Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 317
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587109

RESUMO

Sleep disturbances and cognitive impairments are both frequent across psychotic disorders, with debilitating effects on functioning and quality of life. This study aims to investigate if sleep disturbances are related to cognitive impairments in schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), if this relationship varies between different sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia or delayed sleep phase (DSP)) and lastly, if this relationship differs between clinical groups and healthy controls (HC). We included 797 patients (SCZ = 457, BD = 340) from the Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT) study in Norway. Sleep disturbances were based on items from the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Clinician rated scale (IDS-C). Their relationship with several cognitive domains was tested using separate ANCOVAs. A three-way between-groups ANOVA was conducted to test if the relationship with cognitive impairments varies between different sleep disturbances. These analyses revealed significantly poorer processing speed and inhibition in those with any sleep disturbance versus those without, also after adjusting for several covariates. The relationship between sleep disturbances and cognition was similar across SCZ and BD, and there were significant effects of insomnia and hypersomnia on both processing speed and inhibition. No association between sleep disturbances and cognition was found in HC. Sleep disturbances contribute to cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders. Processing speed and inhibition is poorer in patients with sleep disturbances. Impairments in these domains are related to insomnia and hypersomnia. These findings suggest that treating sleep disturbances is important to protect cognitive functioning, alongside cognitive remediation in psychotic disorders.

2.
Psychiatry Res ; 281: 112554, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499342

RESUMO

We investigate negative symptoms over a 1-year follow-up period with the objective to see how groups defined according to level of symptom severity are related to cognition. Eighty-seven participants with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and matched healthy controls were assessed at baseline and follow-up. FEP participants were sub-grouped based on negative symptom items from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-R) with either no, mild, transitory or sustained symptoms over one year. Following an overall MANOVA, groups were compared on cognitive domains and a cognitive composite using ANOVAs. Cognitive course was explored with a MANOVA. We found a group effect on cognition. Participants who sustained negative symptoms were significantly outperformed by participants with no negative symptoms on executive functions and processing speed, and by those with mild or transitory symptoms on verbal learning and memory. Participants with sustained negative symptoms performed significantly poorer on the cognitive composite than those with no or mild negative symptoms. The group with no negative symptoms did not differ significantly from healthy controls on any cognitive measure, and the groups did not differ in cognitive course. Early course of negative symptoms is associated with cognition and could guide clinicians when evaluating need for cognitive assessment.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

4.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recovery is the ultimate goal of psychosis treatment. Basic self-disturbances (BSDs) are non-psychotic phenomena associated with clinical outcome, present in prodromal, psychotic and residual phases of psychotic disorders. AIM: To investigate the relationship between BSDs and recovery seven years after first treatment in patients with psychotic disorders. METHOD: Prospective longitudinal study of 56 patients recruited during first adequate treatment for schizophrenia (n = 35) and other psychotic disorders (n = 21) (psychotic bipolar disorder, delusional disorder, psychotic disorder NOS). At baseline and follow-up BSDs were assessed using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) manual, while standard clinical instruments were used to ascertained diagnosis, clinical symptom severity, and functioning. Recovery was defined as absence of psychotic symptoms and regaining of functioning that persisted the last two years before follow-up. RESULTS: At follow up, 34% achieved recovery (5 (14%) with schizophrenia and 14 (67%) with other psychoses at baseline). Recovery was predicted by an absence of a schizophrenia diagnosis, low baseline level of BSDs and further reductions in BSDs from baseline to follow-up. Change in BSDs was the strongest predictor, also after adjusting for premorbid adjustment and duration of untreated psychosis, and was not confounded by diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Low baseline levels of basic self-disturbances and further reductions over time independently predict recovery seven years later in first treated psychosis patients.

5.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(8): 947-959, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255394

RESUMO

Negative symptoms represent an unmet need of treatment in schizophrenia. Although a consensus exists on negative symptom construct, and second generation assessment instruments reflecting the consensus are available, studies still rely upon old assessment instruments, that do not reflect recent conceptualizations and might limit progress in the search for effective treatments. This is often the case in the European context, where one of the challenges encountered in designing large studies is the availability of validated instruments in the many languages of the continent. To address this challenge and promote sound research on negative symptoms in Europe, the ECNP Schizophrenia Network coordinated a large multicenter, multinational validation study of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Clinically-stable subjects with schizophrenia (SCZ, N = 249) were recruited from 10 European Countries. Apart from BNSS, subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and standardized instruments for depression, extrapyramidal symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Results showed an excellent internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity of BNSS and replicated a 5 factor-model. A larger number of subjects with predominant negative symptoms, i.e. the target population for clinical trials, was identified by using the BNSS compared to the PANSS. Regression analysis showed that BNSS-avolition, a key negative symptom poorly assessed by PANSS, explained 23.9% of psychosocial functioning, while no combination of the PANSS core negative symptoms showed the same impact on functioning. The study demonstrated that BNSS has substantial advantages with respect to PANSS for the identification of the avolition domain and subjects with predominant negative symptoms.

6.
J Dual Diagn ; 15(3): 192-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164045

RESUMO

Objective: Physical disorders in patients with severe mental illness (SMI) are common and they tend to be underdiagnosed by clinicians, which might lead to negative treatment outcomes. The presence of substance use disorders could further aggravate the situation. There are existing systematic reviews on physical disorders among individuals with SMI in general but none of these previous reviews stratified their findings by substance use disorder status. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence on the frequency of comorbid physical disorders among patients with SMI with or without substance use disorders. Methods: We searched for studies published in English between 1988 and 2017 in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, Scopus, WHO Global Health Library (Global Index Medicus), Google Scholar, OpenGrey, the Grey Literature Report, Cochrane Library, International Standardized Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and PROSPERO. There was no geographical restriction and the target population was adults (≥18 years) with diagnosed SMI including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychotic illnesses. The outcome of interest was physical disorder. Results: A total of 6,994 records were retrieved. Only 30 papers (representing 24 studies) met our inclusion criteria and 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of most of the reported physical disorders was higher in SMI patients with substance use disorders than in those without substance use disorders. When ranked according to pooled prevalence level, hypertension (35.6%), tardive dyskinesia (35.4%), and hepatitis C (26.9%) were the most prevalent physical disorders among SMI patients with substance use disorders. For SMI patients without substance use disorders, hypertension (32.5%), tardive dyskinesia (25.1%), and endocrine disease (19.0%) were more common. Estimates for diabetes (7.5% vs. 7.5%) and cardiovascular diseases (11.8% vs. 11.3%) were similar across groups. Conclusions: Physical disorders among SMI patients vary by substance use disorder status. Clinicians managing SMI in patients should screen for physical disorders and substance use disorders and provide treatment or referral. Registration: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registration number CRD42017072286.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(6): e13957, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with psychosis are heavy consumers of social media. It is unknown to what degree measures of social functioning include measures of online social activity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the inclusion of social media activity in measures of social functioning in psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. METHODS: Two independent authors conducted a search using the following electronic databases: Epistemonikos, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. The included articles were required to meet all of the following criteria: (1) an empirical study published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal; (2) the study included a measure of objective or subjective offline (ie, non-Web-mediated contact) and/or online social functioning (ie, Web-mediated contact); (3) the social functioning measure had to be used in samples meeting criteria (ie, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or International Classification of Diseases) for a psychotic disorder or UHR for psychosis; and (4) the study was published between January 2004 and February 2019. Facebook was launched as the first large-scale social media platform in 2004 and, therefore, it is highly improbable that studies conducted prior to 2004 would have included measures of social media activity. RESULTS: The electronic search resulted in 11,844 distinct articles. Full-text evaluation was conducted on 719 articles, of which 597 articles met inclusion criteria. A total of 58 social functioning measures were identified. With some exceptions, reports on reliability and validity were scarce, and only one measure integrated social media social activity. CONCLUSIONS: The ecological validity of social functioning measures is challenged by the lack of assessment of social media activity, as it fails to reflect an important aspect of the current social reality of persons with psychosis. Measures should be revised to include social media activity and thus avoid the clinical consequences of inadequate assessment of social functioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017058514; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?ID=CRD42017058514.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 210: 128-134, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor outcomes. The TIPS study halved DUP with an early detection (ED) campaign; however, conventional statistical analyses, focused on mean estimates, failed to reveal the effects of ED across the full DUP distribution, restricting inferences about ED's effectiveness. Utilizing a novel quantile regression based analysis, we examined the differential impact of ED across DUP. Secondary analysis explored possible predictors of DUP, and moderators of the effect of the campaign. METHODS: The TIPS ED campaign was conducted in two health care sectors in Norway, with two equivalent health care sectors serving as controls. Quantile regression analysis was performed to analyze ED campaign's effect. RESULTS: 281 patients with first episode psychosis were recruited, including 141 from the ED area. ED had no effect on the first quartile (Q1) of DUP, whereas a significant reduction in Q2 (11weeks), and Q3 (41weeks) of DUP was observed. The effect of ED was significantly stronger on reducing Q3 than Q1 or Q2, suggesting that the campaign was more effective in longer DUP samples. Male gender and single status predicted longer DUP in Q3: by 38 and 27weeks, respectively. Single status, but not gender, emerged as a significant moderator of ED campaign effect. CONCLUSIONS: Quantile regression provided in depth information about the non-uniformity, and moderators, of TIPS's ED effort across the full distribution of DUP, demonstrating the value of this analytic approach to re-examine prior, and plan analyses for future, early detection efforts.

9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

10.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

11.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 288: 29-36, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071542

RESUMO

Clinical studies of patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence are challenging both from an ethical and practical perspective, and the neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unknown. We here present a comprehensive account of the brain cortical characteristics associated with violence in schizophrenia. We obtained 3T MRI scans and thorough clinical characterization of schizophrenia patients with a history of violence (murder, attempted murder, criminal assault, SCZ-V, n = 11), schizophrenia patients with no history of violence (SCZ-NV, n = 17), and healthy controls (HC, n = 19). Cortical thickness, area, and folding were analyzed vertex-wise across the cortical mantle (FreeSurfer). SCZ-V had significantly increased cortical folding in the visual and orbitofrontal cortex, and reduced cortical thickness within the precentral-, parietal-, temporal-, and fusiform cortex compared to SCZ-NV, as well as widespread regional thinning and increased folding compared to HC. There were no group differences in cortical area. A major limitation is the small subject sample. If replicated, the results from this pilot study suggest cortical abnormalities in areas involved in sensory processing, emotion recognition, and reward to be of importance to the neurobiology of violence in schizophrenia.

13.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 114-123, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006616

RESUMO

Antipsychotic treatment may affect brain morphology, and enlargement of the basal ganglia (BG) is a replicated finding. Here we investigated associations between antipsychotic treatment and BG volumes in patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders. We hypothesized that current treatment and, among those medicated, higher dosage, estimated D2R occupancy and being in remission would predict larger BG volumes. Structural covariance analysis was performed to examine if correlations between BG volumes and cortical thickness differed by treatment status. 224 patients treated with antipsychotics; 26 previously treated, 29 never treated and 301 healthy controls (HC) were included from the TOP study cohort (NORMENT, Norway). T1-weighted MR images were processed using FreeSurfer. D2R occupancy was estimated based on serum concentration measurements for patients receiving stable monotherapy. Statistical analyses were adjusted for age, gender and estimated intracranial volume (ICV). We found larger right (p < 0.003) and left putamen (p < 0.02) and right globus pallidus (GP) (p < 0.03) in currently medicated patients compared to HC. Bilateral regional cortical thinning was also observed in currently and previously medicated patients compared to HC. In medicated patients, higher chlorpromazine equivalent dose (CPZ) was associated with larger left GP (p < 0.04). There was no association with estimated D2R occupancy (n = 47) or remission status. Lower positive correlation between left putamen volume and cortical thickness of the left lateral occipital cortex was found in medicated patients compared to HC. We replicated the BG enlargement in medicated patients, but found no association with estimated D2R occupancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028479

RESUMO

To investigate whether changes in serum lipids are associated with cognitive performance in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients during their first year of antipsychotic drug treatment. One hundred and thirty-two antipsychotic-treated FEP patients were included through the TOP study along with 83 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). Information regarding cognitive performance, psychotic symptoms, lifestyle, body mass index, serum lipids [total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides] and antipsychotic treatment was obtained at baseline and after 1 year. The cognitive test battery is comprised of assessments for verbal learning, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and inhibition. Mixed-effects models were used to study the relationship between changes over time in serum lipids and cognitive domains, controlling for potential confounders. There was a significant group by HDL interaction effect for verbal learning (F = 11.12, p = 0.001), where an increase in HDL levels was associated with improvement in verbal learning in FEP patients but not in HC. Practice effects, lifestyle, and psychotic symptoms did not significantly affect this relationship. Antipsychotic-treated FEP patients who increased in HDL levels during the first year of follow-up exhibited better verbal learning capacity. Further investigations are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed at exploring potential pathophysiological processes across psychotic disorders, applying metabolomics in a large and well-characterized sample of patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (N = 212) and healthy controls (N = 68) had blood sampling with subsequent metabolomics analyses using electrochemical coulometric array detection. Concentrations of 52 metabolites including tyrosine, tryptophan and purine pathways were compared between patients and controls while controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Significant findings were further tested in medication-free subsamples. RESULTS: Significantly decreased plasma concentrations in patients compared to healthy controls were found for 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKY, p = 0.0008), xanthurenic acid (XANU, p = 1.5×10-5), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA, p = 4.5×10-5) and metanephrine (MN, p = 0.0001). Plasma concentration of xanthine (XAN) was increased in the patient group (p = 3.5×10-5). Differences of 3OHKY, XANU, VMA and XAN were replicated across schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorders subsamples of medication-free individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although prone to residual confounding, the present results suggest the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, noradrenergic and purinergic system dysfunction as trait factors in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. Of special interest is XANU, a metabolite previously not found to be associated with bipolar disorders.

16.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 715-722, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832191

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the validity of the Norwegian version of the Insight Scale (IS) in large and representative samples of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. A total of 997 participants were included (schizophrenia spectrum disorders: 557; bipolar I disorder: 282; bipolar II disorder: 138). Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the construct validity and bivariate correlational analysis was applied to investigate convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated a reasonable model fit to the original three-factor subscale structure of the IS in all three diagnostic groups. The IS total score and its subscales correlated significantly with both the insight items in the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in both schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar I disorder. In the bipolar II disorder group, however, the IS subscales correlated poorly with both the observer-rated measures. Our study supports the construct validity of the IS in both schizophrenia spectrum disorder- and bipolar disorder populations. The study also demonstrates that patients' self-reports of insight correspond to observer-based single item ratings of insight in bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 91: 6-12, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are prevalent in severe mental disorders but their type and frequency across diagnostic categories has not been investigated in large scale studies. METHODS: Participants with Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ, (N = 617)), Bipolar disorders (BD, (N = 440)), and Healthy Controls (HC, (N = 173)) were included in the study. Sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia and delayed sleep phase) were identified based on items from the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms - Clinician rated scale. Clinical symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale and level of functioning with the Global assessment of Functioning scale. RESULTS: The rate of any sleep disturbance was 78% in SZ, 69% in BD and 39% in HC. Insomnia was the most frequently reported sleep disturbance across all groups. Both diagnostic groups reported significantly more of any sleep disturbances than HC (P < 0.001). Having a sleep disturbance was associated with more severe negative and depressive symptoms and with lower functioning across diagnostic groups (P < 0.001, η2 = 0.0071). Hypersomnia was the only sleep disturbance associated with previous treatment history. CONCLUSION: Sleep disturbances, including insomnia, hypersomnia and delayed sleep phase, are frequent in SCZ and BD, and associated with more severe clinical symptomatology across diagnostic groups. This suggests that sleep disturbance is a clinically relevant transdiagnostic phenomenon.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 97, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898995

RESUMO

Reduced telomere length (TL) and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Childhood traumatic events are more frequent in SZ and BD than in healthy individuals (HC), and based on recent findings in healthy individuals could represent one important factor for TL and brain aberrations in patients. The study comprised 1024 individuals (SZ [n = 373]; BD [n = 249] and HC [n = 402]). TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Diagnosis was obtained by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV). FreeSurfer was used to obtain regional and global brain volumes from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans. All analyses were adjusted for current age and sex. Patients had on average shorter TL (F = 7.87, p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.17) and reported more childhood trauma experiences than HC (χ2 = 148.9, p < 0.001). Patients with a history of childhood sexual, physical or emotional abuse had shorter TL relative to HC and to patients without a history of childhood abuse (F = 6.93, p = 0.006, Cohen's d = 0.16). After adjusting for childhood abuse, no difference in TL was observed between patients and HC (p = 0.12). There was no statistically significant difference in reported childhood abuse exposure or TL between SZ and BD. Our analyses revealed no significant associations between TL and clinical characteristics or brain morphometry. We demonstrate shorter TL in SZ and BD compared with HC and showed that TL is sensitive to childhood trauma experiences. Further studies are needed to identify the biological mechanisms of this relationship.

19.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 269(5): 611-620, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826974

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is characterized by social cognitive impairments that predict functioning. Social cognitive training aims to target these impairments. Although it can improve the targeted social cognitive domain, it is unclear if the training generalizes to non-targeted domains and to functioning, with lasting effects. This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a targeted facial affect recognition training program, Training of Affect Recognition (TAR), in persons with schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia were randomized to receive treatment as usual and TAR (n = 24) or treatment as usual (n = 24) after assessments with a comprehensive protocol at baseline (T1). Participants were reassessed immediately after the intervention period (T2: after 8 weeks) and at 3-month follow-up (T3). The protocol included tests of social cognition (facial or body affect recognition, theory of mind), nonsocial cognition (Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery), clinical symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia), functioning (self-reported, social or nonsocial functional capacity), self-esteem, self-efficacy and insight. Linear mixed models yielded a significant group × time interaction effect for a non-targeted social cognitive domain (theory of mind) and a trend-level effect for social functional capacity with the intervention group performing better over time. No beneficial effects on nonsocial cognition, other measures of functioning, clinical symptoms, or self-esteem/self-efficacy appeared for the TAR program. This study provides evidence for transfer and durability effects of facial affect recognition training to theory of mind, but also highlights the need for additional treatments to achieve functional benefits.

20.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 13(5): 1276-1282, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919597

RESUMO

AIMS: Developing early intervention services (EIS) in healthcare organizations (HCOs) is difficult because it is necessary to integrate service approaches across units. To accommodate the needs of patients and relatives, Oslo University Hospital (OUH) chose to use service design (SD) to redesign their first-episode services with an emphasis on easy access to care. This paper discusses the results and how SD can help to overcome known barriers to change in complex organizations. METHOD: SD is a method that relies on principles of participation, innovation and visualization to develop coherent services. The method emphasizes the exploration of a problem area from the perspective of multiple stakeholders to create a shared understanding of the complexity. Idea generation, visualization and early modelling of possible solutions are employed to test alternatives involving stakeholders. RESULTS: A low threshold EIS was developed. A helpline with a specialist managing the phone was established. High-quality assessment regarding possible psychosis development was thus made available to patients, relatives and professionals, eliminating the need for paper referral. This approach was supported by a communication strategy that includes web-based information. A dedicated cross-specialist team was established to increase collaboration in complex cases. Finally, outreach services were improved. CONCLUSION: SD is a suitable method to incorporate the views of different stakeholders (patients, relatives and professionals) to develop EIS services in complex organizations and can help overcome known barriers to change in HCOs.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA