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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 115: 152-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25700093

RESUMO

Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agaricales/genética , Micélio/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Espanha
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 73: 44-50, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25128776

RESUMO

The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Arsênico/análise , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espanha
3.
Rev. toxicol ; 30(2): 161-164, jul.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-126295

RESUMO

Las setas son captadoras de 137Cesio, radionucleido artificial de origen antropogénico, y en España apenas hay datos sobre la presencia de 137Cs en hongos silvestres comestibles. El objeto de este trabajo fue determinar los niveles de 137Cs en las principales especies de hongos silvestres comerciales de Galicia y valorar la influencia de diversos factores en su captación y sus repercusiones alimentarias. Se recogieron 54 muestras de hongos (9 especies silvestres y 5 cultivadas), siendo procesadas y analizadas mediante espectrometría gamma de germanio hiperpuro (HPGe). Como resultados, la concentración media de 137Cs en los hongos silvestres fue 249,2 Bq/kg peso seco (p.s.), equivalente a 24,9 Bq/kg peso fresco (p.f.). La especie más acumuladora fue Hydnum repandum (1016,4 Bq/kg p.s.) y las especies cultivadas mostraron niveles muy inferiores (1,6 Bq/kg p.s.). La contaminación por 137Cs probablemente tenga su origen en el accidente de Chernóbil, aunque con niveles mucho más bajos a los de países próximos al lugar del desastre. La acumulación por hongos estuvo favorecida por su ecología micorrízica, cuyo micelio se distribuye en horizontes del suelo contaminado; asimismo, factores genéticos (especie) influyeron en la captación. En este estudio, ninguna muestra alcanzó el límite de 600 Bq/kg p.f. indicado en la legislación europea vigente (aproximadamente 6000 Bq/kg p.s. referido a hongos si tenemos en cuenta el nivel medio habitual de peso seco del 10%), concluyendo que no existe riesgo alimentario asociado al consumo habitual de las especies de hongos comerciales recogidos en Galicia (AU)


Mushrooms can capture the artificial radionuclide 137Cesium and in Spain there are no data on the presence of 137Cs in wild edible mushrooms. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of 137Cs in the main commercial wild mushroom species in Galicia and assess the influence of various factors on its uptake and its implications in food safety. 54 samples of fungi (9 wild and five cultivated) were collected, being processed and analyzed by gamma spectrometry hyperpure germanium (HPGe). As results, the average concentration of 137Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2 Bq/kg dry weight (dw), about 24.9 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). Hydnum repandum was the most accumulator species (1016.4 Bq/kg dw), and the cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6 Bq/kg dw). 137Cs contamination, probably, has its origin in the Chernobyl accident, although with far lower levels than those of countries close to the disaster site. The accumulation was favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium is distributed in contaminated soil horizons; also, genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake. In this study, no sample reached the limit of 600 Bq/kg fw, indicated in the European legislation (about 6000 Bq/kg dw based on fungi, if we consider the usual average of 10% dry weight in these matrices), concluding that there is no health risk associated with the regular consumption of fungal species collected commercial in Galicia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/isolamento & purificação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Agrocybe/efeitos da radiação , Alimentos/toxicidade , Análise de Alimentos/métodos
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 58: 249-54, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23643799

RESUMO

Chromium concentrations were determined in 167 samples of wild edible mushrooms, collected from three different sites (urban, traffic and pastureland areas) in Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest mean chromium levels (mg/kg dry weight) of 3.5 and 8.0, 4.5 and 6.2, and 6.2 and 4.3 were found in Lycoperdon utriforme, Coprinus comatus and Agaricus campestris in H and RFB, respectively. The highest concentrations of chromium were observed in terrestrial saprophytic species in relation to mycorrhizal species. With respect to the underlying substrates, chromium concentration was lowest in the pastureland area (24.6 mg/kg dw). All mushroom species were bioexclusors of chromium (BCF<1) with statistically significant differences (p<0.001). The consumption of mushrooms harvested from the areas investigated poses no toxicological risk to human health due to chromium.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Espectral/métodos
5.
Rev. toxicol ; 29(1): 29-35, ene.-jun. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-111464

RESUMO

El Servicio de Atención Toxicológica Veterinaria (SATVe), localizado en la Facultad de Veterinaria de Lugo (USC), tiene por función resolver problemas relacionados con la toxicología clínica veterinaria remitidos por los profesionales a través de consultas mediante técnicas telemáticas y analíticas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la casuística toxicológica del servicio durante el período 2001-2007 en relación con diversos aspectos: origen geográfico de la demanda, tipo de solicitud efectuada, usuarios solicitantes, especies animales afectadas y tóxicos implicados. Respecto a la casuística, aumentó considerablemente los primeros años, observándose posteriormente una tendencia al mantenimiento de unos 100 casos anuales, siendo esta mayoritariamente procedente de Galicia (92,2%), según orden decreciente: Lugo > Pontevedra > A Coruña > Ourense. La mayoría de las consultas se originaron por profesionales veterinarios (71,6%) frente a la Administración (13,2%) y los particulares (12,3%). Los casos que más se remitieron, procedían de la especie canina (48,7%) seguido de la equina (12,3%), ocupando los félidos la tercera posición (8,4%). Respecto a las analíticas, los tóxicos mayoritariamente detectados (48%) fueron estricnina, metiocarb y fenobarbital (AU)


The function of the Veterinary Toxicology Attention Service (SATVe), located at the Veterinary School of Lugo (USC), is to solve questions of veterinary clinical and analytical toxicology submitted by health professionals through telematics consultations and to provides analytical techniques. This work analyzes the toxicological casuistry of the period 2001-2007 on different aspects: geographical origin of consultations, type of request, requesting users, animal species affected and toxic compounds involved. Regarding the casuistry, significantly increased the first years, later observed an evolution to the maintenance of about 100 cases a year, this being mainly from Galicia (92.2%), according to the decreasing order: Lugo > Pontevedra > A Coruña > Ourense. Most queries were originated from veterinary practitioners (71.6%) compared to government agencies (13.2%) and private users (12.3%). Most of the cases referreed, came from canines (48.7%), followed by equines (12.3%), occupying the third place felines (8.4%). Regarding toxicological analysis, the main toxic compounds detected (48%) were strychnine, methiocarb and phenobarbital (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Toxicologia/métodos , Envenenamento/complicações , Envenenamento/veterinária , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/tendências , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Exposição a Praguicidas , Inseticidas Organoclorados
6.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 45(7): 595-600, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20803361

RESUMO

Residue levels of seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), widely used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or in crops used for animal feed, were determined in raw milk and infant formulas. A total of 312 samples were collected (70 from infant formulas and 242 from raw milk) biweekly during a 24-month period. Pesticides were extracted by means of a solid phase system into acetone. An extract aliquot of acetone was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. Recoveries of pesticides spiked in milk samples were 62.2 - 97.2 %. The frequency of total samples containing detectable levels of OPP residues was 6.73 % in total milk and 8.67 % in raw milk. The highest percentage incidence measured was for dichlorvos (5.78 %), followed by coumaphos (2.06 %), and parathion methyl (0.83 %). The range of positive results was calculated to be between 0.005 and 0.220 mg kg(- 1). No residue was detected in the final product (infant formulas), so any risk to consumer health, especially to children's health, would be limited.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Leite/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Lactente , Espanha
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 407(20): 5328-34, 2009 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19631362

RESUMO

Wild growing mushrooms are a popular delicacy in many countries, but some species accumulate high levels of toxic heavy metals, e.g., mercury, both in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of mercury in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Total concentrations of mercury were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using a gold disc as the working electrode in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The mushrooms were collected from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean mercury concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were found in Boletus pinophilus (6.9 in H and 4.5 in RFB), Agaricus macrosporus (5.1 in H and 3.7 in RFB), Lepista nuda (5.1 in H and 3.1 in RFB) and Boletus aereus (4.6 in H and 3.3 in RFB), while the lowest was found in Agrocybe cylindrica (0.34 in H and 0.26 in RFB) and Fistulina hepatica (0.30 in H and 0.22 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated mercury (BCF>1) in relation to the underlying soils. There were no statistically significant differences between the mercury levels in the hymenophore and in the rest of the fruiting body. The total mercury concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of the majority of the studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as mercury content is concerned, although the species B.pinophilus, A.macrosporus, L.nuda and B.aereus should be consumed in low amounts.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Alimentos , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Compostos de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espanha
8.
Rev. toxicol ; 25(1/3): 38-41, 2008. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-77902

RESUMO

La polución metálica medioambiental ha incrementado notablemente el interés por los hongos por ser captadores de metales pesados. Nutricionalmente, el cromo puede considerarse incluso un oligoelemento, pero en dosis excesivas es nocivo para la salud. Los objetivos planteados son la determinación del contenido de cromo en setas comestibles silvestres, el análisis estadístico de factores que influyen en su captación, y finalmente la evaluación del riesgo toxicológico derivado de su consumo. Para realizar este estudio, se recogieron 97 muestras de setas comestibles de 14 especies procedentes de dos zonas diferenciadas en razón de la mayor o menor contaminación antropogénica en la provincia de Lugo (Galicia, España). Considerando separadamente las porciones anatómicas, himenóforo y resto del carpóforo, fueron procesadas por digestión húmeda en medio ácido para analizar el contenido de cromo por Espectroscopia Óptica con Plasma acoplado inductivamente. Los datos obtenidos fueron tratados estadísticamente mediante el Programa SPSS. Como resultados, cabe destacar que la especie Tricholoma portentosumfue la que menor cantidad de cromo acumuló (0,77 ppm), tanto en el himenóforo (0,88 ppm) como en el resto del carpóforo (0,72ppm); por el contrario Agaricus campestris presentó el mayor contenido de cromo (4,86 ppm). El pH del suelo sólo afectó estadísticamente a la captación de cromo en el resto del carpóforo, dependiendo a su vez de los factores especie, tráfico y materia orgánica del suelo. Sólo se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para los niveles de cromo según la parte anatómica para Boletus edulis y Boletus badius. Desde el punto de vista toxicológico, teniendo en cuenta la participación de las setas en la dieta, puede considerarse que su aporte de cromo, no supone riesgo para la saluddel consumidor (AU)


The environmental metallic pollution has increased notably the interest to the mushrooms for its accumulation capacity of heavy metals. From the nutritional point of view, chromium can be considered even a trace element, but in excessive dose is a toxic for the health. The objectives in this work are the determination of chromium content in wild edible mushrooms, the analysis of statistic factors that influence its uptake, and finally the evaluation of the toxicological risk derivative from its consumption. To carry out this study, 97 edible mushroom samples of 14 species from two differentiated zones in reason of great or smaller pollution in the province of Lugo (Galicia, Spain) were collected. The samples were divided in two anatomical portions, hymenophore and the rest of the fruit body, processed by wet digestion in the acid medium and analyzed its chromium content by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer. The obtained data were treated statistically through the Program SPSS.As result, the specie, Tricholoma portentosum accumulated chromium in minor quantity (0.77 ppm), in the hymenophore (0.88ppm) as well as in the rest of the fruit body (0.72 ppm); in contrast, Agaricus campestris presented the highest concentration of chromium (4.86 ppm). Soil pH only affected statistically to the chromium uptake in the rest of the fruit body, depending at the same time on the factors specie, traffic and organic matter of the soil. Differences statistically significant only were observed in Boletus edulis and Boletus badius according to the anatomical part. From the toxicological point of view, taking into account the participation of the mushrooms in the human diet, it can be considered that its chromium contribution, it does not suppose risk for the health of the consumer (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos em Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos , Agaricales/química , Cromo/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 385(1-3): 12-9, 2007 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17692896

RESUMO

Fungi such as Agaricus macrosporus show potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions contaminated by zinc, copper, mercury, cadmium or lead. This study investigated biosorption of these metals by living or non-living biomass of A. macrosporus from an acid solution, an acid solution supplemented with potassium and phosphorus, and an alkaline solution. Uptake showed a pH-dependent profile. Maximum percentage uptake of all metals was found to occur at alkaline pH (Cu 96%, Pb 89%). With living biomass, metal biosorption was greater and faster in K/P-supplemented acid medium than in non-supplemented acid medium, with equilibrium reached within 15 min for all metals, and the highest percentage uptake being of cadmium (96%). In general, the greatest differences in biosorption capacity were seen for living biomass, between supplemented and non-supplemented acid medium; the smallest differences were between living and dead biomass in alkaline medium. These results support the potential utility of A. macrosporus for heavy metal removal.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Adsorção , Agaricus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Cinética , Soluções , Água
10.
Chemosphere ; 65(10): 1801-5, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16735049

RESUMO

The presence of heavy metals in composts is a main cause of adverse effects on animal and human health, transmitted through the food chain from the soil, groundwater and plants. In this study, the contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu present in co-composts of poultry manure (liquid or solid) with a co-composting material (barley wastes or chestnut burr/leaf litter) were assessed. A compost of solid manure was used as control because a compost cannot be obtained from the liquid manure. The original solid poultry manure showed a Zn content of 2134+/-75 mg/kg, exceeding the current legal limit in Spain of 1100 mg/kg. In the solid poultry manure co-compost with chestnut burr/leaf litter and barley wastes, Zn content decreased to 813+/-25 mg/kg and 883+/-37 mg/kg, respectively. The contents in heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) of the co-composts were under the maximum limit permitted under the Spanish legislation, excepting for the Zn level in liquid poultry manure co-composted with chestnut burr/leaf litter.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Aves Domésticas , Solo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Animais , Folhas de Planta , Resíduos
11.
Rev. toxicol ; 23(1): 7-10, 2006. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-66503

RESUMO

La utilización de plaguicidas en las labores agrícolas y tratamientos ganaderos, parece hoy en día insustituible, pudiendo generar residuos en los alimentos. En este estudio se ha determinado la presencia en leche de plaguicidas que actualmente tienen un amplio uso, organofosforados y triazinas, y valorando la posible contaminación de las rutas de recogida de leche que ha de ser utilizada en una industria de transformación láctea. En total se han recogido 242 muestras procedentes de 15 rutas de recogida de la parte occidental de Asturias y oriental de la provincia de Lugo (Galicia). Para la determinación de estas sustancias se ha utilizado un cromatógrafo de gases con detector de nitrógeno-fósforo. Los porcentajes de aparición de los plaguicidas estudiados fueron: terbutilazina (6,20%), diclorvos (5,78%), simazina (4,96%), atrazina (4,96%), cumafos (2,06%), y metil paration (0,83%). Considerando estos resultados y comparando las diversas rutas de recogida, se detectó mayor presencia de triazinas en Galicia que en Asturias, y respecto a los organofosforados en las rutas pertenecientes a la costa frente a las de interior


The use of pesticides in agricultural labours and cattleman treatments seems today irreplaceable, being able to generate residues in the foods. In this study has been determined the presence in cow milk of pesticides that currently have a wide use, organophosphorous and triazines, and valuing the possible pollution of the routes of milk withdrawal that there has of be used in a milky transformation industry. In total, 242 samples have been collected originating from 15 withdrawal routes of the western part of Asturias and eastern of the province of Lugo (Galicia). For the determination of these substances, a gas chromatograph with a nitrogenphosphorous detector has been used. The percentages of appearance of the pesticides studied were: terbuthylazine (6.20%), dichlorvos (5.78%), simazine (4.96%), atrazine (4.96%), coumaphos (2.06%), and methyl parathion (0.83%). Considering these results and comparing the various withdrawal routes, was detected greater presence of triazines in Galicia than in Asturias and with respect to the organophosphorous in the routes belonging to the coast as compared to those of interior


Assuntos
Leite/química , Inseticidas Organofosforados/isolamento & purificação , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
12.
Rev. toxicol ; 22(1): 25-29, ene.-abr. 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-66481

RESUMO

Las triazinas son uno de los grupos de herbicidas más frecuentemente utilizados en las labores agrícolas. Habitualmente su extracción se realiza mediante métodos líquidolíquido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la puesta a punto del método de extracción de la diálisis difásica para análisis de las triazinas en leches maternizadas. Para ello se utilizó un agitador orbital y membranas de diálisis visking 20/32“, llegando a establecerse como condiciones ideales: temperatura, 34 ºC; velocidad de agitación, 200 rpm; disolvente de extracción, iclorometano, y tiempo de extracción, 4 h. La identificación de los herbicidas y la validación del método analítico siguiendo la normativa vigente se realizó utilizando un cromatógrafo de gases con detector de nitrógeno-fósforo. Los tiempos de retención y las recuperaciones obtenidas para cada una de las triazinas fueron: simazina 6,95 min y 75,3 %; atrazina 17,18 min y 116 % y terbutilazina 17,75 min y 88,7 %, res-pectivamente. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se puede concluir que es un buen método de extracción para el análisis de estos posibles contaminantes en leches maternizadas


Triazines are one of the groups of herbicides most frequently used in agricultural labor. Generally, their analyses were carried out with liquid to liquid extraction methods. The aim of this work was to set up diphasic dialysis as an extraction method for the analysis of triazines in milk (infant formulas). An orbital agitator and membranes of dialysis visking 20/32” were used, establishing the following as ideal conditions: temperature, 34 ºC; agitation speed, 200 rpm; extraction solvent, dichloromethane, and extraction time, 4 h. The identification of the herbicides and the validation of the analytical method continuing the outstanding regulation were carried out by using a gas chromatograph with nitrogenphosphorus detector. The retention times and the recoveries obtained for each herbicide from the triazines were: simazine, 16.95 min and 75.30 %; atrazine, 17.18 min and 116.00 % andterbutilazine, 17.75 min and 88.70 %, respectively. According to these results, we can conclude that it is a good extraction method for the analysis of these possible milk pollutants


Assuntos
Diálise/métodos , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Substitutos do Leite/química , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos
13.
Rev. toxicol ; 21(1): 11-15, 2004.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-32544

RESUMO

Se presenta un estudio sobre la presencia de metales pesados (cadmio, mercurio, plomo, cobre y zinc) en 238 muestras de carpóforos pertenecientes a 28 especies comestibles de hongos silvestres en la provincia de Lugo. El método analítico para la determinación de metales ha sido la Voltamperometría de redisolución anódica. Se ha estudiado la incidencia de los siguientes factores en la acumulación de metales en los hongos: especie, ecología (micorrízicas, saprófitas terrícolas, saprófitas lignícolas y saprófitas cultivadas) y parte anatómica del carpóforo (himenóforo y resto del carpóforo). Las especies saprófitas terrícolas muestran las máximas concentraciones metálicas, siendo las más bajas las de las especies lignícolas y cultivadas. Individualmente las especies más relevantes han sido: Agaricus macrosporus para el cadmio, Boletus pinophillus, para el mercurio; Coprinus comatus y Lepista rauda para el plomo, Macrolepiota procesa para el cobre, y Calvatia utriformis y Lactarius deliciosus para el zinc. El himenóforo es la parte anatómica que muestra mayores niveles de metales. (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Agaricales , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Zinco/isolamento & purificação , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Cádmio/isolamento & purificação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14672319

RESUMO

In the present work, both seawater and limpets (Patella vulgata L.) were collected from different sampling points in the Vigo estuary area (Galicia, NW Spain) and their heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu) were determined by means of a voltammetric technique. The results showed a direct relationship between the heavy metal levels in seawater and the content in biological samples, especially those obtained from limpet soft tissues, directly related to the increasing importance of anthropogenic environmental contamination. Heavy metal concentrations were usually higher in soft tissues than in shell, with a maximum difference corresponding to Cd and Zn (average of 93.6 and 86 folds, respectively). As expected, heavy metal content was higher in animal samples situated in inner part of the estuary zone, except for cadmium content in soft tissues, where a maximum of 5.62 ppm was quantified in limpet soft tissues collected next to the open sea area. Statistical analysis allowed the establishment of a clear relationship between Zn and Cd content in both shells and soft tissues from limpet, and especially between Zn and Cu in soft tissues (p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Moluscos/química , Poluentes da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Metais Pesados/análise , Água do Mar/química , Espanha , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes da Água/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12716067

RESUMO

With the aim of assessing the potability of drinking water, 31 different springs sited along the road to Santiago "The French Way" in Galicia (NW Spain) were studied. Twenty-one parameters, according to Spanish Legislation have been determined by Official Methods. It was observed that the parameters: pH, nitrate, ammonia, total coliforms, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococcus did not always comply with the levels established by Spanish Legislation. The bacteriological characters were the most restrictive of the sanitary quality of drinking water, only 19% of the springs were drinkable during all the study. According to the Factorial Analysis in Principal Component applied to the obtained results, it was concluded that the parameters: conductivity, hardness, dry residue, nitrate and fecal coliforms can be very indicative for assessing water sanitary quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água , Amônia/análise , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Nitratos/análise , Espanha , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Rev. toxicol ; 20(1): 19-22, ene.-abr. 2003. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-17724

RESUMO

El empleo de seres vivos para monitorizar la contaminación por metales pesados en los ecosistemas acuáticos es de extremo interés en el campo de la ecotoxicología. En el presente estudio se han recogido muestras de agua marina y de lapas (Patella vulgata L.) de distintos puntos de la Ría de Vigo, con la intención de determinar en ellos los niveles de plomo y cadmio, por medio de una técnica de voltamperometría. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron una relación estrecha entre los niveles hallados en las muestras de agua, y los encontrados en los moluscos, sobre todo los correspondientes a los tejidos blandos de lapas, relacionándose directamente a un incremento en la contaminación medioambiental. La concentración fue más elevada en los tejidos blandos que en la valva, especialmente en el caso del Cd (incremento aproximado de 93.6 veces). Los niveles de contaminación metálica fueron mayores en los animales recogidos en la zona interior de la Ría, salvo en el caso del cadmio presente en los tejidos blandos, donde la concentración máxima (5.62 ppm) correspondió con muestras próximas al mar abierto. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Água do Mar/análise , Moluscos/química , Chumbo/análise , Cádmio/análise , Poluição do Mar , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fauna Marinha
17.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 44(2): 180-8, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12520390

RESUMO

Copper and zinc contents have been determined in up to 28 species of edible mushrooms from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain). Two hundred thirty-eight collected samples were analyzed by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using a drop mercury as the working electrode. The results showed that the element concentrations were species-dependent, and the highest metal levels corresponded to the following species: Calvatia utriformis (235.5 mg Cu/kg), Macrolepiota procera (217.8 mg Cu/kg), and Agaricus macrosporus (217.7 mg Cu/kg) and Calvatia utriformis (265.8 mg Zn/kg), Lactarius delicious (231.0 mg Zn/kg), and Agaricus macrosporus (221.3 mg Zn/kg) for Cu and Zn, respectively. All mushroom species bioaccumulated copper and zinc. Nevertheless, some individual samples of the species, such as Hydnum repandum, Cantharellus cibarius, and Coprinus comatus, were bioexclusors (BCF < 1). The hymenophore in mushrooms showed higher mean metal levels than the rest of the fruit bodies, with statistically significant differences. The copper and zinc concentrations were compared to literature data and levels set by legislation. It can be concluded that the consumption of these mushrooms cannot be considered a toxicological risk, and they provide an important nutritional requirement to the diet.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cobre/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Zinco/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Espanha
18.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 131(2): 207-13, 2002 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11879788

RESUMO

In the present report, an efficient method for isolating multiple cytosolic forms of glutathione S-transferases from liver and kidney cytosolic samples of two salmonid species (brown trout and Atlantic salmon) is described, and some of the multiple properties of these enzymes are presented. Glutathione S-transferases were partially purified by low-pressure affinity chromatography on a column with glutathione coupled to agarose, which retained an average of 89.47% of the total activity. The GST activity was appropriated towards CDNB and ETHA as substrates. The application of an HPLC system associated to elestrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed the identification of five GST cytosolic isoforms, corresponding to subunits with M(r) between 23,700 and 26,900 Da being the main form, with retention time of 17 min, a pi-class-related GST isoenzyme.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/química , Isoenzimas/química , Salmão/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia em Agarose , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citosol/enzimologia , Glutationa Transferase/isolamento & purificação , Isoenzimas/isolamento & purificação , Rim/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Peso Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 38(2): 158-62, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10629276

RESUMO

The levels of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems are generally very low, but the strong accumulation in some species of macrofungi is an exception from this rule. Mercury contents of 41 samples of edible mushrooms fruiting bodies representing eight species (six wild and two cultivated) were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique (ASV) using a gold disc as the working electrode. Wild fungi were collected in unpolluted and polluted areas in the Province of Lugo (NW Spain). Influence of some factors (ecology, species, traffic pollution, and morphological portion) and the importance of mushrooms as a dietary source of mercury have been studied. Wild saprophytic species showed higher levels (ppm DW) than mycorrhizals species, with the exception of Boletus pinicola. There were significant differences according to the species analyzed (p < 0.001), the highest average content of mercury was found in Boletus pinicola (7.37 ppm DW), and the range was 0.35-33.07 ppm DW for hymenophore and 0.18-20.30 ppm DW for the rest of the fruit body. The cultivated species accumulated lower than wild species because the mean life is shorter. The traffic pollution factor did not show significant differences, so mushrooms are not realiable bioindicators of traffic pollution by mercury. Hymenophore was always the morphological portion that contained the highest mercury levels (p < 0.05), and the mean ratio of hymenophore/rest of the fruit body was 2.13. The mercury concentrations were compared to literature data and levels set by legislation, and the contribution of mushrooms to the weekly intake of mercury per person was evaluated. The possible health risk for people is pointed out.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Alimentos/normas , Mercúrio/análise , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Ecossistema , Eletroquímica/métodos , Eletrodos , Poluição Ambiental , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
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