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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(3): 184, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170115

RESUMO

Prevailing insulin resistance and the resultant hyperglycemia elicits a compensatory response from pancreatic islet beta cells (ß-cells) that involves increases in ß-cell function and ß-cell mass. However, the sustained metabolic stress eventually leads to ß-cell failure characterized by severe ß-cell dysfunction and progressive loss of ß-cell mass. Whereas, ß-cell dysfunction is relatively well understood at the mechanistic level, the avenues leading to loss of ß-cell mass are less clear with reduced proliferation, dedifferentiation, and apoptosis all potential mechanisms. Butler and colleagues documented increased ß-cell apoptosis in pancreas from lean and obese human Type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects, with no changes in rates of ß-cell replication or neogenesis, strongly suggesting a role for apoptosis in ß-cell failure. Here, we describe a permissive role for TGF-ß/Smad3 in ß-cell apoptosis. Human islets undergoing ß-cell apoptosis release increased levels of TGF-ß1 ligand and phosphorylation levels of TGF-ß's chief transcription factor, Smad3, are increased in human T2D islets suggestive of an autocrine role for TGF-ß/Smad3 signaling in ß-cell apoptosis. Smad3 phosphorylation is similarly increased in diabetic mouse islets undergoing ß-cell apoptosis. In mice, ß-cell-specific activation of Smad3 promotes apoptosis and loss of ß-cell mass in association with ß-cell dysfunction, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. In contrast, inactive Smad3 protects from apoptosis and preserves ß-cell mass while improving ß-cell function and glucose tolerance. At the molecular level, Smad3 associates with Foxo1 to propagate TGF-ß-dependent ß-cell apoptosis. Indeed, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of TGF-ß/Smad3 signals or knocking down Foxo1 protects from ß-cell apoptosis. These findings reveal the importance of TGF-ß/Smad3 in promoting ß-cell apoptosis and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of TGF-ß/Smad3 antagonism to restore ß-cell mass lost in diabetes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1488, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662071

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is due to the selective destruction of islet beta cells by immune cells. Current therapies focused on repressing the immune attack or stimulating beta cell regeneration still have limited clinical efficacy. Therefore, it is timely to identify innovative targets to dampen the immune process, while promoting beta cell survival and function. Liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that represses inflammation in digestive organs, and protects pancreatic islets against apoptosis. Here, we show that BL001, a small LRH-1 agonist, impedes hyperglycemia progression and the immune-dependent inflammation of pancreas in murine models of T1DM, and beta cell apoptosis in islets of type 2 diabetic patients, while increasing beta cell mass and insulin secretion. Thus, we suggest that LRH-1 agonism favors a dialogue between immune and islet cells, which could be druggable to protect against diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenalenos/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/imunologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/imunologia , Estreptozocina , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Transplante Heterólogo
4.
Diabetes ; 67(3): 448-460, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263149

RESUMO

GATA4 and GATA6 play essential, but redundant, roles in pancreas formation in mice, and GATA6 mutations cause pancreatic agenesis in humans. GATA6 mutations have also recently been linked to adult-onset diabetes, with subclinical or no exocrine insufficiency, suggesting an important role for GATA6 in human ß-cell physiology. To investigate the role of GATA6 in the adult endocrine pancreas, we generated mice in which Gata6 is specifically inactivated in the pancreas. These mice develop glucose intolerance. Islets deficient in GATA6 activity display decreased insulin content and impaired insulin secretion. Gata6-deficient ß-cells exhibit ultrastructural abnormalities, including increased immature insulin granules, swollen mitochondria, and disorganized endoplasmic reticulum. We also demonstrate that Pdx1 expression in adult ß-cells depends on GATA sites in transgenic reporter mice and that loss of GATA6 greatly affects ß-cell-specific gene expression. These findings demonstrate the essential role of GATA6 in ß-cell function.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/biossíntese , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Reporter , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Mutação , Biogênese de Organelas , Vesículas Secretórias/patologia , Vesículas Secretórias/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
5.
Br J Pharmacol ; 174(21): 3795-3810, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thyroid hormones induce several changes in whole body metabolism that are known to improve metabolic homeostasis. However, adverse side effects have prevented its use in the clinic. In view of the promising effects of thyroid hormones, we investigated the effects of levothyroxine supplementation on glucose homeostasis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: C57BL/6 mice were treated with levothyroxine from birth to 24 weeks of age, when mice were killed. The effects of levothyroxine supplementation on metabolic health were determined. C57BL/6 mice treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and then challenged with streptozotocin to monitor survival. Mechanistic experiments were conducted in the pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle. RIP-B7.1 mice were treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and were subsequently immunized to trigger experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD). Metabolic tests were performed. Mice were killed and metabolic tissues were extracted for immunohistological analyses. KEY RESULTS: Long-term levothyroxine supplementation enhanced glucose clearance and reduced circulating glucose in C57BL/6 mice. Levothyroxine increased simultaneously the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells, promoting the maintenance of a highly insulin-expressing beta cell population. Levothyroxine increased circulating insulin levels, inducing sustained activation of IRS1-AKT signalling in insulin-target tissues. Levothyroxine-treated C57BL/6 mice challenged with streptozotocin exhibited extended survival. Levothyroxine blunted the onset of EAD in RIP-B7.1 mice by inducing beta cell proliferation and preservation of insulin-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Interventions based on the use of thyroid hormones or thyromimetics could be explored to provide therapeutic benefit in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Tiroxina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem
6.
Diabetologia ; 59(4): 755-65, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26813254

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A strategy to enhance pancreatic islet functional beta cell mass (BCM) while restraining inflammation, through the manipulation of molecular and cellular targets, would provide a means to counteract the deteriorating glycaemic control associated with diabetes mellitus. The aims of the current study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of such a target, the islet-enriched and diabetes-linked transcription factor paired box 4 (PAX4), to restrain experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD) in the RIP-B7.1 mouse model background and to characterise putative cellular mechanisms associated with preserved BCM. METHODS: Two groups of RIP-B7.1 mice were genetically engineered to: (1) conditionally express either PAX4 (BPTL) or its diabetes-linked mutant variant R129W (mutBPTL) using doxycycline (DOX); and (2) constitutively express luciferase in beta cells through the use of RIP. Mice were treated or not with DOX, and EAD was induced by immunisation with a murine preproinsulin II cDNA expression plasmid. The development of hyperglycaemia was monitored for up to 4 weeks following immunisation and alterations in the BCM were assessed weekly by non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence intensity (BLI). In parallel, BCM, islet cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Alterations in PAX4- and PAX4R129W-mediated islet gene expression were investigated by microarray profiling. PAX4 preservation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis was assessed using thapsigargin, electron microscopy and intracellular calcium measurements. RESULTS: PAX4 overexpression blunted EAD, whereas the diabetes-linked mutant variant PAX4R129W did not convey protection. PAX4-expressing islets exhibited reduced insulitis and decreased beta cell apoptosis, correlating with diminished DNA damage and increased islet cell proliferation. Microarray profiling revealed that PAX4 but not PAX4R129W targeted expression of genes implicated in cell cycle and ER homeostasis. Consistent with the latter, islets overexpressing PAX4 were protected against thapsigargin-mediated ER-stress-related apoptosis. Luminal swelling associated with ER stress induced by thapsigargin was rescued in PAX4-overexpressing beta cells, correlating with preserved cytosolic calcium oscillations in response to glucose. In contrast, RNA interference mediated repression of PAX4-sensitised MIN6 cells to thapsigargin cell death. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The coordinated regulation of distinct cellular pathways particularly related to ER homeostasis by PAX4 not achieved by the mutant variant PAX4R129W alleviates beta cell degeneration and protects against diabetes mellitus. The raw data for the RNA microarray described herein are accessible in the Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE62846.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Feminino , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes
7.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15672, 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26503027

RESUMO

PAX4 is a key regulator of pancreatic islet development whilst in adult acute overexpression protects ß-cells against stress-induced apoptosis and stimulates proliferation. Nonetheless, sustained PAX4 expression promotes ß-cell dedifferentiation and hyperglycemia, mimicking ß-cell failure in diabetic patients. Herein, we study mechanisms that allow stringent PAX4 regulation endowing favorable ß-cell adaptation in response to changing environment without loss of identity. To this end, PAX4 expression was monitored using a mouse bearing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cre recombinase construct under the control of the islet specific pax4 promoter. GFP was detected in 30% of islet cells predominantly composed of PAX4-enriched ß-cells that responded to glucose-induced insulin secretion. Lineage tracing demonstrated that all islet cells were derived from PAX4(+) progenitor cells but that GFP expression was confined to a subpopulation at birth which declined with age correlating with reduced replication. However, this GFP(+) subpopulation expanded during pregnancy, a state of active ß-cell replication. Accordingly, enhanced proliferation was exclusively detected in GFP(+) cells consistent with cell cycle genes being stimulated in PAX4-overexpressing islets. Under stress conditions, GFP(+) cells were more resistant to apoptosis than their GFP(-) counterparts. Our data suggest PAX4 defines an expandable ß-cell sub population within adult islets.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/metabolismo , Animais , Desdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/classificação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
8.
Curr Gene Ther ; 15(4): 436-46, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26122098

RESUMO

Successful normalization of blood glucose in patients transplanted with pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric donors established the proof-of-concept that Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is a curable disease. Nonetheless, major caveats to the widespread use of this cell therapy approach have been the shortage of islets combined with the low viability and functional rates subsequent to transplantation. Gene therapy targeted to enhance survival and performance prior to transplantation could offer a feasible approach to circumvent these issues and sustain a durable functional ß-cell mass in vivo. However, efficient and safe delivery of nucleic acids to intact islet remains a challenging task. Here we describe a simple and easy-to-use lentiviral transduction protocol that allows the transduction of approximately 80 % of mouse and human islet cells while preserving islet architecture, metabolic function and glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion. Our protocol will facilitate to fully determine the potential of gene expression modulation of therapeutically promising targets in entire pancreatic islets for xenotransplantation purposes.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Lentivirus/genética , Transdução Genética/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Diabetes ; 63(1): 216-23, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24089510

RESUMO

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen required for ß-cell replication during pregnancy. To determine whether HGF/c-Met signaling is required for ß-cell regeneration, we characterized mice with pancreatic deletion of the HGF receptor, c-Met (PancMet KO mice), in two models of reduced ß-cell mass and regeneration: multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) and partial pancreatectomy (Ppx). We also analyzed whether HGF administration could accelerate ß-cell regeneration in wild-type (WT) mice after Ppx. Mouse islets obtained 7 days post-Ppx displayed significantly increased c-Met, suggesting a potential role for HGF/c-Met in ß-cell proliferation in situations of reduced ß-cell mass. Indeed, adult PancMet KO mice displayed markedly reduced ß-cell replication compared with WT mice 7 days post-Ppx. Similarly, ß-cell proliferation was decreased in PancMet KO mice in the MLDS mouse model. The decrease in ß-cell proliferation post-Ppx correlated with a striking decrease in D-cyclin levels. Importantly, PancMet KO mice showed significantly diminished ß-cell mass, decreased glucose tolerance, and impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice 28 days post-Ppx. Conversely, HGF administration in WT Ppx mice further accelerated ß-cell regeneration. These results indicate that HGF/c-Met signaling is critical for ß-cell proliferation in situations of diminished ß-cell mass and suggest that activation of this pathway can enhance ß-cell regeneration.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pancreatectomia , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Transplant ; 2012: 230870, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22919462

RESUMO

Islet ß-cell replacement and regeneration are two promising approaches for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Indeed, the success of islet transplantation in normalizing blood glucose in diabetic patients has provided the proof of principle that cell replacement can be employed as a safe and efficacious treatment. Nonetheless, shortage of organ donors has hampered expansion of this approach. Alternative sources of insulin-producing cells are mandatory to fill this gap. Although great advances have been achieved in generating surrogate ß-cells from stem cells, current protocols have yet to produce functionally mature insulin-secreting cells. Recently, the concept of islet regeneration in which new ß-cells are formed from either residual ß-cell proliferation or transdifferentiation of other endocrine islet cells has gained much interest as an attractive therapeutic alternative to restore ß-cell mass. Complementary approaches to cell replacement and regeneration could aim at enhancing ß-cell survival and function. Herein, we discuss the value of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP), Paired box gene 4 (Pax4) and Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) as key players for ß-cell replacement and regeneration therapies. These factors convey ß-cell protection and enhanced function as well as facilitating proliferation and transdifferentiation of other pancreatic cell types to ß-cells, under stressful conditions.

11.
EMBO J ; 30(8): 1563-76, 2011 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21399612

RESUMO

RB is a key substrate of Cdks and an important regulator of the mammalian cell cycle. RB either represses E2Fs that promote cell proliferation or enhances the activity of cell-specific factors that promote differentiation, although the mechanism that facilitates this dual interaction is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RB associates with and stabilizes pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx-1) that is essential for embryonic pancreas development and adult ß-cell function. Interestingly, Pdx-1 utilizes a conserved RB-interaction motif (RIM) that is also present in E2Fs. Point mutations within the RIM reduce RB-Pdx-1 complex formation, destabilize Pdx-1 and promote its proteasomal degradation. Glucose regulates RB and Pdx-1 levels, RB/Pdx-1 complex formation and Pdx-1 degradation. RB occupies the promoters of ß-cell-specific genes, and knockdown of RB results in reduced expression of Pdx-1 and its target genes. Further, RB-deficiency in vivo results in reduced pancreas size due to decreased proliferation of Pdx-1(+) pancreatic progenitors, increased apoptosis and aberrant expression of regulators of pancreatic development. These results demonstrate an unanticipated regulatory mechanism for pancreatic development and ß-cell function, which involves RB-mediated stabilization of the pancreas-specific transcription factor Pdx-1.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição E2F/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Transativadores/química , Transativadores/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/farmacologia , Imunoprecipitação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fosforilação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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