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1.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 5, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563979

RESUMO

A correct use of inhaler devices is essential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. Critical errors were studied by analysing 659 video-recorded demonstrations of inhaler technique from 364 COPD patients using six different inhaler device models. The majority of the included patients used two (55%) or more (20%) device models. Overall, 66% of the patients made ≥1 critical error with at least one device model. The corresponding numbers for patients using 1, 2 and ≥3 device models were 43%, 70% and 86%, respectively. The only factor associated with making ≥1 critical error was simultaneous use of two (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 3.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.81, 5.64) or three or more (aOR 8.97, 95% CI 3.93, 22.1) device models. In conclusion, the proportion of patients making critical errors in inhaler technique was substantial, particularly in those using several different device models. To obtain optimal COPD treatment, it is important to assess a patient's inhaler technique and to minimise the number of inhaler device models.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 42(3): 243-252, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367526

RESUMO

AIMS : Clinical trials have demonstrated that a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular (CV) events. This has, however, not yet been shown in a real-world setting. We aimed to investigate the association between LDL-C changes and statin intensity with prognosis after a myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS : Patients admitted with MI were followed for mortality and major CV events. Changes in LDL-C between the MI and a 6- to 10-week follow-up visit were analysed. The associations between quartiles of LDL-C change and statin intensity with outcomes were assessed using adjusted Cox regression analyses. A total of 40 607 patients were followed for a median of 3.78 years. The median change in LDL-C was a 1.20 mmol/L reduction. Patients with larger LDL-C reduction (1.85 mmol/L, 75th percentile) compared with a smaller reduction (0.36 mmol/L, 25th percentile) had lower hazard ratios (HR) for all outcomes (95% confidence interval): composite of CV mortality, MI, and ischaemic stroke 0.77 (0.70-0.84); all-cause mortality 0.71 (0.63-0.80); CV mortality 0.68 (0.57-0.81); MI 0.81 (0.73-0.91); ischaemic stroke 0.76 (0.62-0.93); heart failure hospitalization 0.73 (0.63-0.85), and coronary artery revascularization 0.86 (0.79-0.94). Patients with ≥50% LDL-C reduction using high-intensity statins at discharge had a lower incidence of all outcomes compared with those using a lower intensity statin. CONCLUSIONS : Larger early LDL-C reduction and more intensive statin therapy after MI were associated with a reduced hazard of all CV outcomes and all-cause mortality. This supports clinical trial data suggesting that earlier lowering of LDL-C after an MI confers the greatest benefit.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined whether the inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and hip fracture risk is mediated by incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We included 50 755 men and women from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who answered lifestyle and medical questionnaires in 1997 and 2008 (used for calculation of the Mediterranean diet score 9mMED; low, medium, high) and BMI in 1997, and incident T2DM in 1997-2008). The cumulative incidence of hip fracture from the National Patient Register (2009-14) was considered as outcome. RESULTS: We present conditional odds ratios (OR) 9[95% confidence interval, CI) of hip fracture for medium and high adherence to mMED, compared with low adherence. The total effect ORs were 0.82 (0.71, 0.95) and 0.75 (0.62, 0.91), respectively. The controlled direct effect of mMED on hip fracture (not mediated by T2DM, considering BMI as an exposure-induced confounder), calculated using inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models, rendered ORs of 0.82 (0.72, 0.95) and 0.73 (0.60, 0.88), respectively. The natural direct effect ORs (not mediated by BMI or T2DM, calculated using flexible mediation analysis) were 0.82 (0.71, 0.95) and 0.74(0.61, 0.89), respectively. The path-specific indirect and partial indirect natural effects ORs (through BMI or T2DM) were close to 1. CONCLUSIONS: Mediterranean diet has a direct effect on hip fracture risk via pathways other than through T2DM and BMI. We cannot exclude mediating effects of T2DM or BMI, or that their effects cancel each other out.

4.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
5.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 45(5): 1021-1029, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171028

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-related problems (DRPs) are a growing healthcare burden worldwide. In an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled trial in Sweden (MedBridge), comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) including post-discharge follow-up have been conducted in older hospitalized patients to prevent and solve DRPs. As part of a process evaluation of the MedBridge trial, this study aimed to assess the intervention fidelity and process outcomes of the trial's interventions. METHODS: For intervention delivery, the percentage of patients that received intervention components was calculated per study group. Process outcomes, measured in about one-third of all intervention patients, included the following: the number of identified medication discrepancies, DRPs and recommendations to solve DRPs, correction rate of discrepancies, and implementation rate of recommendations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The MedBridge trial included 2637 patients (mean age: 81 years). The percentage of intervention patients (n = 1745) that received the intended intervention components was 94%-98% during admission, and 40%-81% upon and after discharge. The percentage of control patients (n = 892) that received at least one unintended intervention component was 15%. On average, 1.1 discrepancies and 2.0 DRPs were identified in 652 intervention patients. The correction and implementation rates were 79% and 73%, respectively. Stop medication was the most frequently implemented recommendation (n = 293) and 77% of the patients had at least one corrected discrepancy or implemented recommendation. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The intervention fidelity within the MedBridge trial was high for CMRs during hospital stay and lower for intervention components upon and after discharge. The high prevalence of corrected discrepancies and implemented recommendations may explain potential effects of CMRs in the MedBridge trial.

6.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(4): 579-585, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949290

RESUMO

SWEDEGENE is a Swedish nation-wide sample collection established to facilitate studies of clinical and genetic risk factors for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Most cases are recruited among patients reported to the ADR registry at the Swedish Medical Products Agency by health-care professionals. Clinical data are collected both from medical and laboratory records and through interviews using standardized questionnaires. Genome-wide scans and whole-genome sequencing are done, and association studies are conducted using mainly controls from the Swedish TwinGene biobank with data on diagnoses and prescribed drugs. SWEDEGENE was established in 2008 and currently contains DNA and information from about 2550 adults who have experienced specific ADRs, and from 580 drug exposed controls. Results from genome-wide association studies have now been published, and data from whole-genome sequencing are being analyzed. SWEDEGENE has the potential to offer a new means of developing individualized and safe drug therapy through patient pre-treatment screening.

7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2451-2460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806954

RESUMO

Purpose: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often more widely prescribed in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than what is recommended in the guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of ICS treatment in COPD patients using the algorithm proposed by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) and to identify factors associated with ICS treatment. Patients and methods: Appropriateness of ICS therapy was studied with respect to concomitant asthma, history of exacerbations and blood eosinophils (B-Eos) in a Swedish cohort of primary and secondary care patients with COPD. Factors associated with ICS were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Triple treatment was found to be the most common treatment combination, used by 46% of the 561 included patients, and in total 63% were using ICS. When applying the IPCRG algorithm, there was a possible indication for discontinuation of ICS in 55% of the patients with ICS treatment. Of the patients not using ICS, 18% had an indication for starting such treatment. The strongest factors associated with ICS therapy were frequent exacerbations (aOR 8.61, 95% CI 4.06, 20.67), secondary care contacts (aOR 6.99, 95% CI 2.48, 25.28) and very severe airflow limitation (aOR 5.91, 95% CI 1.53, 26.58). Conclusion: More than half of the COPD patients on ICS met the criteria where withdrawal of the treatment could be tried. There was, however, also a subgroup of patients not using ICS for whom there was an indication for starting ICS treatment. Patients using ICS were characterized by more frequent exacerbations and lower lung function.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(17): 1865-1873, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409108

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to discover and replicate associations between leisure-time physical activity and cardiovascular candidate plasma protein biomarkers and to examine whether the associations were independent of body fat. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from two population-based cohorts, the EpiHealth (discovery cohort; n = 2239) and the Swedish Mammography Cohort - Clinical (SMCC; replication cohort; n = 4320). Physical activity during leisure time was assessed using questionnaires, and plasma concentrations of 184 proteins were assayed using the Olink Proseek Multiplex Cardiovascular 2 and 3 kits. We applied adjusted linear regression models using the False Discovery Rate to control for multiple testing in discovery. RESULTS: In EpiHealth, physical activity was associated with 75 cardiovascular plasma biomarkers, of which 28 associations were verified (replicated) in SMCC. Findings include seven novel associations in human: paraoxonase 3, cystatin B, cathepsin Z, alpha-L-iduronidase, prostasin, growth differentiation factor 2 and tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor superfamily member 11A. Estimates for associations were similar across tertiles of body fat and physical activity was associated with four biomarkers independent of body fat percentage: paraoxonase 3, cystatin B, fatty acid-binding protein 4 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. CONCLUSION: Leisure-time physical activity was associated with 28 cardiovascular-specific proteins; four associations were independent of body fat. Biomarkers in novel associations are involved in several atherosclerotic processes including regulation of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, protein degradation and immune cell adhesion and migration. Further research into these pathways may yield new insights into how physical activity affects cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica
9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5595-5600, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310319

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Elevated circulating parathyroid hormone concentrations have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in observational studies, but whether the association is causal is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used the Mendelian randomization design to test whether genetically increased serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentrations are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms robustly associated with S-PTH concentrations were used as instrumental variables to estimate the association of genetically higher S-PTH concentrations with CAD. Summary statistics data for CAD were obtained from a genetic consortium with data from 184,305 individuals (60,801 CAD cases and 123,504 noncases). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: OR of CAD per genetically predicted one SD increase of S-PTH concentrations. RESULTS: Genetically higher S-PTH concentration was not associated with CAD as a whole or myocardial infarction specifically (∼70% of total cases). The ORs per genetically predicted one SD increase in S-PTH concentration were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.09; P = 0.88) for CAD and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94 to 1.10; P = 0.64) for myocardial infarction. The lack of association remained in various sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Genetic predisposition to higher S-PTH concentrations does not appear to be an independent risk factor for CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Res ; 177: 108584, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is known to alter bone tissue in young rodents, although how bone tissue is affected in aged animals is not well known. We have recently shown that low-dose developmental exposure to BPA increases procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) levels, a peptide formed during type 1 collagen synthesis, in plasma of 5-week-old female rat offspring while male offspring showed reduced bone size. OBJECTIVE: To analyze offspring bone phenotype at 52 weeks of age and clarify whether the BPA-induced increase in P1NP levels at 5 weeks is an early sign of bone marrow fibrosis development. METHODS: As in our 5-week study, pregnant Fischer 344 rats were exposed to BPA via drinking water corresponding to 0.5 µg/kg BW/day (BPA0.5), which is in the range of human daily exposure, or 50 µg/kg BW/day (BPA50) from gestational day 3.5 until postnatal day 22. Controls were given only vehicle. The offspring were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age. Bone effects were analyzed using peripheral quantitative and micro-computed tomography (microCT), 3-point bending test, plasma markers and histological examination. RESULTS: Compared to a smaller bone size at 5 weeks, at the age of 52 weeks, femur size in male offspring had been normalized in developmentally BPA-exposed rats. The 52-week-old female offspring showed, like the 5-week-old siblings, higher plasma P1NP levels compared to controls but no general increasing bone growth or strength. However, 2 out of 14 BPA-exposed female offspring bones developed extremely thick cortices later in life, discovered by systematic in vivo microCT scanning during the study. This was not observed in male offspring or in female controls. Biomechanical testing revealed that both doses of developmental BPA exposure reduced femur stiffness only in female offspring. In addition, histological analysis showed an increased number of fibrotic lesions only in the bone marrow of female rat offspring developmentally exposed to BPA. In line with this, plasma markers of inflammation, Tnf (in BPA0.5) and Timp1 (in BPA50) were increased exclusively in female offspring. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant concentration resulted in female-specific effects on bone as well as on plasma biomarkers of collagen synthesis and inflammation. Even a dose approximately eight times lower than the current temporary EFSA human tolerable daily intake of 4 µg/kg BW/day, appeared to induce bone stiffness reduction, bone marrow fibrosis and chronic inflammation in female rat offspring later in life.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Inflamação , Masculino , Gravidez , Mielofibrose Primária/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 105(1): 51-67, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006051

RESUMO

Atypical femoral fracture is a well-documented adverse reaction to bisphosphonates. It is strongly related to duration of bisphosphonate use, and the risk declines rapidly after drug withdrawal. The mechanism behind bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fracture is unclear, but a genetic predisposition has been suggested. With the aim to identify common genetic variants that could be used for preemptive genetic testing, we performed a genome-wide association study. Cases were recruited mainly through reports of adverse drug reactions sent to the Swedish Medical Products Agency on a nation-wide basis. We compared atypical femoral fracture cases (n = 51) with population-based controls (n = 4891), and to reduce the possibility of confounding by indication, we also compared with bisphosphonate-treated controls without a current diagnosis of cancer (n = 324). The total number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms after imputation was 7,585,874. A genome-wide significance threshold of p < 5 × 10-8 was used to correct for multiple testing. In addition, we performed candidate gene analyses for a panel of 29 genes previously implicated in atypical femoral fractures (significance threshold of p < 5.7 × 10-6). Compared with population controls, bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fracture was associated with four isolated, uncommon single-nucleotide polymorphisms. When cases were compared with bisphosphonate-treated controls, no statistically significant genome-wide association remained. We conclude that the detected associations were either false positives or related to the underlying disease, i.e., treatment indication. Furthermore, there was no significant association with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 29 candidate genes. In conclusion, this study found no evidence of a common genetic predisposition for bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fracture. Further studies of larger sample size to identify possible weakly associated genetic traits, as well as whole exome or whole-genome sequencing studies to identify possible rare genetic variation conferring a risk are warranted.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/induzido quimicamente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Suécia
13.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558284

RESUMO

Whether vitamin D insufficiency is a contributing cause of depression remains unclear. We assessed whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentrations, the clinical marker of vitamin D status, were associated with major depression using Mendelian randomization. We used summary statistics data for six single-nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated with S-25OHD concentrations in the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) consortium and the corresponding data for major depression (n = 59,851 cases and 113,154 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genetically predicted S-25OHD concentrations were not associated with major depression. The odds ratio per genetically predicted one standard deviation decrease in S-25OHD concentrations was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.97⁻1.08; p = 0.44). The results of this study indicate that genetically lowered S-25OHD concentrations are not associated with increased risk of developing major depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
14.
JBMR Plus ; 2(6): 367-374, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460340

RESUMO

It is presently unclear whether free serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) better reflects bone health than total S-25(OH)D. We have previously shown that summer total S-25(OH)D values are more useful to predict bone mineral density (BMD) than winter values. Our objective was therefore to compare the relative importance of free and total S-25(OH)D for BMD by season. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 5002 Swedish women (mean age 68 years) randomly selected from a large population-based longitudinal cohort study. Free S-25(OH)D was analyzed by a commercial ELISA and total S-25(OH)D by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Free and total S-25(OH)D co-varied with season, with 26% and 29% higher values in August compared with those in January-March (nadir). There were no differences in mean BMD between categories of free or total S-25(OH)D in samples collected during winter. Women with higher total S-25(OH)D measured during summer had higher BMD at the total hip. Compared with women who had total S-25(OH)D values above 80 nmol/L during summer, adjusted BMD at the total hip was 6% (95% CI, 1% to 11%) lower for S-25(OH)D concentrations between 30 and 40 mmol/L, and 11% (95% CI, 3% to 19%) lower for those with total S-25(OH)D <30 nmol/L. In contrast, free S-25(OH)D measured during summer was not associated with BMD. Compared with women who had highest free S-25(OH)D measured during summer (>8.8 pmol/L), those with intermediate (2.4-3.5 pmol/L) and lowest (<2.4 pmol/L) free S-25(OH)D during summer did not have lower total hip BMD values (3% [95% CI, -2% to 7%] and -2% [95% CI, -8% to 4%]). In addition, we found no added value for the prediction of BMD with the combined measurement of total and free S-25(OH)D during summer or winter. We conclude that vitamin D status assessed by direct measurements of free S-25(OH)D does not reflect BMD better than total S-25(OH)D. © 2018 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Bone Rep ; 9: 27-36, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003121

RESUMO

Angulated femurs are present prenatally both in CYP26B1 deficient humans with a reduced capacity to degrade retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A), and mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor a (Vegfa). Since excessive ingestion of vitamin A is known to induce spontaneous fractures and as the Vegfa-induced femur angulation in mice appears to be caused by intrauterine fractures, we analyzed bones from a CYP26B1 deficient human and rats with hypervitaminosis A to further explore Vegfa as a mechanistic link for the effect of vitamin A on bone. We show that bone from a human with CYP26B1 mutations displayed periosteal osteoclasts in piles within deep resorption pits, a pathognomonic sign of hypervitaminosis A. Analysis of the human angulated fetal femur revealed excessive bone formation in the marrow cavity and abundant blood vessels. Normal human endothelial cells showed disturbed cell-cell junctions and increased CYP26B1 and VEGFA expression upon RA exposure. Studies in rats showed increased plasma and tissue Vegfa concentrations and signs of bone marrow microhemorrhage on the first day of excess dietary vitamin A intake. Subsequently hypervitaminosis A rats displayed excess bone formation, fibrosis and an increased number of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, which are known characteristics of Vegfa overexpression. This study supports the notion that the skeletal phenotype in CYP26B1 deficient human bone is caused by excess RA. Our findings suggest that an initial part of the vitamin A mechanism causing bone alterations is mediated by excess Vegfa and disturbed bone marrow microvessel integrity.

17.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 103(5): 501-511, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946974

RESUMO

Men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have higher risk of hip fracture, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate how T2DM, glucose, and insulin were associated with femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral area (BMA), and bone turnover markers. We used two cross-sectional cohorts: the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, n = 452, mean age 82 years) and the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical (SMCC, n = 4713, mean age 68 years). We identified men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG), and T2DM. BMD and BMA at the total hip and femoral shaft were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover markers; CrossLaps and osteocalcin were measured in women. Linear regression models were applied. Men and women showed a progressively higher BMD following the clinical cutoffs of fasting glucose from NFG to IFG to T2DM. In contrast, there was a progressively lower BMA. Men and women with T2DM, compared to those with NFG, had lower BMA at the total hip (- 1.7%; 95% CI - 3.2, - 0.2 and - 1.0%; 95% CI - 1.6, - 0.4) and the femoral shaft (- 2.0%; 95% CI - 3.5, - 0.4 and - 0.6%; 95% CI - 1.2, - 0.01), respectively. T2DM was associated with lower concentrations of CrossLaps (- 8.1%; 95% CI - 12.7, - 3.6) and osteocalcin (- 15.2%; 95% CI - 19.0, - 11.2). These cross-sectional results indicate that those with T2DM have smaller bone area and lower bone turnover, which could increase the risk of hip fracture.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Quadril , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia
18.
Ups J Med Sci ; 123(2): 82-85, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most prominent features of hypervitaminosis A in rats are spontaneous fractures and anorexia. Since caloric restriction induces alterations in bone, some effects could be secondary to loss of appetite. To clarify the mechanisms behind vitamin A-induced bone fragility it is necessary to distinguish between direct and indirect effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we compared rats fed high doses of vitamin A both with pair-fed controls, which were fed the same amount of chow as that consumed by the vitamin A group to keep food intake the same, and to controls with free access to food. RESULTS: In contrast to the pair-fed animals, rats in the free access group fed high doses of vitamin A for 7 days had 13% lower food intake, 15% lower body weight, and 2.7% shorter femurs compared with controls. In addition, serum biomarkers of bone turnover were reduced. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the femurs showed that the bone mineral content, cross sectional area, and periosteal circumference were similarly reduced in the pair-fed and free access groups. However, bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical parameters were only significantly decreased in the free access group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the major direct short-term effect of high doses of vitamin A on rat bone is a reduced bone diameter, whereas the effects on bone length, serum biomarkers of bone turnover, BMD, and bone cortex appear to be mainly indirect, caused by a systemic toxicity with loss of appetite, reduced food intake, and general effects on growth.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Densidade Óssea , Hipervitaminose A/fisiopatologia , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(5): 840-844, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338102

RESUMO

There is considerable discussion of the importance for increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentration associated with adequacy for bone health. Accordingly, whether long-term high S-25OHD concentration in general positively affects bone mineral density (BMD) is uncertain. We used a Mendelian randomization design to determine the association between genetically increased S-25OHD concentrations and BMD. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes encoding enzymes and carrier proteins involved in vitamin D synthesis or metabolism were used as instrumental variables to genetically predict 1 standard deviation increase in S-25OHD concentration. Summary statistics data for the associations of the S-25OHD-associated SNPs with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were obtained from the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis (GEFOS) Consortium (32,965 individuals) and ultrasound-derived heel estimated BMD from the UK Biobank (142,487 individuals). None of the SNPs were associated with BMD at Bonferroni-corrected significance level, but there was a suggestive association between rs6013897 near CYP24A1 and femoral neck BMD (p = 0.01). In Mendelian randomization analysis, genetically predicted 1 standard deviation increment of S-25OHD was not associated with higher femoral neck BMD (SD change in BMD 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.03 to 0.07; p = 0.37), lumbar spine BMD (SD change in BMD 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.08; p = 0.49), or estimated BMD (g/cm2 change in BMD -0.03; 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01; p = 0.02). This study does not support a causal association between long-term elevated S-25OHD concentrations and higher BMD in generally healthy populations. These results suggest that more emphasis should be placed on the development of evidence-based cut-off points for vitamin D inadequacy rather than a general recommendation to increase S-25OHD. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Vitamina D/sangue
20.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 28(1): 78-84, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877589

RESUMO

There is accumulating evidence that diet may be associated with markers of inflammation. We have evaluated if an empirically developed questionnaire-based Anti-Inflammatory Diet Index (AIDI) may predict low-grade systemic chronic inflammation in a Nordic population. The AIDI was developed using a 123-item food frequency questionnaire among 3503 women (56-74 years old) with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) plasma concentration <20 mg/L. Using Spearman correlations, we identified 20 foods (AIDI-20) statistically significantly related to hsCRP. The median (range) of AIDI-20 was 8 (0-17) scores, and the median concentration of hsCRP in the lowest versus the highest quintile of AIDI-20 (≤6 vs. ≥11 scores) varied by 80% (1.8 vs. 1.0 mg/L, respectively). In a multivariable-adjusted linear regression model, women in the highest quintile of AIDI-20 compared with those in the lowest had a 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18-33%; p-trend <0.001) lower hsCRP concentration; each 1-score increment in the AIDI-20 was associated with a 0.06 (95% CI 0.04-0.08) mg/L lower hsCRP. The observed association between the AIDI-20 and hsCRP was robust by all hsCRP levels and in subgroups defined by inflammatory-related factors. Our results lead to the hypothesis that the empirically developed questionnaire-based dietary anti-inflammatory index may predict low-grade systemic inflammation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 78-84.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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