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1.
J Dairy Res ; 81(3): 340-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25052435

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and crossbreeding parameters (breed and heterosis effects) of various fatty acid (FA) concentrations in milk fat of New Zealand dairy cattle. For this purpose, calibration equations to predict concentration of each of the most common FAs were derived with partial least squares (PLS) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data from milk samples (n=850) collected in the 2003-04 season from 348 second-parity crossbred cows during peak, mid and late lactation. The milk samples produced both, MIR spectral data and concentration of the most common FAs determined using gas chromatography (GC). The concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between the concentration of a FA determined by GC and the PLS equation ranged from 0.63 to 0.94, suggesting that some prediction equations can be considered to have substantial predictive ability. The PLS calibration equations were then used to predict the concentration of each of the fatty acids in 26,769 milk samples from 7385 cows that were herd-tested during the 2007-08 season. Data were analysed using a single-trait repeatability animal model. Shorter chain FA (16:0 and below) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Jersey cows, while longer chain, including unsaturated longer chain FA were higher in Holstein-Friesian cows. The estimates of heritabilities ranged from 0.17 to 0.41 suggesting that selective breeding could be used to ensure milk fat composition stays aligned to consumer, market and manufacturing needs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Feminino , Hibridização Genética/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(12): 7684-91, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24140337

RESUMO

Non-protein-bound oligosaccharides are important bioactive components of cow milk, with potential human-health benefits such as stimulation of the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and defense against pathogens. In bovine milk, the majority of oligosaccharides are sialylated; 3'-sialyllactose (3'-N-acetylneuraminyl-D-lactose; 3'-SL) is the predominant sialylated oligosaccharide, followed by 6'-sialyllactose (6'-N-acetylneuraminyl-D-lactose; 6'-SL). Both 3'-SL and 6'-SL have antimicrobial activity. As bovine milk products such as infant formula can be an important component of the human diet, and the concentrations of 3'-SL and 6'-SL are lower in bovine milk compared with human milk, we aimed to identify cows that naturally produce higher concentrations of sialyllactose in their milk. Milk from such cows could be used to produce foods with an increased sialyllactose content, potentially providing increased health benefits. We speculated that cows overexpressing 3'-SL and 6'-SL would exist at low frequency in the population and, to allow their efficient identification, we developed a novel assay for 3'-SL and 6'-SL utilizing flow-injection analysis-mass spectrometry, which could be used for high-throughput analysis of milk samples. We then determined 3'-SL and 6'-SL concentrations in milk samples from 15,507 cows from Friesian, Jersey, and Friesian-Jersey crossbred animals. We found 329 cows with concentrations of 3'-SL or 6'-SL >2-fold higher than the mean, 26 cows with concentrations of 3'-SL or 6'-SL >3-fold higher than the mean, and 1 cow with concentrations of 3'-SL >4-fold higher than the mean. Although these outliers were observed across the 3 groups of cows, breed had a strong effect on mean 3'-SL and 6'-SL concentrations.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Leite , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite/química , Leite Humano/química
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