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1.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111868, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have associated biomass combustion with (respiratory) morbidity and mortality, primarily in indoor settings. Barbecuing results in high outdoor air pollution exposures, but the health effects are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate short-term changes in respiratory health in healthy adults, associated with exposure to barbecue fumes. METHODS: 16 healthy, adult volunteers were exposed to barbecue smoke in outdoor air in rest during 1.5 h, using a repeated-measures design. Major air pollutants were monitored on-site, including particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), particle number concentrations (PNC) and black- and brown carbon. At the same place and time-of-day, subjects participated in a control session, during which they were not exposed to barbecue smoke. Before and immediately after all sessions lung function was measured. Before, immediately after, 4- and 18 h post-sessions nasal expression levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) were determined in nasal swabs, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations between major air pollutants, lung function and inflammatory markers were assessed using mixed linear regression models. RESULTS: High PM2.5 levels and PNCs were observed during barbecue sessions, with averages ranging from 553 to 1062 µg/m3 and 109,000-463,000 pt/cm3, respectively. Average black- and brown carbon levels ranged between 4.1-13.0 and 5.0-16.2 µg/m3. A 1000 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 2.37 (0.97, 4.67) and 2.21 (0.98, 5.00) times higher expression of IL8, immediately- and 18 h after exposure. No associations were found between air pollutants and lung function, or the expression of IL6 or TNFα. DISCUSSION: Short-term exposure to air pollutants emitted from barbecuing was associated with a mild respiratory response in healthy young adults, including prolonged increase in nasal IL8 without a change in lung function and other measured inflammatory markers. The results might indicate prolonged respiratory inflammation, due to short-term exposure to barbecue fumes.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 117949, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438166

RESUMO

The domestic combustion of smoky (bituminous) coal in the Chinese counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, are responsible for some of the highest rates of lung cancer in the world. Cancer rates vary between coal producing regions (deposits) in the area, with coals from Laibin exhibiting particularly high risks and smokeless (anthracite) coal exhibiting lower risks. However, little information is available on the specific burning characteristics of coals from throughout the area. We conducted an extensive controlled burning experiment using coal from multiple deposits in either a traditional firepit or ventilated stove, accompanied by a detailed examination of time-weighted and real-time size-aggregated particle concentrations. Smoky coal caused higher particle concentrations of all sizes than smokeless coal, with variations observed by geological source. Virtually all particle emissions were in the PM2.5 fraction (98% - mass based), and 75% and 46% were in the PM1 and PM0.3 fraction respectively. Real-time concentrations of PM1 and PM0.1 peaked after coal was added and declined afterwards. Ventilation reduced particle concentrations by up to 15-fold and increased the coal burning rate by 1.9-fold. These findings may provide valuable insight for reducing exposure and adverse health effects associated with domestic coal combustion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária
3.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(12): 893-899, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unprecedented SARS-CoV-2 infections in farmed minks raised immediate concerns regarding transmission to humans and initiated intensive environmental investigations to assess occupational and environmental exposure. METHODS: Air sampling was performed at infected Dutch mink farms, at farm premises and at nearby residential sites. A range of other environmental samples were collected from minks' housing units, including bedding materials. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was analysed in all samples by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Inside the farms, considerable levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were found in airborne dust, especially in personal inhalable dust samples (approximately 1000-10 000 copies/m3). Most of the settling dust samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (82%, 75 of 92). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in outdoor air samples, except for those collected near the entrance of the most recently infected farm. Many samples of minks' housing units and surfaces contained SARS-CoV-2 RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Infected mink farms can be highly contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA. This warns of occupational exposure, which was substantiated by considerable SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in personal air samples. Dispersion of SARS-CoV-2 to outdoor air was found to be limited and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in air samples collected beyond farm premises, implying a negligible risk of environmental exposure to nearby communities. Our occupational and environmental risk assessment is in line with whole genome sequencing analyses showing mink-to-human transmission among farm workers, but no indications of direct zoonotic transmission events to nearby communities.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Fazendas , Vison/virologia , Exposição Ocupacional , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
4.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 62(8): 458-470, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331495

RESUMO

Urinary mutagenicity reflects systemic exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic/carcinogenic agents and is linked to tumor development. Coal combustion emissions (CCE) and diesel engine exhaust (DEE) are associated with cancers of the lung and other sites, but their influence on urinary mutagenicity is unclear. We investigated associations between exposure to CCE or DEE and urinary mutagenicity. In two separate cross-sectional studies of nonsmokers, organic extracts of urine were evaluated for mutagenicity levels using strain YG1041 in the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay. First, we compared levels among 10 female bituminous (smoky) coal users from Laibin, Xuanwei, China, and 10 female anthracite (smokeless) coal users. We estimated exposure-response relationships using indoor air concentrations of two carcinogens in CCE relevant to lung cancer, 5-methylchrysene (5MC), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Second, we compared levels among 20 highly exposed male diesel factory workers and 15 unexposed male controls; we evaluated exposure-response relationships using elemental carbon (EC) as a DEE-surrogate. Age-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate associations. Laibin smoky coal users had significantly higher average urinary mutagenicity levels compared to smokeless coal users (28.4 ± 14.0 SD vs. 0.9 ± 2.8 SD rev/ml-eq, p = 2 × 10-5 ) and a significant exposure-response relationship with 5MC (p = 7 × 10-4 ). DEE-exposed workers had significantly higher urinary mutagenicity levels compared to unexposed controls (13.0 ± 10.1 SD vs. 5.6 ± 4.4 SD rev/ml-eq, p = .02) and a significant exposure-response relationship with EC (p-trend = 2 × 10-3 ). Exposure to CCE and DEE is associated with urinary mutagenicity, suggesting systemic exposure to mutagens, potentially contributing to cancer risk and development at various sites.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Mutagênicos/análise , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fumar/urina , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Doenças Profissionais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fumar/efeitos adversos
5.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(11): 823-828, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a known genotoxic carcinogen. Alu retroelements are repetitive DNA sequences that can multiply and compromise genomic stability. There is some evidence linking altered Alu repeats to cancer and elevated mortality risks. However, whether Alu repeats are influenced by environmental pollutants is unexplored. In an occupational setting with high DEE exposure levels, we investigated associations with Alu repeat copy number. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 54 male DEE-exposed workers from an engine testing facility and a comparison group of 55 male unexposed controls was conducted in China. Personal air samples were assessed for elemental carbon, a DEE surrogate, using NIOSH Method 5040. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure Alu repeat copy number relative to albumin (Alb) single-gene copy number in leucocyte DNA. The unitless Alu/Alb ratio reflects the average quantity of Alu repeats per cell. Linear regression models adjusted for age and smoking status were used to estimate relations between DEE-exposed workers versus unexposed controls, DEE tertiles (6.1-39.0, 39.1-54.5 and 54.6-107.7 µg/m3) and Alu/Alb ratio. RESULTS: DEE-exposed workers had a higher average Alu/Alb ratio than the unexposed controls (p=0.03). Further, we found a positive exposure-response relationship (p=0.02). The Alu/Alb ratio was highest among workers exposed to the top tertile of DEE versus the unexposed controls (1.12±0.08 SD vs 1.06±0.07 SD, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DEE exposure may contribute to genomic instability. Further investigations of environmental pollutants, Alu copy number and carcinogenesis are warranted.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116513, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548669

RESUMO

The objective of this paper was to incorporate source-meteorological interaction information from two commonly employed atmospheric dispersion models into the land use regression technique for predicting ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10). The study was undertaken across two regions in Durban, South Africa, one with a high industrial profile and a nearby harbour, and the other with a primarily commercial and residential profile. Multiple hybrid models were developed by integrating air pollution dispersion modelling predictions for source specific NO2, SO2, and PM10 concentrations into LUR models following the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) methodology to characterise exposure, in Durban. Industrial point sources, ship emissions, domestic fuel burning, and vehicle emissions were key emission sources. Standard linear regression was used to develop annual, summer and winter hybrid models to predict air pollutant concentrations. Higher levels of NO2 and SO2 were predicted in south Durban as compared to north Durban as these are industrial related pollutants. Slightly higher levels of PM10 were predicted in north Durban as compared to south Durban and can be attributed to either traffic, bush burning or domestic fuel burning. The hybrid NO2 models for annual, summer and winter explained 60%, 58% and 63%, respectively, of the variance with traffic, population and harbour being identified as important predictors. The SO2 models were less robust with lower R2 annual (44%), summer (53%) and winter (46%), in which industrial and traffic variables emerged as important predictors. The R2 for PM10 models ranged from 80% to 85% with population and urban land use type emerging as predictor variables.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , África do Sul
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1067-1075, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378199

RESUMO

Studies of the health effects of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in large nationwide cohorts are currently hampered by a lack of knowledge about spatial and spatiotemporal variations in regional background UFPs. We measured the UFP (10-300 nm) at 20 regional background locations (3 × 2 weeks) across the Netherlands and a reference site continuously over a total period of 14 months in 2016-2017. We compared the overall averages for each site and used kriging to create a regional background spatial map of the Netherlands. Spatiotemporal variability was analyzed by correlating time-series of 2 and 24 h average concentrations. The overall average measured UFP concentrations at the 20 locations ranged from 3814 to 7070 particles/cm3. We found the spatial correlation in the UFP concentrations up to 180 km and clear differences between the north and the more populated southern parts of the country. The average temporal correlation between 2 and 24 h average UFP concentrations was 0.50 (IQR: 0.36-0.61) and 0.58 (IQR: 0.44-0.75), respectively. Temporal correlation declined weakly with a distance between sites, from 0.58 for sites within 80 km of each other to 0.47 for sites farther away. The substantial spatial variation in the regional background UFP concentrations suggests that regional variation may contribute importantly to exposure contrast in nationwide health studies of UFP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Países Baixos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727161

RESUMO

Multiple land use regression models (LUR) were developed for different air pollutants to characterize exposure, in the Durban metropolitan area, South Africa. Based on the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) methodology, concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured over a 1-year period, at 41 sites, with Ogawa Badges and 21 sites with PM Monitors. Sampling was undertaken in two regions of the city of Durban, South Africa, one with high levels of heavy industry as well as a harbor, and the other small-scale business activity. Air pollution concentrations showed a clear seasonal trend with higher concentrations being measured during winter (25.8, 4.2, 50.4, and 20.9 µg/m3 for NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5, respectively) as compared to summer (10.5, 2.8, 20.5, and 8.5 µg/m3 for NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5, respectively). Furthermore, higher levels of NO2 and SO2 were measured in south Durban as compared to north Durban as these are industrial related pollutants, while higher levels of PM were measured in north Durban as compared to south Durban and can be attributed to either traffic or domestic fuel burning. The LUR NO2 models for annual, summer, and winter explained 56%, 41%, and 63% of the variance with elevation, traffic, population, and Harbor being identified as important predictors. The SO2 models were less robust with lower R2 annual (37%), summer (46%), and winter (46%) with industrial and traffic variables being important predictors. The R2 for PM10 models ranged from 52% to 80% while for PM2.5 models this range was 61-76% with traffic, elevation, population, and urban land use type emerging as predictor variables. While these results demonstrate the influence of industrial and traffic emissions on air pollution concentrations, our study highlighted the importance of a Harbor variable, which may serve as a proxy for NO2 concentrations suggesting the presence of not only ship emissions, but also other sources such as heavy duty motor vehicles associated with the port activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias , Material Particulado/análise , África do Sul , Emissões de Veículos
9.
Environ Res ; 167: 632-638, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution exposure have been widely demonstrated. However, inconsistent cardiovascular responses were observed from reducing indoor air pollution exposure. We aimed to assess whether short-term air filtration intervention could benefit cardiovascular health in elderly living in high pollution area. METHODS: A randomized crossover intervention study of short-term indoor air filtration intervention on cardiovascular health was conducted among 35 non-smoking elderly participants living in Beijing in the winter of 2013, as part of Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY (BIAPSY). Portable air filtration units were randomly allocated to active filtration for 2 weeks and sham filtration for 2 weeks in the households. Twelve-hour daytime ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (ABP) were measured during active and sham filtration. Concurrently, real-time indoor and outdoor particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and indoor black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured. We applied generalized additive mixed models to evaluate the associations of 1- to 10-h moving average (MA) exposures of indoor PM2.5 and BC with HRV and ABP indices, and to explore whether these associations could be modified by air filtration. RESULTS: We observed decreases of 34.8% in indoor PM2.5 and 35.3% in indoor BC concentrations during active filtration. Indoor PM2.5 and BC exposures were significantly associated with reduced HRV and increased ABP indices, and greater changes were observed during sham filtration. In specific, each 10 µg/m3 increase in indoor PM2.5 at MA8-h was associated with a significant reduction of 1.34% (95% CI: -2.42, -0.26) in SDNN during sham filtration, compared with a non-significant reduction of 0.81% (95% CI: -6.00, 4.68) during active filtration (Pinter< 0.001). Each 1 µg/m3 increase in indoor BC at MA8-h was associated with a significant increase of 2.41% (95% CI: 0.38, 4.47) in SBP during sham filtration, compared with a non-significant increase of -1.09% (95% CI: -4.06, 1.96) during active filtration (Pinter = 0.135). Nonlinear inverse exposure-response relationships of indoor air pollution exposures with predicted HRV and ABP indices also confirmed some cardiovascular benefits of short-term air filtration intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that short-term indoor air filtration intervention can be of some cardiovascular benefits in elderly living with high pollution episodes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Environ Pollut ; 233: 690-697, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121604

RESUMO

The indoor air pollution (IAP) produced by the domestic combustion of solid fuels is responsible for up to 4 million deaths annually, especially among low and middle income countries. Occupational exposure within the food preparation industries of these nations remains underexplored. We investigated occupational exposure to the IAP produced during the commercial production of injera, a staple of the Ethiopian diet, from bakeries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Measurements of PM2.5, black carbon (via the proxy measure PM2.5 absorbance) and CO were collected from 30 bakeries and their employees for an average of 4-h per working day. Measurements were compared between bakeries using biomass and electric cookstoves. Further, the respiratory health data of 35 bakery employees were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Personal exposure to PM2.5 from biomass cookstoves was double that of electric cookstoves (430 µg/m3 vs. 216 µg/m3), black carbon exposure was four times higher among biomass users (67 × 10-5m-1 vs. 15 × 10-5m-1), and CO exposure was twenty times higher among biomass users (22 ppm vs. 1 ppm). Mixed effect models indicated that the number of stoves in use and additional solid fuel usage (e.g. coffee brewing) also contributed to exposure levels. These findings indicate that the use of biomass powered cookstoves during commercial injera production significantly contributes to IAP and self-reported respiratory symptoms. As injera is the staple foodstuff of Ethiopia, a widespread conversion to electric cookstoves is likely to have a significant impact. However, as high levels of IAP were also observed within the electric bakeries, further identification of pollution sources is required.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/instrumentação , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biomassa , Eletricidade , Etiópia , Utensílios Domésticos , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 1439-1447, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South Durban (SD) area of Durban, South Africa, has a history of air pollution issues due to the juxtaposition of low-income communities with industrial areas. This study used measurements of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to explain the spatial variation of air pollution concentrations in this area. METHODS: Ambient NOx was measured over two two-week sampling periods at 32 sites using Ogawa badges. Following the ESCAPE approach, an annual adjusted average was calculated for these results and regressed against pre-selected geographic predictor variables in a multivariate regression model. The LUR model was then applied to predict the NOx exposure of a sample of pregnant women living in South Durban. RESULTS: Measured NOx levels ranged from 22.3-50.9µg/m3 with a median of 36µg/m3. The model developed accounts for 73% of the variance in ambient NOx measurements using three input variables (length of minor roads within a 1000m radius, length of major roads within a 300m radius, and area of open space within a 1000m radius). Model cross validation yielded a R2 of 0.59. Subsequent participant exposure estimates indicated exposure to ambient NOx ranged from 19.9-53.2µg/m3, with a mean of 39µg/m3. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This is the first study to develop a land use regression model that predicts ambient concentrations of NOx in a South African context. The findings of this study indicate that the participants in the South Durban are exposed to high levels of NOx that can be attributed mainly to traffic.

12.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 59(2): 144-150, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023999

RESUMO

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1ß, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1ß were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P < 0.001) and showed a strong decreasing trend with increasing PM2.5 concentrations in all subjects (Ptrend < 0.001) as well as in exposed subjects only (Ptrend = 0.001). Levels of IL-8 and MIP-1ß were significantly lower in workers in the highest exposure tertile of PM2.5 (>397 µg/m3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1ß, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CCL4/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
13.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(11): 1104-1111, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968774

RESUMO

The relationship between diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a known lung carcinogen, and immune/inflammatory markers that have been prospectively associated with lung cancer risk is not well understood. To provide insight into these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 54 males highly occupationally exposed to DEE and 55 unexposed male controls from representative workplaces in China. We measured plasma levels of 64 immune/inflammatory markers in all subjects using Luminex bead-based assays, and compared our findings to those from a nested case-control study of these markers and lung cancer risk, which had been conducted among never-smoking women in Shanghai using the same multiplex panels. Levels of nine markers that were associated with lung cancer risk in the Shanghai study were altered in DEE-exposed workers in the same direction as the lung cancer associations. Among these, associations with the levels of CRP (ß= -0.53; P = 0.01) and CCL15/MIP-1D (ß = 0.20; P = 0.02) were observed in workers exposed to DEE and with increasing elemental carbon exposure levels (Ptrends <0.05) in multivariable linear regression models. Levels of a third marker positively associated with an increased lung cancer risk, CCL2/MCP-1, were higher among DEE-exposed workers compared with controls in never and former smokers, but not in current smokers (Pinteraction = 0.01). The immunological differences in these markers in DEE-exposed workers are consistent with associations observed for lung cancer risk in a prospective study of Chinese women and may provide some insight into the mechanistic processes by which DEE causes lung cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Carcinógenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 603-604: 541-549, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645052

RESUMO

In this Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY (BIAPSY), we conducted a randomized crossover intervention trial in a panel of 35 non-smoking senior participants with free-living, with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Portable air filtration units were randomly allocated to active-(filter in) for 2weeks and sham-mode (filter out) for 2weeks in the households. We examined the differences in indoor air pollutant concentrations in 20 study homes and a suite of cardio-respiratory biomarker levels in study participants between filtration modes, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Following active filtration, we observed significant reductions from 60±45 to 24±15µg/m3 in ten-day averages of indoor PM2.5 and reductions from 3.87±1.65 to 1.81±1.19m-1.10-5 in ten-day averages of indoor BC, compared to sham-mode filtration. The major components of indoor PM2.5, including water soluble organics, NO3-, SO42-, Zn2+, Pb2+ and K+, were also reduced significantly by 42% to 63%. However, following active filtration, we only observed significant reductions on systemic inflammation measured as of IL-8 at 58.59% (95% CI: -76.31, -27.64) in the total group of participants and 70.04% (95% CI: -83.05, -47.05) in the subset of COPD patients, with adjustments. We were not able to detect improvements on lung function, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, following short-term intervention of two-week active air filtration. In conclusion, our results showed that indoor air filtration produced clear improvement on indoor air quality, but no demonstrable changes in the cardio-respiratory outcomes of study interest observed in the seniors living with real-world air pollution exposures.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Filtração , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Pequim , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sistema Respiratório
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(6): 3336-3345, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244744

RESUMO

Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht ("The Netherlands"), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160-240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors. For each area and all areas combined, 10 models were developed in stratified random selections of 90% of sites. UFP prediction robustness was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at 31-50 external sites per area. Models from Basel and The Netherlands were validated against repeated 24 h outdoor measurements. Structure and model R2 of local models were similar within, but varied between areas (e.g., 38-43% Turin; 25-31% Sabadell). Robustness of predictions within areas was high (ICC 0.73-0.98). External validation R2 was 53% in Basel and 50% in The Netherlands. Combined area models were robust (ICC 0.93-1.00) and explained UFP variation almost equally well as local models. In conclusion, robust UFP LUR models could be developed on short-term monitoring, explaining around 50% of spatial variance in longer-term measurements.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(23): 12894-12902, 2016 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809494

RESUMO

Mobile and short-term monitoring campaigns are increasingly used to develop land-use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and black carbon (BC). It is not yet established whether LUR models based on mobile or short-term stationary measurements result in comparable models and concentration predictions. The goal of this paper is to compare LUR models based on stationary (30 min) and mobile UFP and BC measurements from a single campaign. An electric car collected both repeated stationary and mobile measurements in Amsterdam and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 2964 road segments and 161 stationary sites were sampled over two seasons. Our main comparison was based on predicted concentrations of the mobile and stationary monitoring LUR models at 12 682 residential addresses in Amsterdam. Predictor variables in the mobile and stationary LUR model were comparable, resulting in highly correlated predictions at external residential addresses (R2 of 0.89 for UFP and 0.88 for BC). Mobile model predictions were, on average, 1.41 and 1.91 times higher than stationary model predictions for UFP and BC, respectively. LUR models based upon mobile and stationary monitoring predicted highly correlated UFP and BC concentration surfaces, but predicted concentrations based on mobile measurements were systematically higher.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental
17.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 26(1): 35-41, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26531805

RESUMO

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Fast Foods , Material Particulado/análise , Silicones/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Colúmbia Britânica , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Países Baixos , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Environ Int ; 84: 181-92, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26342569

RESUMO

An increasing number of epidemiological studies suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution may be related to particulate matter (PM) composition, particularly trace metals. However, we lack comprehensive data on the spatial distribution of these elements. We measured PM2.5 and PM10 in twenty study areas across Europe in three seasonal two-week periods over a year using Harvard impactors and standardized protocols. In each area, we selected street (ST), urban (UB) and regional background (RB) sites (totaling 20) to characterize local spatial variability. Elemental composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of all PM2.5 and PM10 filters. We selected a priori eight (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V, Zn) well-detected elements of health interest, which also roughly represented different sources including traffic, industry, ports, and wood burning. PM elemental composition varied greatly across Europe, indicating different regional influences. Average street to urban background ratios ranged from 0.90 (V) to 1.60 (Cu) for PM2.5 and from 0.93 (V) to 2.28 (Cu) for PM10. Our selected PM elements were variably correlated with the main pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2 and NOx) across Europe: in general, Cu and Fe in all size fractions were highly correlated (Pearson correlations above 0.75); Si and Zn in the coarse fractions were modestly correlated (between 0.5 and 0.75); and the remaining elements in the various size fractions had lower correlations (around 0.5 or below). This variability in correlation demonstrated the distinctly different spatial distributions of most of the elements. Variability of PM10_Cu and Fe was mostly due to within-study area differences (67% and 64% of overall variance, respectively) versus between-study area and exceeded that of most other traffic-related pollutants, including NO2 and soot, signaling the importance of non-tailpipe (e.g., brake wear) emissions in PM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Variância , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Espectrometria por Raios X
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(14): 8712-20, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079151

RESUMO

Health effects of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) have not been investigated in epidemiological studies because of the lack of spatially resolved UFP exposure data. Short-term monitoring campaigns used to develop land use regression (LUR) models for UFP typically had moderate performance. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate spatial and spatiotemporal LUR models for UFP and Black Carbon (BC), including their ability to predict past spatial contrasts. We measured 30 min at each of 81 sites in Amsterdam and 80 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands in three different seasons. Models were developed using traffic, land use, reference site measurements, routinely measured pollutants and weather data. The percentage explained variation (R(2)) was 0.35-0.40 for BC and 0.33-0.42 for UFP spatial models. Traffic variables were present in every model. The coefficients for the spatial predictors were similar in spatial and spatiotemporal models. The BC LUR model explained 61% of the spatial variation in a previous campaign with longer sampling duration, better than the model R(2). The UFP LUR model explained 36% of UFP spatial variation measured 10 years earlier, similar to the model R(2). Short-term monitoring campaigns may be an efficient tool to develop LUR models.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Países Baixos , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Environ Res ; 140: 440-8, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978345

RESUMO

Uncertainty about health effects of long-term ozone exposure remains. Land use regression (LUR) models have been used successfully for modeling fine scale spatial variation of primary pollutants but very limited for ozone. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of developing a national LUR model for ozone at a fine spatial scale. Ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers at 90 locations across the Netherlands (19 regional background, 36 urban background, 35 traffic). All sites were measured simultaneously during four 2-weekly campaigns spread over the seasons. LUR models were developed for the summer average as the primary exposure and annual average using predictor variables obtained with Geographic Information Systems. Summer average ozone concentrations varied between 32 and 61 µg/m(3). Ozone concentrations at traffic sites were on average 9 µg/m(3) lower compared to regional background sites. Ozone correlated highly negatively with nitrogen dioxide and moderately with fine particles. A LUR model including small-scale traffic, large-scale address density, urban green and a region indicator explained 71% of the spatial variation in summer average ozone concentrations. Land use regression modeling is a promising method to assess ozone spatial variation, but the high correlation with NO2 limits application in epidemiology.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Ozônio/análise , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano
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