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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788391

RESUMO

To explore the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on premature birth rates in Denmark, a nationwide register-based prevalence proportion study was conducted on all 31 180 live singleton infants born in Denmark between 12 March and 14 April during 2015-2020.The distribution of gestational ages (GAs) was significantly different (p=0.004) during the lockdown period compared with the previous 5 years and was driven by a significantly lower rate of extremely premature children during the lockdown compared with the corresponding mean rate for the same dates in the previous years (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.40, p<0.001). No significant difference between the lockdown and previous years was found for other GA categories.The reasons for this decrease are unclear. However, the lockdown has provided a unique opportunity to examine possible factors related to prematurity. Identification of possible causal mechanisms might stimulate changes in clinical practice.

2.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003305, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many maternal traits are associated with a neonate's gestational duration, birth weight, and birth length. These birth outcomes are subsequently associated with late-onset health conditions. The causal mechanisms and the relative contributions of maternal and fetal genetic effects behind these observed associations are unresolved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on 10,734 mother-infant duos of European ancestry from the UK, Northern Europe, Australia, and North America, we constructed haplotype genetic scores using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with adult height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using these scores as genetic instruments, we estimated the maternal and fetal genetic effects underlying the observed associations between maternal phenotypes and pregnancy outcomes. We also used infant-specific birth weight genetic scores as instrument and examined the effects of fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes, maternal BP, and glucose levels during pregnancy. The maternal nontransmitted haplotype score for height was significantly associated with gestational duration (p = 2.2 × 10-4). Both maternal and paternal transmitted height haplotype scores were highly significantly associated with birth weight and length (p < 1 × 10-17). The maternal transmitted BMI scores were associated with birth weight with a significant maternal effect (p = 1.6 × 10-4). Both maternal and paternal transmitted BP scores were negatively associated with birth weight with a significant fetal effect (p = 9.4 × 10-3), whereas BP alleles were significantly associated with gestational duration and preterm birth through maternal effects (p = 3.3 × 10-2 and p = 4.5 × 10-3, respectively). The nontransmitted haplotype score for FPG was strongly associated with birth weight (p = 4.7 × 10-6); however, the glucose-increasing alleles in the fetus were associated with reduced birth weight through a fetal effect (p = 2.2 × 10-3). The haplotype scores for T2D were associated with birth weight in a similar way but with a weaker maternal effect (p = 6.4 × 10-3) and a stronger fetal effect (p = 1.3 × 10-5). The paternal transmitted birth weight score was significantly associated with reduced gestational duration (p = 1.8 × 10-4) and increased maternal systolic BP during pregnancy (p = 2.2 × 10-2). The major limitations of the study include missing and heterogenous phenotype data in some data sets and different instrumental strength of genetic scores for different phenotypic traits. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both maternal height and fetal growth are important factors in shaping the duration of gestation: genetically elevated maternal height is associated with longer gestational duration, whereas alleles that increase fetal growth are associated with shorter gestational duration. Fetal growth is influenced by both maternal and fetal effects and can reciprocally influence maternal phenotypes: taller maternal stature, higher maternal BMI, and higher maternal blood glucose are associated with larger birth size through maternal effects; in the fetus, the height- and metabolic-risk-increasing alleles are associated with increased and decreased birth size, respectively; alleles raising birth weight in the fetus are associated with shorter gestational duration and higher maternal BP. These maternal and fetal genetic effects may explain the observed associations between the studied maternal phenotypes and birth outcomes, as well as the life-course associations between these birth outcomes and adult phenotypes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Drug Saf ; 43(10): 1035-1044, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651945

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Concerns regarding the increased risk of worsening heart failure with pregabalin have been raised. We assessed the association between use of pregabalin and risk of worsening heart failure in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Denmark using data from nationwide registers, from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2017. The study population consisted of patients 50 years of age or older with a diagnosis of heart failure who were new users of pregabalin or gabapentin (active comparator). We matched a total of 1395 new users of pregabalin to 1395 new users of gabapentin on a propensity score based on 55 covariates. Using proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for worsening heart failure (hospitalization with, or death from, heart failure) within 90 days of the start of treatment. RESULTS: We observed 33 patients with worsening heart failure among users of pregabalin [incidence rate (IR) 105.7 per 1000 person-years] versus 43 patients among users of gabapentin (IR 133.8 per 1000 person-years), corresponding to an HR of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.23]. The corresponding absolute risk difference was - 28.6 (95% CI - 66.8 to 31.3) per 1000 person-years. In sensitivity analysis using duloxetine as an alternative active comparator, including 847 new users of pregabalin and 847 new users of duloxetine, the results were similar (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.60-1.94). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found no evidence to support an association between the use of pregabalin and increased risk of worsening heart failure, compared with gabapentin and duloxetine.

4.
Cell ; 181(7): 1680-1692.e15, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589958

RESUMO

Metabolism during pregnancy is a dynamic and precisely programmed process, the failure of which can bring devastating consequences to the mother and fetus. To define a high-resolution temporal profile of metabolites during healthy pregnancy, we analyzed the untargeted metabolome of 784 weekly blood samples from 30 pregnant women. Broad changes and a highly choreographed profile were revealed: 4,995 metabolic features (of 9,651 total), 460 annotated compounds (of 687 total), and 34 human metabolic pathways (of 48 total) were significantly changed during pregnancy. Using linear models, we built a metabolic clock with five metabolites that time gestational age in high accordance with ultrasound (R = 0.92). Furthermore, two to three metabolites can identify when labor occurs (time to delivery within two, four, and eight weeks, AUROC ≥ 0.85). Our study represents a weekly characterization of the human pregnancy metabolome, providing a high-resolution landscape for understanding pregnancy with potential clinical utilities.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(1): 229-238, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441019

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to describe histopathologic characteristics of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC), and by comparing SBBC to unilateral breast cancer (UBC), identify possible etiological mechanisms of SBBC. METHODS: Patients with primary SBBC (diagnosed within 4 months) and UBC diagnosed in Denmark between 1999 and 2015 were included. Detailed data on histopathology were retrieved from the Danish Breast Cancer Group database and the Danish Pathology Register. Associations between bilateral disease and the different histopathologic characteristics were evaluated by odds ratios and estimated by multinomial regression models. RESULTS: 1214 patients with SBBC and 59,221 with UBC were included. Patients with SBBC more often had invasive lobular carcinomas (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.13-1.47), a clinically distinct subtype of breast cancer, than UBC patients. Further, they were older than UBC patients, more often had multifocal cancer (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.01-1.26), and a less aggressive subtype than UBC patients. Invasive lobular carcinoma was associated with having multiple tumors in breast tissue-both in the form of bilateral disease and multifocal disease, and this association was independent of laterality. No similar pattern was observed for other tumor characteristics. CONCLUSION: We identified two etiological mechanisms that could explain some of the occurrence of SBBC. The high proportion of less aggressive carcinomas and higher age of SBBC compared to UBC patients suggests that many are diagnosed at a subclinical stage as slow-growing tumors have a higher probability of simultaneous diagnosis. The high proportion of invasive lobular carcinoma observed in bilateral and multifocal disease, being independent of laterality, suggests that these patients have an increased propensity to malignant tumor formation in breast tissue.

6.
BMJ ; 369: m1186, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between use of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and risk of serious renal events in data from routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Cohort study using an active comparator, new user design and nationwide register data. SETTING: Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, 2013-18. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of 29 887 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors (follow-up time: dapagliflozin 66.1%; empagliflozin 32.6%; canagliflozin 1.3%) and 29 887 new users of an active comparator, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, matched 1:1 on the basis of a propensity score with 57 variables. Mean follow-up time was 1.7 (SD 1.0) years. EXPOSURES: SGLT2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, defined by filled prescriptions and analysed according to intention to treat. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was serious renal events, a composite including renal replacement therapy, death from renal causes, and hospital admission for renal events. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the main outcome. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 61.3 (SD 10.5) years; 11 108 (19%) had cardiovascular disease, and 1974 (3%) had chronic kidney disease. Use of SGLT2 inhibitors, compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, was associated with a reduced risk of serious renal events (2.6 events per 1000 person years versus 6.2 events per 1000 person years; hazard ratio 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.53); absolute difference -3.6 (-4.4 to -2.8) events per 1000 person years). In secondary outcome analyses, the hazard ratio for use of SGLT2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors was 0.32 (0.22 to 0.47) for renal replacement therapy, 0.41 (0.32 to 0.52) for hospital admission for renal events, and 0.77 (0.26 to 2.23) for death from renal causes. In sensitivity analyses in each of the Swedish and Danish parts of the cohort, the model was further adjusted for glycated haemoglobin and estimated glomerular filtration rate (Sweden and Denmark) and for blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking (Sweden only); in these analyses, the hazard ratio moved from 0.41 (0.26 to 0.66) to 0.50 (0.31 to 0.81) in Sweden and from 0.42 (0.32 to 0.56) to 0.55 (0.41 to 0.74) in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis using nationwide data from three countries, use of SGLT2 inhibitors, compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, was associated with a significantly reduced risk of serious renal events.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
Diabetes Care ; 43(6): 1326-1335, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between use of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and risk of serious renal events in routine clinical practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cohort study using an active-comparator, new-user design and nationwide register data from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway during 2010-2016. The cohort included 38,731 new users of GLP-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide 92.5%, exenatide 6.2%, lixisenatide 0.7%, and dulaglutide 0.6%), matched 1:1 on age, sex, and propensity score to a new user of the active comparator, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The main outcome was serious renal events, a composite including renal replacement therapy, death from renal causes, and hospitalization for renal events. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the main outcome. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox models and an intention-to-treat exposure definition. Mean (SD) follow-up time was 3.0 (1.7) years. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age of the study population was 59 (10) years, and 18% had cardiovascular disease. A serious renal event occurred in 570 users of GLP-1 receptor agonists (incidence rate 4.8 events per 1,000 person-years) and in 722 users of DPP-4 inhibitors (6.3 events per 1,000 person-years, HR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.85], absolute difference -1.5 events per 1,000 person-years [-2.1 to -0.9]). Use of GLP-1 receptor agonists was associated with a significantly lower risk of renal replacement therapy (HR 0.73 [0.62-0.87]) and hospitalization for renal events (HR 0.73 [0.65-0.83]) but not death from renal causes (HR 0.72 [0.48-1.10]). When we used an as-treated exposure definition in which patients were censored at treatment cessation or switch to the other study drug, the HR for the primary outcome was 0.60 (0.49-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients seen in routine clinical practice in three countries, use of GLP-1 receptor agonists, as compared with DPP-4 inhibitors, was associated with a reduced risk of serious renal events.

8.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(10): 2475-2485, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prognosis regarding shunt revision and mortality among hydrocephalus patients below 2 years of age. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the cumulative risks of shunt revision (SR) and mortality and (2) the potential associations between prematurity, low weight for gestational age (LWGA), underlying aetiology, sex, age of the child at shunt placement, and the risk of SR. METHOD: This was a purely register-based cohort study including all shunted hydrocephalic infants in Denmark 1996-2015. The cumulative risks of SR and mortality were estimated using the Aalen-Johansen and Kaplan-Meier estimators, respectively. A multivariable Cox-regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for SR according to the listed patient-related risk factors. RESULTS: Among 374 shunted infantile hydrocephalus patients accounting for 1047 SRs, the 3-month and 1-year cumulative risks of SR were 36% and 50%, respectively. The overall 10-year cumulative mortality was 12%, and for non-tumour subgroups 7-16% (isolated hydrocephalus 7%). The 10-year cumulative mortality for children born with LWGA was 21%. Except for aetiology, we observed no strong overall associations between the investigated risk factors and the risk of SR but interaction analyses for aetiology showed that patients with Dandy-Walker malformation born with LWGA had a higher risk of SR compared to patients of similar aetiology with normal WGA (HR 2.47, 95% CI: 1.39-4.40). CONCLUSIONS: We found very high cumulative risks of SR and mortality among this youngest group of hydrocephalus patients, disregarding aetiology, but none of them were strongly related to the investigated risk factors.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1776, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019971

RESUMO

Identification of individuals at risk of developing disease comorbidities represents an important task in tackling the growing personal and societal burdens associated with chronic diseases. We employed machine learning techniques to investigate to what extent data from longitudinal, nationwide Danish health registers can be used to predict individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) comorbidities. Leveraging logistic regression-, random forest- and gradient boosting models and register data spanning hospitalizations, drug prescriptions and contacts with primary care contractors from >200,000 individuals newly diagnosed with T2D, we predicted five-year risk of heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke (ST), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). For HF, MI, CVD, and CKD, register-based models outperformed a reference model leveraging canonical individual characteristics by achieving area under the receiver operating characteristic curve improvements of 0.06, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.07, respectively. The top 1,000 patients predicted to be at highest risk exhibited observed incidence ratios exceeding 4.99, 3.52, 1.97 and 4.71 respectively. In summary, prediction of T2D comorbidities utilizing Danish registers led to consistent albeit modest performance improvements over reference models, suggesting that register data could be leveraged to systematically identify individuals at risk of developing disease comorbidities.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 526-535, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prepregnancy diabetes, especially when severely dysregulated, is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring. This suggests that glucose plays a role in embryonic heart development. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between midpregnancy dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring. METHODS: Offspring of mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort who filled out a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering midpregnancy dietary intake were included. Individual-level information on GI and GL, offspring congenital heart defects, and health and lifestyle covariates was linked. The association between GI and GL and offspring congenital heart defects was estimated by logistic regression. Further, we evaluated whether maternal intake of sugar-sweetened drinks increased the risk of offspring congenital heart defects. RESULTS: In total, 66,387 offspring of women who responded to the FFQ were included; among offspring, 543 had a congenital heart defect. The adjusted OR (aOR) of congenital heart defects among offspring of mothers belonging to the highest versus the lowest GI quintile was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.34; P-trend = 0.86). Results were similar for GL (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.24). A high intake of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (highest vs lowest intake-aOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26, 4.64; P-trend = 0.03). No association was found with other types of beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not support an association between a high GI and GL in midpregnancy and increased offspring risk of congenital heart defects. Nevertheless, a statistically significant association between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages and a moderately increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects was observed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(1): e1008544, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978080

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of the small and isolated Greenlandic population is advantageous for identification of novel genetic variants associated with cardio-metabolic traits. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with body mass index (BMI), to expand the knowledge of the genetic and biological mechanisms underlying obesity. Stage 1 BMI-association analyses were performed in 4,626 Greenlanders. Stage 2 replication and meta-analysis were performed in additional cohorts comprising 1,058 Yup'ik Alaska Native people, and 1,529 Greenlanders. Obesity-related traits were assessed in the stage 1 study population. We identified a common variant on chromosome 11, rs4936356, where the derived G-allele had a frequency of 24% in the stage 1 study population. The derived allele was genome-wide significantly associated with lower BMI (beta (SE), -0.14 SD (0.03), p = 3.2x10-8), corresponding to 0.64 kg/m2 lower BMI per G allele in the stage 1 study population. We observed a similar effect in the Yup'ik cohort (-0.09 SD, p = 0.038), and a non-significant effect in the same direction in the independent Greenlandic stage 2 cohort (-0.03 SD, p = 0.514). The association remained genome-wide significant in meta-analysis of the Arctic cohorts (-0.10 SD (0.02), p = 4.7x10-8). Moreover, the variant was associated with a leaner body type (weight, -1.68 (0.37) kg; waist circumference, -1.52 (0.33) cm; hip circumference, -0.85 (0.24) cm; lean mass, -0.84 (0.19) kg; fat mass and percent, -1.66 (0.33) kg and -1.39 (0.27) %; visceral adipose tissue, -0.30 (0.07) cm; subcutaneous adipose tissue, -0.16 (0.05) cm, all p<0.0002), lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.12 (0.04), p = 0.00021), and favorable lipid levels (triglyceride, -0.05 (0.02) mmol/l, p = 0.025; HDL-cholesterol, 0.04 (0.01) mmol/l, p = 0.0015). In conclusion, we identified a novel variant, where the derived G-allele possibly associated with lower BMI in Arctic populations, and as a consequence also leaner body type, lower insulin resistance, and a favorable lipid profile.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Inuítes/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adiposidade , Colesterol/sangue , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Groenlândia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Metaboloma , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 71-77, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A man's risk of prostate cancer has been linked to his prior reproductive history, with low sperm quality, low ejaculation frequency, and a low number of offspring being associated with increased prostate cancer risk. It is, however, highly controversial whether vasectomy, a common sterilization procedure for men, influences prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We established a cohort of all Danish men (born between 1937 and 1996) and linked information on vasectomy, doctor visits, socioeconomic factors, and cancer from nationwide registries using unique personal identification numbers. Incidence risk ratios for prostate cancer by time since vasectomy and age at vasectomy during the follow-up were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, 26 238 cases of prostate cancer occurred among 2 150 162 Danish men during 53.4 million person-years of follow-up. Overall, vasectomized men had an increased risk of prostate cancer compared with nonvasectomized men (relative risk = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.20). The increased risk of prostate cancer following vasectomy persisted for at least 30 years after the procedure and was observed regardless of age at vasectomy and cancer stage at diagnosis. Adjustment for the number of visits to the doctor and socioeconomic factors did not explain the association. CONCLUSIONS: Vasectomy is associated with a statistically significantly increased long-term risk of prostate cancer. The absolute increased risk following vasectomy is nevertheless small, but our finding supports a relationship between reproductive factors and prostate cancer risk.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(6): 1186-1192, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported a high risk of ischemic stroke (IS) during the acute phase of infective endocarditis (IE). The long-term risk of IS after IE, however, is not fully illuminated. METHODS: This Danish, nationwide, register-based, propensity score-matched cohort study used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of IS for persons with vs without a history of left-sided IE, from 1977 to 2015. RESULTS: We followed 9312 patients exposed to a first-time IE and 91 996 nonexposed, matched control persons. Compared to persons without IE, patients with a history of IE had a significantly increased risk of IS; the risk was highest during the first 4 weeks after IE diagnosis (HR 57.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 45.58-71.78; P < .0001) and a moderately elevated risk persisted until 2 years after IE (4 weeks to 3 months after IE, HR 5.40, 95% CI 4.11-7.19; 3 months to 2 years after IE, HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.48-2.01). Mediation analyses showed that the higher risk of IS the first 2 years after IE could not be explained by atrial fibrillation (AF) or inserted mechanical valves in IE patients. In the period from 4 weeks to 3 months after IE diagnosis, patients treated with anticoagulative therapy had a lower risk of IS (HR 0.30, 95% CI .10-0.96; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of IE had an increased risk of IS for up to 2 years after IE diagnosis. The increased risk was unrelated to AF and inserted mechanical valves. During the initial phase after IE, patients taking an anticoagulative medication had a lower risk of IS.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(1): 70-79, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-pregnancy diabetes is a strong risk factor for congenital heart defects (CHDs), suggesting a role for glucose in the causal pathway. Oral corticosteroids may cause hyperglycemia and maternal use could affect embryonic heart development. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal intake of oral corticosteroids 0-8 weeks after conception and CHDs in offspring. METHODS: A register-based nationwide prevalence study including all live singleton births in Denmark, 1996-2016, was conducted. In total, 1 194 687 individuals and their mothers were identified and linked with information on offspring CHDs and the mothers' use of oral corticosteroids in early pregnancy. Corticosteroid use was defined as a filled prescription for maternal use of oral corticosteroid 0-8 weeks after conception. CHDs were identified through International Classification of Diseases codes. The association was estimated by prevalence (odds) ratios using logistic regression and propensity score-matched analyses. RESULTS: Among 1 194 687 live births, 2032 had a mother who had used oral corticosteroids 0-8 weeks from conception. Of these offspring, 32 had a heart defect. Among the offspring of never-users of oral corticosteroids, 10 534 had a heart defect. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.84) comparing offspring prevalence of heart defects in oral corticosteroid users with that in oral corticosteroid never-users. Propensity score-matched analysis yielded similar results (prevalence ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports that there is no association between maternal use of oral corticosteroids in the first 8 weeks after conception and CHDs.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618442

RESUMO

The humoral immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) stratified by EBV tumor status is unclear. We examined IgG and IgA antibody responses against 202 protein sequences representing 86 EBV proteins using a microarray and sera from 139 EBV-positive cHL cases, 70 EBV-negative cHL cases and 141 population-based controls frequency matched to EBV-positive cHL cases on sex and age by area (UK, Denmark and Sweden). We leveraged existing data on the proportion of circulating B-cells infected by EBV and levels of serum CCL17, a chemokine secreted by cHL tumor cells, from a subset of the cHL cases in the UK. Total IgG but not IgA response level was significantly different between EBV-positive cHL cases and controls. The distinct serological response included significant elevations in 16 IgG antibodies and 2 IgA antibodies, with odds ratioshighest vs. lowest tertile > 3 observed for the following EBV proteins: LMP1 (oncogene), BcLF1 (VCAp160, two variants) and BBLF1 (two variants). Our cHL IgG signature correlated with the proportion of circulating EBV-infected B-cells, but not serum CCL17 levels. We observed no differences in the anti-EBV antibody profile between EBV-negative cHL cases and controls. BdRF1(VCAp40)-IgG and BZLF1(Zta)-IgG were identified as the serological markers best able to distinguish EBV-positive from EBV-negative cHL tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in the EBV antibody profile are specific to patients with EBV-positive cHL and are not universally observed as part of a systematically dysregulated immune response present in all cHL cases.

19.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(11): 845-853, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown an association between use of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibitors and increased risk of serious infection in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data on this topic for paediatric patients are scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the use of TNFα inhibitors and the risk of serious infection in children with IBD. METHODS: In this nationwide Danish cohort study, we searched health registers (from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2016) to identify episodes of children and adolescents (<18 years) with at least two recorded IBD diagnoses in specialist care. We categorised follow-up time in mutually exclusive episodes of incident TNFα inhibitor use or no TNFα inhibitor use from specialist care records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting using propensity score weighting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, treatment history, health-care use, and indicators of disease severity. The primary outcome, incident serious infection, was defined as infection requiring a stay in hospital and was identified through hospital records. FINDINGS: Among 2817 paediatric patients with IBD, we identified 618 episodes of incident TNFα inhibitor use and 2925 episodes of no TNFα inhibitor use. In the cohort of exposed and not exposed episodes that was propensity-score weighted, 53·9% were of male sex, the mean age was 15·1 (SD 1·7) years, 69·9% had Crohn's disease, and 30·1% had ulcerative colitis or IBD-unclassified; median follow-up was 1·4 years (IQR 0·4-3·0). The weighted incidence of serious infection was 54·6 events per 1000 patient-years for the TNFα inhibitor episodes and 61·9 events per 1000 patient-years for the no-use episodes. The weighted HR of serious infection associated with TNFα inhibitor use was 0·81 (95% CI 0·54-1·21). INTERPRETATION: There was no significant association between use of TNFα inhibitors and the risk of serious infection in children with IBD, and, based on the upper bound of the confidence interval, a relatively small risk increase seems unlikely, contrary to previous findings in adults. Observational data such as these can support paediatric clinical practice. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council, Frimurare Barnhuset Foundation, and the Åke Wiberg Foundation.

20.
BMJ ; 366: l4693, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between pregnancy duration and risk of endometrial cancer. DESIGN: Nationwide register based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish women born from 1935 to 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (incidence rate ratio) of endometrial cancer by pregnancy number, type, and duration, estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 2 311 332 Danish women with 3 947 650 pregnancies, 6743 women developed endometrial cancer during 57 347 622 person years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, period, and socioeconomic factors, a first pregnancy was associated with a noticeably reduced risk of endometrial cancer, whether it ended in induced abortion (adjusted relative risk 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.64) or childbirth (0.66, 0.61 to 0.72). Each subsequent pregnancy was associated with an additional reduction in risk, whether it ended in induced abortion (0.81, 0.77 to 0.86) or childbirth (0.86, 0.84 to 0.89). Duration of pregnancy, age at pregnancy, spontaneous abortions, obesity, maternal birth cohort, fecundity, and socioeconomic factors did not modify the results. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of endometrial cancer is reduced regardless of whether a pregnancy ends shortly after conception or at 40 weeks of gestation. This reduction in risk could be explained by a biological process occurring within the first weeks of pregnancy, as pregnancies ending in induced abortions were associated with similar reductions in risk as pregnancies ending in childbirth.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
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