbirth.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
BMJ ; 366: l4772, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiovascular effectiveness of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Cohort study using data from nationwide registers and an active-comparator new-user design. SETTING: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, from April 2013 to December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 20 983 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors and 20 983 new users of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, aged 35-84, matched by age, sex, history of major cardiovascular disease, and propensity score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death) and heart failure (hospital admission for heart failure or death due to heart failure). Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the cardiovascular composite and any cause death. In the primary analyses, patients were defined as exposed from treatment start throughout follow-up (analogous to intention to treat); additional analyses were conducted with an as-treated exposure definition. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: Mean age of the study cohort was 61 years, 60% were men, and 19% had a history of major cardiovascular disease. Of the total 27 416 person years of follow-up in the SGLT2 inhibitor group, 22 627 (83%) was among patients who initiated dapagliflozin, 4521 (16%) among those who initiated empagliflozin, and 268 (1%) among those who initiated canagliflozin. During follow-up, 467 SGLT2 inhibitor users (incidence rate 17.0 events per 1000 person years) and 662 DPP4 inhibitor users (18.0) had a major cardiovascular event, whereas 130 (4.7) and 265 (7.1) had a heart failure event, respectively. Hazard ratios were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.06) for major cardiovascular events and 0.66 (0.53 to 0.81) for heart failure. Hazard ratios were consistent among subgroups of patients with and without history of major cardiovascular disease and with and without history of heart failure. Hazard ratios for secondary outcomes, comparing SGLT2 inhibitors with DPP4 inhibitors, were 0.99 (0.85 to 1.17) for myocardial infarction, 0.94 (0.77 to 1.15) for stroke, 0.84 (0.65 to 1.08) for cardiovascular death, and 0.80 (0.69 to 0.92) for any cause death. In the as-treated analyses, hazard ratios were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98) for major cardiovascular events, 0.55 (0.42 to 0.73) for heart failure, 0.93 (0.76 to 1.14) for myocardial infarction, 0.83 (0.64 to 1.07) for stroke, 0.67 (0.49 to 0.93) for cardiovascular death, and 0.75 (0.61 to 0.91) for any cause death. CONCLUSIONS: In this large Scandinavian cohort, SGLT2 inhibitor use compared with DPP4 inhibitor use was associated with reduced risk of heart failure and any cause death, but not with major cardiovascular events in the primary intention-to-treat analysis. In the additional as-treated analyses, the magnitude of the association with heart failure and any cause death became larger, and a reduced risk of major cardiovascular events that was largely driven by the cardiovascular death component was observed. These data help inform patients, practitioners, and authorities regarding the cardiovascular effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) normally onsets in childhood and mostly resolves before adolescences. Disease persistence is known to be difficult to study properly, and current predictors are insufficient to identify more than a small fraction of patients at risk. OBJECTIVE: To study personal AD medicine history as a retrospective marker of persistent AD. METHODS: The study population included all Danish first hospital contacts with a diagnosis of AD (ICD-10, L20) between 1995 and 2012. National register data following the diagnosis were used to define persistent AD activity until 2017 according to personal AD medicine history before diagnosis. Activity was defined as filled prescriptions for topical corticosteroids (TCS) or calcineurin inhibitors (TCI), dermatologist contacts or hospital re-contacts for AD. Risk ratios (RR) for persistent activity (defined as activity >4 of the most recent 5 years) were estimated according to AD medicine history (prescriptions filled prior to diagnosis) adjusted for age at onset, parental AD and basic covariates. RESULTS: A total of 13 628 patients were diagnosed at ages 0-16 years and had up to 21 years of follow-up. 10 years after diagnosis, 67% showed activity (9.5% persistent). Among prior TCS users (69%), the RR10y of persistent activity increased 1- to 6-fold with increasing strength of strongest TCS/TCI ever, and with number of TCS courses. Prior use of antibiotics (RR10y 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.59) and antihistamines (RR10y 1.65, 95% CI 1.42-1.91) increased the RR10y in a dose-dependent manner. In >90% of patients, prior medication use occurred <4 years before diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The strength and type of AD medication used in the previous 4 years may predict 10-year persistence of AD. Since children may be misjudged as having milder disease when seen between flares of skin lesions, this information may improve physicians' ability to determine the correct prognosis independently of current AD severity.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported a high risk of ischemic stroke (IS) during the acute phase of infective endocarditis (IE). The long-term risk of IS after IE, however, is not fully illuminated. METHODS: This Danish, nationwide, register-based, propensity score-matched cohort study used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of IS for persons with vs without a history of left-sided IE, from 1977 to 2015. RESULTS: We followed 9312 patients exposed to a first-time IE and 91 996 nonexposed, matched control persons. Compared to persons without IE, patients with a history of IE had a significantly increased risk of IS; the risk was highest during the first 4 weeks after IE diagnosis (HR 57.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 45.58-71.78; P < .0001) and a moderately elevated risk persisted until 2 years after IE (4 weeks to 3 months after IE, HR 5.40, 95% CI 4.11-7.19; 3 months to 2 years after IE, HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.48-2.01). Mediation analyses showed that the higher risk of IS the first 2 years after IE could not be explained by atrial fibrillation (AF) or inserted mechanical valves in IE patients. In the period from 4 weeks to 3 months after IE diagnosis, patients treated with anticoagulative therapy had a lower risk of IS (HR 0.30, 95% CI .10-0.96; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of IE had an increased risk of IS for up to 2 years after IE diagnosis. The increased risk was unrelated to AF and inserted mechanical valves. During the initial phase after IE, patients taking an anticoagulative medication had a lower risk of IS.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A man's risk of prostate cancer has been linked to his prior reproductive history, with low sperm quality, low ejaculation frequency, and a low number of offspring being associated with increased prostate cancer risk. It is however highly controversial whether vasectomy, a common sterilization procedure for men, influences prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We established a cohort of all Danish men (born from 1937) and linked information on vasectomy, doctor visits, socioeconomic factors and cancer from nationwide registries using unique personal identification numbers. Incidence risk ratios for prostate cancer by time since vasectomy and age at vasectomy during the follow-up were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, 26,238 cases of prostate cancer occurred among 2,150,162 Danish men during 53.4 million person-years of follow-up. Overall, vasectomized men had an increased risk of prostate cancer compared with non-vasectomized men (relative risk 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.20). The increased risk of prostate cancer following vasectomy persisted for at least 30 years after the procedure and was observed regardless of age at vasectomy and cancer stage at diagnosis. Adjustment for the number of visits to doctor and socioeconomic factors did not explain the association. CONCLUSIONS: Vasectomy is associated with a statistically significant increased long-term risk of prostate cancer. The absolute increased risk following vasectomy is nevertheless small, but our finding supports a relationship between reproductive factors and prostate cancer risk.

9.
Brain ; 142(6): 1587-1597, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081503

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis is a disease with a highly variable incidence worldwide. While knowledge about multiple sclerosis risk factors has grown over the years, the aetiology of multiple sclerosis has still not been fully established. We examined multiple sclerosis incidence rates among first-generation immigrants in Denmark, a high-incidence country, and their Danish-born children (second-generation immigrants), to evaluate the importance and timing of exposure to environmental factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis. By means of the Danish Civil Registration System we identified 9 121 187 individuals living in Denmark between 1968 and 2015, including 1 176 419 first-generation and 184 282 second-generation immigrants. Study participants were followed for multiple sclerosis in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry from 1968 to 2015. The relative risk (RR) of multiple sclerosis according to immigration status was estimated by means of multiple sclerosis incidence rate ratios obtained in log-linear Poisson regression analysis. Altogether, 16 905 cases of multiple sclerosis were identified in the study cohort, 578 among first-generation and 106 among second-generation immigrants. Multiple sclerosis risk among first-generation immigrants whose parents were born in low, intermediate and high multiple sclerosis risk areas were 21% (RR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.16-0.28), 43% (RR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.36-0.50) and 75% (RR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.83), respectively, of that among ethnic Danes (test for trend P < 0.0001). First-generation immigrants arriving in Denmark before age 15 years had a multiple sclerosis risk higher than that in their country of birth but lower than that in Denmark, reaching on average 69% of the multiple sclerosis risk among ethnic Danes (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55-0.87). Multiple sclerosis risk among individuals who came to Denmark at a later age remained closer to that of their country of birth, corresponding to 45% of the multiple sclerosis risk among ethnic Danes (RR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.41-0.49). Our study supports the idea that environmental factors exerting their role in childhood or adolescence may be of aetiological relevance in multiple sclerosis.

12.
Pediatr Res ; 85(7): 955-960, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) and congenital heart defects (CHDs) may share some genetic risk factors, but little is known about the co-occurrence of the two conditions in patients. METHODS: Our study cohort included 2,212,756 persons born in Denmark 1977-2013. We identified patients with IHPS and CHD in the National Patient Register. Using log-linear Poisson regression, we estimated the (incidence) rate ratios (RRs) comparing the rate of IHPS among children with a CHD diagnosis (exposed) and the rate among those without such a diagnosis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven thousand three hundred and fifty-seven children in the cohort were diagnosed with CHD out of whom 85 developed IHPS (RR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.09-3.22]). The results were similar for those with and without other congenital malformations, for preterm and term deliveries, and for both sexes. There was, however, a significant effect of calendar period (P = .003). In the period 1977-1996, the RR of IHPS given a CHD diagnosis was 1.96 (95% CI 1.41-2.64); in the period 1997-2014, the RR was 3.75 (95% CI 2.74-4.99). CONCLUSION: CHD was associated with an increased risk of IHPS. Further research is needed to delineate molecular-level mechanisms that may affect both conditions.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e011615, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857459

RESUMO

Background Evidence linking individual-level maternal folic acid supplementation to offspring risk of congenital heart defects is lacking. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces offspring risk of heart defects in 2 large birth cohort studies. Methods and Results Women recruited in early pregnancy within the DNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort), 1996-2003, and MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study), 2000-2009, were followed until delivery. Information on periconceptional intake of folic acid and other supplements was linked with information on heart defects from national registers. Among 197 123 births, we identified 2247 individuals with heart defects (114/10 000). Periconceptional (4 weeks before through 8 weeks after conception) use of folic acid plus other supplements (54.8%), folic acid only (12.2%), and non-folic acid supplements (5.0%) were compared with no supplement use (28.0%); the adjusted relative risks of heart defects were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.80-1.22), 1.08 (95% CI , 0.93-1.25), and 1.07 (95% CI , 0.97-1.19), respectively. For initiation of folic acid in the preconception period weeks -4 to -1 (33.7%) and the postconception periods 0 to 4 weeks (15.5%), 5 to 8 weeks (17.8%), and 9 to 12 weeks (4.6%), compared with no or late folic acid intake (29.1%), relative risks of heart defect were 1.11 (95% CI , 1.00-1.25), 1.09 (95% CI , 0.95-1.25), 0.98 (95% CI , 0.86-1.12), and 0.97 (95% CI , 0.78-1.20), respectively. Relative risks of severe defects, conotruncal defects, and septal defects showed similar results. Conclusions Folic acid was not associated with offspring risk of heart defects, including severe defects, conotruncal defects, or septal defects.

14.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(8): 513-520, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831578

RESUMO

Background: The hypothesized link between the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism continues to cause concern and challenge vaccine uptake. Objective: To evaluate whether the MMR vaccine increases the risk for autism in children, subgroups of children, or time periods after vaccination. Design: Nationwide cohort study. Setting: Denmark. Participants: 657 461 children born in Denmark from 1999 through 31 December 2010, with follow-up from 1 year of age and through 31 August 2013. Measurements: Danish population registries were used to link information on MMR vaccination, autism diagnoses, other childhood vaccines, sibling history of autism, and autism risk factors to children in the cohort. Survival analysis of the time to autism diagnosis with Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of autism according to MMR vaccination status, with adjustment for age, birth year, sex, other childhood vaccines, sibling history of autism, and autism risk factors (based on a disease risk score). Results: During 5 025 754 person-years of follow-up, 6517 children were diagnosed with autism (incidence rate, 129.7 per 100 000 person-years). Comparing MMR-vaccinated with MMR-unvaccinated children yielded a fully adjusted autism hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.02). Similarly, no increased risk for autism after MMR vaccination was consistently observed in subgroups of children defined according to sibling history of autism, autism risk factors (based on a disease risk score) or other childhood vaccinations, or during specified time periods after vaccination. Limitation: No individual medical charts were reviewed. Conclusion: The study strongly supports that MMR vaccination does not increase the risk for autism, does not trigger autism in susceptible children, and is not associated with clustering of autism cases after vaccination. It adds to previous studies through significant additional statistical power and by addressing hypotheses of susceptible subgroups and clustering of cases. Primary Funding Source: Novo Nordisk Foundation and Danish Ministry of Health.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211857, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a serious cardiac disorder occurring late in pregnancy or early in the postpartum period. We examined associations between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP: preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) and PPCM, accounting for other pregnancy-related risk factors for PPCM. METHODS: Using nationwide Danish register data, we constructed a cohort of all women with ≥1 live birth or stillbirth in Denmark between 1978 and 2012. Using log-linear binomial regression and generalized estimating equations, we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for PPCM associated with HDP of varying severity. RESULTS: In a cohort of 1,088,063 women with 2,078,822 eligible pregnancies, 126 women developed PPCM (39 in connection with an HDP-complicated pregnancy). The risks of PPCM were significantly higher in women with HDP-complicated pregnancies than in women with normotensive pregnancies (severe preeclampsia, RR 21.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.0-37.4; moderate preeclampsia, RR 10.2, 95% CI 6.18-16.9; gestational hypertension, RR 5.16, 95% CI 2.11-12.6). The RRs for moderate preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were not significantly different from one another (p = 0.18); the RR for severe preeclampsia was significantly different from the RR for moderate preeclampsia and gestational hypertension combined (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Although 70% of PPCM occurred in women with normotensive pregnancies, HDPs were associated with substantial increases in PPCM risk that depended on HDP severity. The heart's capacity to adapt to a normal pregnancy may be exceeded in some women already susceptible to cardiac insult, contributing to PPCM. HDPs, severe preeclampsia in particular, probably represent an additional cardiac stressor during pregnancy.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 120(7): 761-767, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that patients with synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC), diagnosed within 4 months, have an inferior prognosis compared to unilateral breast cancer (UBC) patients. Using data from nationwide Danish clinical databases, this cohort study investigated whether the inferior prognosis could be explained by SBBC patients having a more aggressive disease, or whether the prognosis could be explained by the fact that they have two simultaneous cancers. METHODS: Patients were diagnosed from 1999-2015. The main outcome was excess mortality, subtracting background population mortality from observed mortality. Differences between SBBC and UBC patients were evaluated by rate ratios (RR) and estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1214 SBBC and 59 177 UBC patients were included. SBBC patients had a significantly higher excess mortality than UBC patients after adjustment for age and period (RR = 1.73; 95% CI:1.44-2.08; p < 0.01) and after adjusting for characteristics of the worst tumour as traditionally done (RR = 1.31; 95% CI:1.08-1.57; p = 0.01). However, adjusting for characteristics of both tumours, using a more advanced competing risks model, no difference was observed (RR = 1.01; 95% CI:0.83-1.22; p = 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support that the inferior prognosis in SBBC patients is due to having more aggressive tumours per se, but rather the combined effect of having two simultaneous cancers.

17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(3): 158-165, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown an association between use of azathioprine and increased risk of acute pancreatitis in adult inflammatory bowel disease. However, whether an association exists among paediatric patients is not known. We aimed to investigate whether use of azathioprine is associated with the risk of acute pancreatitis in children with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: We did a nationwide register-based cohort study in Sweden (2006-16) and Denmark (2000-16). All paediatric patients (<18 years of age) with inflammatory bowel disease during the study period were identified through hospital records. Episodes of incident azathioprine use and no use of any thiopurine were matched (1:1) using propensity scores, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, previous treatment, indicators of disease severity, and health care use. Incident acute pancreatitis (physician-assigned diagnosis with ICD-10 code K85) occurring in the 90 days following treatment initiation were identified through outpatient and inpatient hospital records. FINDINGS: We identified 3574 azathioprine episodes and 18 700 no-use episodes, which resulted in 3374 pairs after propensity score matching; baseline characteristics in the matched cohort were well balanced. Among the matched azathioprine episodes, mean age was 14·3 years (SD 3·1), 1854 (54·9%) were male, 1923 (57·0%) had Crohn's disease, and 1451 (43·0%) had ulcerative colitis or unclassified inflammatory bowel disease. Within the first 90 days following initiation of azathioprine, 40 acute pancreatitis events occurred (incidence rate 49·1 events per 1000 person-years) compared with six events in the no-use group (8·4 events per 1000 person-years). Azathioprine use was associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis (incidence rate ratio 5·82 [95% CI 2·47-13·72]; absolute difference 1·0 [95% CI 0·3-2·6] events per 100 patients) during the 90-day risk period. INTERPRETATION: Use of azathioprine was associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in children with inflammatory bowel disease during the first 90 days following treatment initiation, suggesting the need for regular and rigorous monitoring. The risk of acute pancreatitis needs to be considered when deciding on optimal treatment strategies. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council, Frimurare Barnhuset Foundation, and the Åke Wiberg Foundation.

18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(2): 106-114, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trial evidence shows that the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide significantly reduces the risk of major cardiovascular events among patients with type 2 diabetes who have established cardiovascular disease or are at high cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the cardiovascular effectiveness of liraglutide in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We used data from nationwide registers in Denmark and Sweden for the period from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2016, to investigate the risk of major cardiovascular events associated with use of liraglutide, compared with an active comparator drug class, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, in patients with type 2 diabetes. The cohort included incident users of liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors, who were also using metformin at baseline, matched 1:1 on age, sex, and propensity score. The main outcome was major cardiovascular events, a composite outcome consisting of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Other outcomes assessed were the individual components of the main composite outcome, heart failure, death from any cause, and an expanded composite major cardiovascular events outcome that also included other ischaemic heart disease, coronary revascularisation, and peripheral arterial disease. FINDINGS: The study population consisted of 23 402 users of liraglutide and 23 402 matched users of DPP-4 inhibitors; patients were followed up for a mean of 3·3 years (SD 2·0). A major cardiovascular event occurred in 1132 users of liraglutide (incidence rate 14·0 per 1000 person-years) and in 1141 users of DPP-4 inhibitors (15·4 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·83-0·98). The HRs were 0·81 (0·71-0·92) for patients with a history of major cardiovascular disease and 0·96 (0·86-1·06) for patients without such a history (p=0·057 [test of homogeneity], suggesting no statistical evidence of heterogeneity). Compared with use of DPP-4 inhibitors, use of liraglutide was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular death (HR 0·78, 95% CI 0·68-0·91), but no significant differences were identified for risk of myocardial infarction (0·94, 0·84-1·06) or stroke (0·88, 0·77-1·01). Furthermore, use of liraglutide was associated with a significantly lower risk of death from any cause (HR 0·83, 95% CI 0·77-0·90), but no significant differences were identified for risk of heart failure (0·90, 0·80-1·03) or for the expanded major cardiovascular events outcome (0·95, 0·89-1·01). INTERPRETATION: In this large Scandinavian cohort, use of liraglutide, as compared with use of DPP-4 inhibitors, was associated with significantly reduced risk of major cardiovascular events. Patients with history of cardiovascular disease seemed to derive the largest benefit from treatment with liraglutide. These data provide support for the cardiovascular effectiveness of liraglutide in routine clinical practice. FUNDING: Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, and Swedish Society for Medical Research.

19.
BMJ ; 363: k4365, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and seven serious adverse events of current concern. DESIGN: Register based cohort study. SETTING: Sweden and Denmark from July 2013 to December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: A propensity score matched cohort of 17 213 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin, 61%; empagliflozin, 38%; canagliflozin, 1%) and 17 213 new users of the active comparator, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were lower limb amputation, bone fracture, diabetic ketoacidosis, acute kidney injury, serious urinary tract infection, venous thromboembolism, and acute pancreatitis, as identified from hospital records. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Use of SGLT2 inhibitors, as compared with GLP1 receptor agonists, was associated with an increased risk of lower limb amputation (incidence rate 2.7 v 1.1 events per 1000 person years, hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 3.91) and diabetic ketoacidosis (1.3 v 0.6, 2.14, 1.01 to 4.52) but not with bone fracture (15.4 v 13.9, 1.11, 0.93 to 1.33), acute kidney injury (2.3 v 3.2, 0.69, 0.45 to 1.05), serious urinary tract infection (5.4 v 6.0, 0.89, 0.67 to 1.19), venous thromboembolism (4.2 v 4.1, 0.99, 0.71 to 1.38) or acute pancreatitis (1.3 v 1.2, 1.16, 0.64 to 2.12). CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of nationwide registers from two countries, use of SGLT2 inhibitors, as compared with GLP1 receptor agonists, was associated with an increased risk of lower limb amputation and diabetic ketoacidosis, but not with other serious adverse events of current concern.

20.
Epidemiology ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The possible etiologic link between tonsillectomy and inflammatory bowel diseases remains unclear. To investigate the hereditary component, we assessed the risk of inflammatory bowel disease after own tonsillectomy as well as after tonsillectomy among family members. METHODS: A nationwide Danish cohort of 7,045,288 individuals was established and linked to comprehensive national registers with data on kinship, tonsillectomy surgery, and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease from all health sectors. We used Poisson regression models to estimate hospital contact rate ratios (RR) for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), between individuals with or without tonsillectomy, as well as between individuals with or without tonsillectomized relatives. RESULTS: During 189 million person-years of follow-up between 1977 and 2014, 276,673 individuals were tonsillectomized, 22,015 developed Crohn's disease, and 49,550 developed ulcerative colitis. Rates of inflammatory bowel disease were elevated up to 20 years after own tonsillectomy (Crohn's disease: RR 1.52 (95% CI, 1.43-1.61); ulcerative colitis: RR 1.24 (95% CI, 1.18-1.29)). RRs for Crohn's disease was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17-1.27) after 1 degree relatives' tonsillectomy, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.08-1.19) after 2 degree relatives' tonsillectomy, and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.01-1.15 after 3 degree relatives' tonsillectomy. Corresponding RRs for ulcerative colitis were 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13), 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.08), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.98-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Even individuals with tonsillectomized family members were at increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. These findings call into question a direct influence of tonsillectomy on gastrointestinal inflammation and point instead towards shared hereditary or environmental factors.

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