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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are not enough nationwide studies on perinatal HIV transmission in connection with a combination of antiretroviral treatments in Spain. Our objectives were to study sociodemographic changes and trends in the rates of HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spain from 1997 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective study using data from Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) and Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MDBS) was performed. HIV- diagnosed children between 1997 and 2015 were selected. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunovirological data of HIV-infected children and their mothers were studied in four calendar periods (P1: 1997-2000; P2: 2001-2005; P3: 2006-2010; P4: 2011-2015). Rates of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission from 1997 to 2015 were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 532 HIV-infected children were included in this study. Of these children, 406 were Spanish (76.3%) and 126 immigrants (23.7%). A decrease in the number of HIV diagnoses, 203 (38.2%) children in the first (P1), 149 (28%) in the second (P2), 130 (24.4%) in the third (P3) and 50 (9.4%) in the fourth (P4) calendar periods was studied. The same decrease in the Spanish HIV-infected children (P1, 174 (46.6%), P2, 115 (30.8%), P3, 65 (17.4%) and P4, 19 (5.1%)) was monitored. However, an increase in the number of HIV diagnoses by sexual contact (P1: 0%; P2: 1.3%; P3: 4.6%; P4: 16%) was observed. The rates of new perinatal HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spanish children decreased from 0.167 to 0.005 per 100,000 inhabitants and 11.4% to 0.4% between 1997 and 2015, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A decline of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission was observed. However, an increase of teen-agers HIV diagnoses with sexual infection was studied. Public awareness campaigns directed to teen-agers are advisable to prevent HIV infection by sexual contact.

2.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515866

RESUMO

HIV co-infection has been suggested to play a deleterious role on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis among vertically HCV-infected children. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal evolution of vertically acquired HIV/HCV co-infection in youths, in comparison with HCV infection alone. This was a retrospective, multicentre study including vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients and age- and sex-matched vertically HCV-mono-infected patients. Progression to advanced liver fibrosis, defined as F3 or more by elastography or METAVIR biopsy staging, and response to treatment were compared by means of univariate and multivariate regression analyses and Cox regression models. Sixty-seven co-infected patients were compared with 67 matched HCV-mono-infected patients. No progression to advanced liver disease was observed during the first decade. At a median age of 20.0 [19.0, 22.0] years, 26.7% co-infected vs 20% mono-infected had progressed to advanced fibrosis (P = .617). Peg-IFN/RBV for HCV treatment was given to 37.9% vs 86.6% (P-value < .001). At treatment initiation, co-infected patients were older (16.9 ± 4.1 vs 11.7 ± 4.5 years, P < .001), and 47.1% vs 7.1% showed advanced fibrosis (P < .003), with no differences in hard-to-treat genotype distribution. Sustained viral response was comparable between groups (43.5% vs 44.0%, P = .122). In vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients, the progression to liver fibrosis was rare during childhood. At the end of adolescence, over 25% of patients displayed advanced liver disease. Response to Peg-IFN/RBV was poor and comparable in both groups, supporting the need for fast access to early treatment with direct-acting antivirals against HCV for vertically co-infected patients.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with marked immune reconstitution. Although a long term viral suppression is achievable, not all children however, attain complete immunological recovery due to persistent immune activation. We use CD4/CD8 ratio like a marker of immune reconstitution. METHODS: Perinatal HIV-infected children who underwent a first-line cART, achieved viral suppression in the first year and maintained it for more than 5 years, with no viral rebound were included. Logistic models were applied to estimate the prognostic factors, clinical characteristics at cART start, of a lower CD4/CD8 ratio at the last visit. RESULTS: 146 HIV-infected children were included: 77% Caucasian, 45% male and 28% CDC C. Median age at cART initiation was 2.3 years (IQR: 0.5-6.2). 42 (30%) children received mono-dual therapy previously to cART. Time of undetectable viral load was 9.5 years (IQR: 7.8, 12.5). 33% of the children not achieved CD4/CD8 ratio >1. Univariate analysis showed an association between CD4/CD8 <1 with lower CD4 nadir and baseline CD4; older age at diagnosis and at cART initiation; and a previous exposure to mono-dual therapy. Multivariate analysis also revealed relationship between CD4/CD8 <1 and lower CD4 nadir (OR: 1.002, CI 95% 1.000-1.004) as well as previous exposure to mono-dual therapy (OR: 0.16, CI 95% 0.003-0.720). CONCLUSIONS: CD4/CD8 >1 was not achieved in 33% of the children. Lower CD4 nadir and previous exposure to suboptimal therapy, before initiating cART, are factors showing independently association with a worse immune recovery (CD4/CD8 < 1).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929024

RESUMO

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients.

6.
Oncol Rep ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483799

RESUMO

Erythropoietin (Epo) is used for the treatment of cancer­associated anaemia. However, certain studies have identified that the administration of Epo mediates the acquisition of resistance to cisplatin, which is widely used to treat cervical cancer. Our group previously reported that cervical cancer cells express Epo receptor and that exogenous Epo induces cell proliferation and migration. However, the effect of Epo on cervical cancer cell death mediated by chemotherapeutic agents has not yet been evaluated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential effect of Epo on the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer cells. The effect of Epo was assessed in 3 cervical cancer­derived cell lines. It was observed that pre­incubation with Epo induced a significant reduction of cisplatin­induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Incubation with Epo induced the expression and activation of the transcriptional factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which in turn stimulated the expression and activation of the anti­apoptotic protein survivin. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin was partially restored by treating the cells with MY155, an inhibitor of survivin. Conversely, inhibition of STAT3 activation using sub­lethal doses of WP1066, completely abolished the cytoprotective effect of Epo. These observations indicated that Epo was able to hinder the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in cervical cancer cells by activating anti­apoptotic responses regulated by STAT3.

7.
Prog. obstet. ginecol. (Ed. impr.) ; 61(5): 444-448, sept.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-175078

RESUMO

Objective: To study the prevalence of risk factors associated with obstetric anal sphincter injury and its development in the short term. Material and methods: Observational retrospective study of grade III and IV tears over a period of 3 years. We evaluated maternal risk factors and factors related to childbirth. We also followed patients during the first year after delivery. Results: The incidence of anal sphincter tears was 2.03% (62.6% type IIIA). The principal modifiable risk factors were instrumental delivery (61%), with a relative risk of laceration of 9.1% for forceps, 4.4% for vacuum extraction, and 3.6% for spatulas, compared with 0.86% for normal deliveries. Prolonged labor (more than 3 hours) was recorded in nearly 50% of patients. The main nonmodifiable risk factor was primiparity (85.1% of cases). At the first check-up, 63.9% of patients were asymptomatic; at the second, 92.7% were asymptomatic, and perineal tone had improved. Conclusion: Health professionals must be trained to assess risk factors for perineal tears, as well as to make a correct diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment. Patients should be followed up and receive instructions on pelvic floor muscle exercises


Objetivo: estudiar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo relacionados con los desgarros del esfínter anal y su evolución clínica a corto plazo. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo observacional de desgarros de III y IV grado durante 3 años. Hemos valorado factores de riesgo maternos y aquellos relacionados con el parto. Además hemos seguido a las pacientes durante el primer año postparto. Resultados: la incidencia de desgarros del esfínter anal ha sido del 2,03%, siendo el 62,6% de tipo IIIA. Como factores de riesgo modificables han destacado el parto instrumental (61%); con un riesgo relativo de desgarro para el fórceps del 9,1%, del 4,4% para las ventosas y del 3,6% para las espátulas, frente al 0,86% para los partos eutócicos. El expulsivo prolongado de más de 3 horas se ha dado en casi el 50% de pacientes. Dentro de los no modificables observamos la primiparidad en el 85,1% de casos. En el primer control clínico el 63,9% de las pacientes están asintomáticas y en el segundo el 92,7%, objetivando también una mejoría del tono perineal. Conclusión: la formación de los profesionales es fundamental para valorar los factores de riesgo y el correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas lesiones. Además es importante realizar un control evolutivo de estas pacientes y enseñarles a ejercitar la musculatura pélvica


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Períneo/lesões , Canal Anal/lesões , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cistocele/reabilitação , Retocele/reabilitação
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(2): 269-276, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children aged 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2-4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24-45] %, CD8% 28 [18-36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4-5.9] copies per milliliter. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6-19.3] months. After suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL 50-400 followed by VL <50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL ≥400 followed by VL <50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6195] copies/10 PBMC. Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, P = 0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, P = 0.0022) and the absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/suboptimal response, P = 0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1-infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting ART <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2,4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24,45] %, CD8% 28 [18,36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4,5.9] copies/ml. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6,19.3] months. Following suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL50-400 followed by VL<50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL≥400 followed by VL<50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6,195] copies/10 PBMC.Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, p=0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, p=0.0022) and absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/ suboptimal response, p=0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSION: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1 infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(39): e7858, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953612

RESUMO

Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe). Demographic, clinical, immunological, and virological data at diagnosis were obtained. The rate of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children was calculated as the number of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Obstetric data of mothers of Spanish children and prophylaxis at childbirth and postpartum were obtained.A total of 218 HIV-infected children were included in the study. Of this sample, 182 children (83.5%) were perinatally HIV infected, and 125 out of those 182 children (68.7%) were born in Spain. The vertically HIV-infected Spanish children were diagnosed earlier and were in better clinical and immunological condition at diagnosis than were foreign children. The rate of vertically HIV-infected children declined from 0.09 in 2004 to 0.03 in 2013 due to the decrease in the rate of children born in Spain (0.08 in 2004 vs 0.01 in 2013). A total of 60 out of 107 mothers (56.1%) of Spanish children were diagnosed at or after childbirth. However, this number declined between 2004 and 2013.The rate of new HIV diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children decreased significantly between 2004 and 2013 from 0.09 to 0.03 per 100,000 inhabitants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183558, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are reaching adulthood and becoming pregnant. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression. Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus. The aims of this study were to describe the prevention of mother-to-child transmission strategies in PHIV women and the infant outcomes in the Madrid Cohort of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs. METHODS: All PHIV pregnant women registered in the Cohort that gave birth from 2000 to 2015 were included in the study. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pregnancies in twenty-two perinatally infected women were registered. Most women were Caucasian and heavily treatment-experienced. Nine cases (32.1%) were at high risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was detectable close to delivery in four women (14.3%). The management of these cases was described, and the treatment strategies were discussed. None of the newborns acquired HIV infection. Eight infants (28.6%) were small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: This study included a large series of pregnancies among PHIV women attended according to a youth-centered care model. The challenges in the management of this population by health-care providers were described. Specific strategies to minimize perinatal transmission risks should be addressed in future collaborative studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 36(6): 578-583, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in vertically HIV-infected patients and to investigate whether low BMD is related to immune activation and senescence induced by HIV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 98 vertically HIV-infected patients. BMD was measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Height adjustment of BMD Z score was performed using height-for-age Z score. T-cell immune activation and senescence were analyzed in a subgroup of 54 patients by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Median age was 15.9 years, 71.4% were Caucasian, 99% received antiretroviral therapy and 80.6% had undetectable viral load. Low BMD (BMD Z score ≤ -2) was present in 15.3% of cases, but after height adjustment in 4.1% of cases. Height-adjusted BMD Z score was positively correlated with body mass index Z score, CD4/CD8 ratio and nadir CD4, and inversely with duration of severe immunosuppression and parathyroid hormone values. In the multivariate model including age, gender, ethnicity, encephalopathy, Tanner stage, nadir CD4, duration of viral suppression, CD4 count, CD4/CD8 ratio, body mass index, cumulative duration of antiretroviral therapy, tenofovir and protease inhibitors exposure, nadir CD4 was independently associated to height-adjusted BMD Z score. No association was found between height-adjusted BMD Z score and T-cell activation or senescence. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of low BMD in vertically HIV-infected patients was low after height adjustment. Nadir CD4, but not T-cell activation or senescence, was an independent predictor for low BMD. Larger and prospective studies are needed to achieve better knowledge of the pathogenesis of low BMD in vertical HIV infection.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Adolescente , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Estatura , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
16.
Vaccine ; 34(46): 5587-5594, 2016 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27727030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV. This survey was completed to assess current vaccination practices and attitudes toward vaccination among pediatricians who care for vertically HIV infected children. METHODS: An online questionnaire was completed by 46 experts in paediatric HIV-infection from the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA). Data were collected between November 2013 and March 2014. RESULTS: 46units looking after 2465 patients completed the questionnaire. The majority of units (67%) reported that common childhood immunisation were administered by the family doctor or local health services rather than in the HIV specialist centre. Vaccination histories were mostly incomplete and difficult to obtain for 40% of the studied population. Concerns were reported regarding the use of live attenuated vaccines, such as varicella and rotavirus, and these were less frequently recommended (61% and 28% of the units respectively). Monitoring of vaccine responses was employed in a minority of centres (41%). A range of different assays were used resulting in diverse units of measurement and proposed correlates of protection. CONCLUSION: Vaccination practices for perinatally HIV-infected children vary a great deal between countries. Efforts should be made to improve communication and documentation of vaccinations in healthcare settings and to harmonise recommendations relating to additional vaccines for HIV infected children and the use of laboratory assays to guide immunisation. This will ultimately improve coverage and vaccine induced immunity in this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Padrões de Prática Médica , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas Atenuadas
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 35(7): 794-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival of children with combined immunodeficiency is strongly related to patient's age and clinical situation at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the clinical features before HSCT or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in a cohort of children treated in a National Reference Unit. METHODS: A retrospective study of children with CIDs treated in our Hospital during a 20-year period (1995-2014) was performed, analyzing their clinical situation before HSCT/ERT. RESULTS: Thirty-one children were included. Risk factors such as family history or consanguinity were present in 35% of cases, but only 3 children (9%) were initially studied because of family history. Median ages at clinical onset, diagnosis and HSCT/ERT were 3.3, 5.6 and 8.1 months, respectively. All patients had lymphopenia before HSCT/ERT. At the time of admission to our unit, 68% of cases had abnormal lung auscultation, 72% were malnourished, 45% reported chronic gastroenteritis and 35% had hepatosplenomegaly. Before HSCT/ERT, respiratory infections and sepsis episodes were documented in 80% and 42% of cases, respectively. In 23% of children, a viral systemic infection was confirmed. The mortality rate was 35%, and 72% of children who died had Gram-negative bacterial sepsis or a viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows the characteristics and outcome of children with CIDs in the absence of neonatal screening. Although all our patients had lymphopenia and most of them had suffered relevant infections or had a positive family history, these factors were not identified early. Respiratory and systemic viral infections were the main source of infection with important implications in clinical outcome. Our results highlight the importance of the implementation of neonatal screening, to improve survival rates.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Bacteriemia/imunologia , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia
20.
AIDS Care ; 28(1): 124-30, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307530

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Advances in care and antiretroviral treatment, improved life expectancy and quality of life in children with perinatally-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There is increasing interest in the chronic effects of growing up with HIV. The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial, emotional and behavioural functioning in a cohort of perinatally-acquired HIV-infected adolescents. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for emotional and behavioural disorders screening. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients (58% women) were assessed with a median age of 15 years (11-19.1) and a median age at diagnosis of 1.7 years (0-12.2). The median CD4 count, at the inclusion, was 626 cells/mm(3) (132-998), with 34% (10-52%). Viral load was <50 copies/ml in 72% of patients. Eighty-one per cent knew their diagnosis and optimal adherence was achieved in 53%. Passive coping was reported in 58.4% of the adolescents. Only 7.7% of teenagers had a complete and adequate knowledge of their disease and only 18.2% had shared it with their friends. Six unwanted pregnancies occurred (11% of women). Most of them (90%) attended school but 60% had been held back one or more school years. Overall, SDQ scored a risk of behavioural and emotional problems in 24.5%. The report of behaviours associated with hyperactivity was high in 14.9% of the population and borderline in 18.1%. Adolescents with encephalopathy accounted for 44% of those whose total scores fell in either the abnormal and borderline ranges for emotional difficulties (p = .038). CONCLUSION: Perinatally-acquired HIV-infected adolescents showed significant psychosocial and behavioural health risks that should bring attention to prevention and health care programmes. An earlier disclosure to children could favour a better psychological adjustment and a better treatment adherence. Future studies are needed to assess the relationship between vertically acquired HIV-infection and hyperactivity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Adesão à Medicação , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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