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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413903

RESUMO

Background: KIF1C (Kinesin Family Member 1C) variants have been associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia and spastic ataxia. Case report: We report fraternal twins presenting with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. Their brain MRI showed a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous KIF1C variant in both patients. Discussion: KIF1C variants can manifest as a complex movement disorder with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. KIF1C variants may also cause a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 349-352, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552423

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene-panel-based analyses constitute diagnosis strategies which are adapted to the genetic heterogeneity within the field of myopathies, including more than 200 implicated genes to date. Nonetheless, important inter-laboratory diversity of gene panels exists at national and international levels, complicating the exchange of data and the visibility of the diagnostic offers available for referring neurologists. To address this issue, we here describe the initiative of the genetic diagnosis section of the French National Network for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases (Filière Nationale des Maladies Rares Neuromusculaires, FILNEMUS), which led to set up a consensual nationwide diagnostic strategy among the nine French genetic diagnosis laboratories using NGS for myopathies. The strategy is based on the determination of 13 clinical and/or histological entry-diagnosis groups, and consists for each group either in a successive NGS analysis of a "core gene list" followed in case of a negative result by the analysis of an "exhaustive gene list", or in the NGS analysis of a "unique exhaustive gene list".


Assuntos
Consenso , Testes Genéticos/normas , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , França , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sociedades Médicas
5.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(5): 591-599, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482223

RESUMO

Importance: Molecular diagnosis is difficult to achieve in disease groups with a highly heterogeneous genetic background, such as cerebellar ataxia (CA). In many patients, candidate gene sequencing or focused resequencing arrays do not allow investigators to reach a genetic conclusion. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of exome-targeted capture sequencing to detect mutations in genes broadly linked to CA in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients and to investigate their prevalence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three hundred nineteen index patients with CA and without a history of dominant transmission were included in the this cohort study by the Spastic Paraplegia and Ataxia Network. Centralized storage was in the DNA and cell bank of the Brain and Spine Institute, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France. Patients were classified into 6 clinical groups, with the largest being those with spastic ataxia (ie, CA with pyramidal signs [n = 100]). Sequencing was performed from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016. Detected variants were classified as very probably or definitely causative, possibly causative, or of unknown significance based on genetic evidence and genotype-phenotype considerations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Identification of variants in genes broadly linked to CA, classified in pathogenicity groups. Results: The 319 included patients had equal sex distribution (160 female [50.2%] and 159 male patients [49.8%]; mean [SD] age at onset, 27.9 [18.6] years). The age at onset was younger than 25 years for 131 of 298 patients (44.0%) with complete clinical information. Consanguinity was present in 101 of 298 (33.9%). Very probable or definite diagnoses were achieved for 72 patients (22.6%), with an additional 19 (6.0%) harboring possibly pathogenic variants. The most frequently mutated genes were SPG7 (n = 14), SACS (n = 8), SETX (n = 7), SYNE1 (n = 6), and CACNA1A (n = 6). The highest diagnostic rate was obtained for patients with an autosomal recessive CA with oculomotor apraxia-like phenotype (6 of 17 [35.3%]) or spastic ataxia (35 of 100 [35.0%]) and patients with onset before 25 years of age (41 of 131 [31.3%]). Peculiar phenotypes were reported for patients carrying KCND3 or ERCC5 variants. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome capture followed by targeted analysis allows the molecular diagnosis in patients with highly heterogeneous mendelian disorders, such as CA, without prior assumption of the inheritance mode or causative gene. Being commonly available without specific design need, this procedure allows testing of a broader range of genes, consequently describing less classic phenotype-genotype correlations, and post hoc reanalysis of data as new genes are implicated in the disease.

6.
Brain ; 141(4): 979-988, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444212

RESUMO

See Meschia (doi:10.1093/brain/awy066) for a scientific commentary on this article.Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools. Knockdown of ephb4 in zebrafish embryos leads to specific anomalies of dorsal cranial vessels including the dorsal longitudinal vein, which is the orthologue of the median prosencephalic vein and the embryonic precursor of the vein of Galen. This model allowed us to investigate EPHB4 loss-of-function mutations in this disease by the ability to rescue the brain vascular defect in knockdown zebrafish co-injected with wild-type, but not truncated EPHB4, mimicking the p.His191Alafs mutation. Our data showed that in both species, loss of function mutations of EPHB4 result in specific and similar brain vascular development anomalies. Recently, EPHB4 germline mutations have been reported in non-immune hydrops fetalis and in cutaneous capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation. Here, we show that EPHB4 mutations are also responsible for vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, indicating that heterozygous germline mutations of EPHB4 result in a large clinical spectrum. The identification of EPHB4 pathogenic mutations in patients presenting capillary malformation or vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation should lead to careful follow-up of pregnancy of carriers for early detection of anomaly of the cerebral vasculature in order to propose optimal neonatal care. Endovascular embolization indeed greatly improved the prognosis of patients.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 287-292, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255276

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder mainly due to de novo and private truncating mutations of CHD7 gene. Here we report an intriguing hot spot of intronic mutations (c.5405-7G > A, c.5405-13G > A, c.5405-17G > A and c.5405-18C > A) located in CHD7 IVS25. Combining computational in silico analysis, experimental branch-point determination and in vitro minigene assays, our study explains this mutation hot spot by a particular genomic context, including the weakness of the IVS25 natural acceptor-site and an unconventional lariat sequence localized outside the common 40 bp upstream the acceptor splice site. For each of the mutations reported here, bioinformatic tools indicated a newly created 3' splice site, of which the existence was confirmed using pSpliceExpress, an easy-to-use and reliable splicing reporter tool. Our study emphasizes the idea that combining these two complementary approaches could increase the efficiency of routine molecular diagnosis.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 3989-3994, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016857

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a developmental condition characterized by multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movements. Homozygosity mapping of disease loci combined with whole exome sequencing in a consanguineous family presenting with lethal AMC allowed the identification of a homozygous frameshift deletion in UNC50 gene (c.750_751del:p.Cys251Phefs*4) in the index case. To assess the effect of the mutation, an equivalent mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologous gene was created using CRISPR/Cas9. We demonstrated that unc-50(kr331) modification caused the loss of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) expression in C. elegans muscle. unc-50(kr331) animals were as resistant to the cholinergic agonist levamisole as unc-50 null mutants suggesting that AChRs were no longer expressed in this animal model. This was confirmed by using a knock-in strain in which a red fluorescent protein was inserted into the AChR locus: no signal was detected in unc-50(kr331) background, suggesting that UNC-50, a protein known to be involved in AChR trafficking, was no longer functional. These data indicate that biallelic mutation in the UNC50 gene underlies AMC through a probable loss of AChR expression at the neuromuscular junction which is essential for the cholinergic transmission during human muscle development.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Artrogripose/metabolismo , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Junção Neuromuscular/genética , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Linhagem , Transporte Proteico , Receptores Colinérgicos/genética , Natimorto/genética
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 659-665, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28318499

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a developmental condition characterized by multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movements. Through genetic mapping of disease loci and whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated multiplex families presenting with severe AMC, we identified biallelic loss-of-function mutations in LGI4 (leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 4). LGI4 is a ligand secreted by Schwann cells that regulates peripheral nerve myelination via its cognate receptor ADAM22 expressed by neurons. Immunolabeling experiments and transmission electron microscopy of the sciatic nerve from one of the affected individuals revealed a lack of myelin. Functional tests using affected individual-derived iPSCs showed that these germline mutations caused aberrant splicing of the endogenous LGI4 transcript and in a cell-based assay impaired the secretion of truncated LGI4 protein. This is consistent with previous studies reporting arthrogryposis in Lgi4-deficient mice due to peripheral hypomyelination. This study adds to the recent reports implicating defective axoglial function as a key cause of AMC.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Mutação , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Artrogripose/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Linhagem
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(1): 62-71, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615324

RESUMO

Neutropenia can be qualified as congenital when of neonatal onset or when associated with extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Overall, 30% of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN) remain without a molecular diagnosis after a multidisciplinary consultation and tedious diagnostic strategy. In the rare situations when neutropenia is identified and associated with intellectual disability (ID), there are few diagnostic hypotheses to test. This retrospective multicenter study reports on a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 10 unrelated patients with CN associated with ID and no molecular diagnosis prior to whole-exome sequencing (WES). WES provided a diagnostic yield of 40% (4/10). The results suggested that in many cases neutropenia and syndromic manifestations could not be assigned to the same molecular alteration. Three sub-groups of patients were highlighted: (i) severe, symptomatic chronic neutropenia, detected early in life, and related to a known mutation in the CN spectrum (ELANE); (ii) mild to moderate benign intermittent neutropenia, detected later, and associated with mutations in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (CHD2, HUWE1); and (iii) moderate to severe intermittent neutropenia as a probably undiagnosed feature of a newly reported syndrome (KAT6A). Unlike KAT6A, which seems to be associated with a syndromic form of CN, the other reported mutations may not explain the entire clinical picture. Although targeted gene sequencing can be discussed for the primary diagnosis of severe CN, we suggest that performing WES for the diagnosis of disorders associating CN with ID will not only provide the etiological diagnosis but will also pave the way towards personalized care and follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Neutropenia/congênito , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome
11.
Epileptic Disord ; 18(S2): 128-134, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647482

RESUMO

A rare syndrome characterized by lower motor neuron disease associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, referred to as "spinal muscular atrophy associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy" (SMA-PME), has been described in childhood and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. SMA-PME is caused by mutation in the ASAH1 gene encoding acid ceramidase. Ceramide and the metabolites participate in various cellular events as lipid mediators. The catabolism of ceramide in mammals occurs in lysosomes through the activity of ceramidase. Three different ceramidases (acid, neutral and alkaline) have been identified and appear to play distinct roles in sphingolipid metabolism. The enzymatic activity of acid ceramidase is deficient in two rare inherited disorders; Farber disease and SMA-PME. Farber disease is a very rare and severe autosomal recessive condition with a distinct clinical phenotype. The marked difference in disease manifestations may explain why Farber and SMA-PME diseases were not previously suspected to be allelic conditions. The precise molecular mechanism underlying the phenotypic differences remains to be clarified. Recently, a condition with mutation in CERS1, the gene encoding ceramide synthase 1, has been identified as a novel form of PME. This finding underlies the essential role of enzymes regulating either the synthesis (CERS1) or degradation (ASAH1) of ceramide, and the link between defects in ceramide metabolism and PME.


Assuntos
Ceramidase Ácida/genética , Lipogranulomatose de Farber/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/genética , Animais , Humanos , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/fisiopatologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/fisiopatologia , Síndrome
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 928-933, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616481

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a developmental condition characterized by multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movements. Through linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in four unrelated families affected by lethal AMC, we identified biallelic mutations in GLDN in the affected individuals. GLDN encodes gliomedin, a secreted cell adhesion molecule involved in the formation of the nodes of Ranvier. Transmission electron microscopy of the sciatic nerve from one of the affected individuals showed a marked lengthening defect of the nodes. The GLDN mutations found in the affected individuals abolish the cell surface localization of gliomedin and its interaction with its axonal partner, neurofascin-186 (NF186), in a cell-based assay. The axoglial contact between gliomedin and NF186 is essential for the initial clustering of Na+ channels at developing nodes. These results indicate a major role of gliomedin in node formation and the development of the peripheral nervous system in humans. These data indicate that mutations of GLDN or CNTNAP1 (MIM: 616286), encoding essential components of the nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, lead to inherited nodopathies, a distinct disease entity among peripheral neuropathies.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Nós Neurofibrosos/metabolismo , Alelos , Axônios/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Linhagem , Ligação Proteica/genética , Nós Neurofibrosos/ultraestrutura
13.
JAMA Neurol ; 73(7): 812-20, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244217

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with a poor prognosis and a median survival of 3 years. However, a significant proportion of patients survive more than 10 years from symptom onset. OBJECTIVE: To identify gene variants influencing survival in ALS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyzed survival in data sets from several European countries and the United States that were collected by the Italian Consortium for the Genetics of ALS and the International Consortium on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetics. The study population included 4256 patients with ALS (3125 [73.4%] deceased) with genotype data extended to 7 174 392 variants by imputation analysis. Samples of DNA were collected from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2009, and analyzed from March 1, 2014, to February 28, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cox proportional hazards regression under an additive model with adjustment for age at onset, sex, and the first 4 principal components of ancestry, followed by meta-analysis, were used to analyze data. Survival distributions for the most associated genetic variants were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: Among the 4256 patients included in the analysis (2589 male [60.8%] and 1667 female [39.2%]; mean [SD] age at onset, 59 [12] years), the following 2 novel loci were significantly associated with ALS survival: at 10q23 (rs139550538; P = 1.87 × 10-9) and in the CAMTA1 gene at 1p36 (rs2412208, P = 3.53 × 10-8). At locus 10q23, the adjusted hazard ratio for patients with the rs139550538 AA or AT genotype was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.38-1.89; P = 1.87 × 10-9), corresponding to an 8-month reduction in survival compared with TT carriers. For rs2412208 CAMTA1, the adjusted hazard ratio for patients with the GG or GT genotype was 1.17 (95% CI, 1.11-1.24; P = 3.53 × 10-8), corresponding to a 4-month reduction in survival compared with TT carriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This GWAS robustly identified 2 loci at genome-wide levels of significance that influence survival in patients with ALS. Because ALS is a rare disease and prevention is not feasible, treatment that modifies survival is the most realistic strategy. Therefore, identification of modifier genes that might influence ALS survival could improve the understanding of the biology of the disease and suggest biological targets for pharmaceutical intervention. In addition, genetic risk scores for survival could be used as an adjunct to clinical trials to account for the genetic contribution to survival.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transativadores/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(4): 616-20, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26365340

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterized by the presence of multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movement. Here, we report two unrelated families affected by lethal AMC. By genetic mapping and whole-exome sequencing in a multiplex family, a heterozygous truncating MAGEL2 mutation leading to frameshift and a premature stop codon (c.1996delC, p.Gln666Serfs∗36) and inherited from the father was identified in the probands. In another family, a distinct heterozygous truncating mutation leading to frameshift (c.2118delT, p.Leu708Trpfs∗7) and occurring de novo on the paternal allele of MAGEL2 was identified in the affected individual. In both families, RNA analysis identified the mutated paternal MAGEL2 transcripts only in affected individuals. MAGEL2 is one of the paternally expressed genes within the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) locus. PWS is associated with, to varying extents, reduced fetal mobility, severe infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, hypogonadism, and intellectual disability. MAGEL2 mutations have been recently reported in affected individuals with features resembling PWS and called Schaaf-Yang syndrome. Here, we show that paternal MAGEL2 mutations are also responsible for lethal AMC, recapitulating the clinical spectrum of PWS and suggesting that MAGEL2 is a PWS-determining gene.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Feto/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(6): 955-61, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26004201

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is defined by the presence of contractures across two or more major joints and results from reduced or absent fetal movement. Here, we present three consanguineous families affected by lethal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. By whole-exome or targeted exome sequencing, it was shown that the probands each harbored a different homozygous mutation (one missense, one nonsense, and one frameshift mutation) in GPR126. GPR126 encodes G-protein-coupled receptor 126, which has been shown to be essential for myelination of axons in the peripheral nervous system in fish and mice. A previous study reported that Gpr126(-/-) mice have a lethal arthrogryposis phenotype. We have shown that the peripheral nerves in affected individuals from one family lack myelin basic protein, suggesting that this disease in affected individuals is due to defective myelination of the peripheral axons during fetal development. Previous work has suggested that autoproteolytic cleavage is important for activating GPR126 signaling, and our biochemical assays indicated that the missense substitution (p.Val769Glu [c.2306T>A]) impairs autoproteolytic cleavage of GPR126. Our data indicate that GPR126 is critical for myelination of peripheral nerves in humans. This study adds to the literature implicating defective axoglial function as a key cause of severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and suggests that GPR126 mutations should be investigated in individuals affected by this disorder.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Artrogripose/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Linhagem , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Neurology ; 84(12): 1220-4, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25716358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the underlying etiology of 3 patients in a multiplex family with strokes, chronic immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy, and hemolysis. All had onset in infancy. METHODS: We performed genome-wide linkage analysis followed by whole exome sequencing (WES) in the proband, Sanger sequencing, and segregation analysis of putative mutations. In addition, we conducted flow cytometry studies to assess CD59 expression. RESULTS: In a 2-generation-3-affected family with early-onset immune-mediated axonal neuropathy, cerebrovascular event both in the anterior and posterior circulation, and chronic Coombs-negative hemolysis, we detected CD59 deleterious mutation as the underlying cause. Linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays in the family followed by WES in one index case allowed identification of a homozygous missense mutation in the CD59 gene (c.A146T:p.Asp49Val). Sanger sequencing validated the mutation, showing cosegregation with the disease phenotype. Flow cytometry using blood cells in the 3 patients showed a lack of CD59 expression at the cell membrane compared to control and CD55 labeling. CONCLUSION: We added to the knowledge base about inherited CD59 deficiency.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica/genética , Anemia Hemolítica/fisiopatologia , Antígenos CD59/genética , Hemoglobinúria/genética , Hemoglobinúria/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Anemia Hemolítica/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemoglobinúria/complicações , Hemólise/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Turquia
18.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 4(3): 224-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650439

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy through their use as vital tools for regenerative and personalized medicine. However, the genomic integrity of hiPSCs still raises some concern and is one of the barriers limiting their use in clinical applications. Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of aneuploidies, copy number variations, or single point mutations in hiPSCs, and nonintegrative reprogramming strategies have been developed to minimize the impact of the reprogramming process on the hiPSC genome. Here, we report the characterization of an hiPSC line generated by daily transfections of modified messenger RNAs, displaying several genomic abnormalities. Karyotype analysis showed a complex genomic rearrangement, which remained stable during long-term culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the hiPSC line showing that this karyotype is balanced. Interestingly, single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed the presence of a large 1q region of uniparental disomy (UPD), demonstrating for the first time that UPD can occur in a noncompensatory context during nonintegrative reprogramming of normal fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Genoma Humano , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Humanos , Dissomia Uniparental/patologia
19.
Ann Neurol ; 76(1): 120-33, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24931836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Substantial clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap exists between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). TDP-43 inclusions have been found in both ALS and FTD cases (FTD-TDP). Recently, a repeat expansion in C9orf72 was identified as the causal variant in a proportion of ALS and FTD cases. We sought to identify additional evidence for a common genetic basis for the spectrum of ALS-FTD. METHODS: We used published genome-wide association studies data for 4,377 ALS patients and 13,017 controls, and 435 pathology-proven FTD-TDP cases and 1,414 controls for genotype imputation. Data were analyzed in a joint meta-analysis, by replicating topmost associated hits of one disease in the other, and by using a conservative rank products analysis, allocating equal weight to ALS and FTD-TDP sample sizes. RESULTS: Meta-analysis identified 19 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C9orf72 on chromosome 9p21.2 (lowest p = 2.6 × 10(-12) ) and 1 SNP in UNC13A on chromosome 19p13.11 (p = 1.0 × 10(-11) ) as shared susceptibility loci for ALS and FTD-TDP. Conditioning on the 9p21.2 genotype increased statistical significance at UNC13A. A third signal, on chromosome 8q24.13 at the SPG8 locus coding for strumpellin (p = 3.91 × 10(-7) ) was replicated in an independent cohort of 4,056 ALS patients and 3,958 controls (p = 0.026; combined analysis p = 1.01 × 10(-7) ). INTERPRETATION: We identified common genetic variants in C9orf72, but in addition in UNC13A that are shared between ALS and FTD. UNC13A provides a novel link between ALS and FTD-TDP, and identifies changes in neurotransmitter release and synaptic function as a converging mechanism in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD-TDP.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteína C9orf72 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/tendências , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 3(6): 686-91, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24736403

RESUMO

The use of synthetic messenger RNAs to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is particularly appealing for potential regenerative medicine applications, because it overcomes the common drawbacks of DNA-based or virus-based reprogramming strategies, including transgene integration in particular. We compared the genomic integrity of mRNA-derived iPSCs with that of retrovirus-derived iPSCs generated in strictly comparable conditions, by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses. We showed that mRNA-derived iPSCs do not differ significantly from the parental fibroblasts in SNP analysis, whereas retrovirus-derived iPSCs do. We found that the number of CNVs seemed independent of the reprogramming method, instead appearing to be clone-dependent. Furthermore, differentiation studies indicated that mRNA-derived iPSCs differentiated efficiently into hepatoblasts and that these cells did not load additional CNVs during differentiation. The integration-free hepatoblasts that were generated constitute a new tool for the study of diseased hepatocytes derived from patients' iPSCs and their use in the context of stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation. Our findings also highlight the need to conduct careful studies on genome integrity for the selection of iPSC lines before using them for further applications.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Retroviridae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transfecção/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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