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Ann Nutr Metab ; 70(2): 140-146, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28391275


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a helpful strategy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the main parameters used in this method are the insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) and the sensitivity factor (SF). Throughout pregnancy, a state of insulin resistance develops. Therefore, we hypothesized that ICR and SF change and our aim was to describe the pattern of modification of these parameters in pregnant women with T1DM on CC. METHODS: This study followed 21 women with T1DM throughout pregnancy. Starting ICR was 1:15 and SF was calculated using the formula: 1,500/total daily insulin dose (TDID; for regular insulin) or 1,800/TDID (for ultra-rapid analogs). ICR was adjusted every 1-2 weeks according to self-monitoring of blood glucose. SF was recalculated every 1-2 weeks. RESULTS: Throughout gestation there was a mean decrease in the ICR in breakfast, lunch and dinner of 8.2 (p < 0.0001), 7.7 (p = 0.003) and 7 (p = 0.005) grams per international units (g/IU), respectively. Mean SF reduction from first to third trimester was 10 mg/dL per IU (mg/dL/IU; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Women with T1DM in CC during pregnancy evolve with a progressive reduction in the ICR at every meal (mean of 8.2 g/IU for breakfast, 7.7 g/IU for lunch and 7 g/IU for dinner) and also in the SF (10 mg/dL/IU).

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Nutr Hosp ; 32(2): 845-54, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26268120


AIM: to evaluate the impact of a prenatal nutritional assistance proposal (PNA) for adult pregnant women. METHODS: a study of the impact of an applied nutritional intervention throughout the prenatal on perinatal outcomes - adequacy of total gestational weight gain, gestational anemia frequency and pregnancy complications in a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The data represent three groups of adult pregnant women, during 10 years: GI (1999-2001, n = 225), GII (2005-2006, n = 208) and GIII (2007-2008, n = 394). RESULTS: in GII (reference group) it was included a detailed nutritional assessment, an individualized eating plan and an attendance of at least four scheduled appointments with a nutritionist. PNA coverage occurred in only 20.4% of GI, 100% of GII and 42.1% in GIII (p < 0.001). Women in GI had a higher proportion of inadequate total weight gain (OR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.20 -2.75), anemia (OR 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35 - 3.55) and pregnancy complications (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.04 - 2.36), as well as those who joined GIII, - OR 1.68 (95% CI: 1.16 - 2.44), OR 2.45 (95% CI: 1.56 - 3.84), OR 2.07 (95% CI: 1.42 - 3.00) - when compared to women in GII. CONCLUSIONS: the model tested in GII PNA demonstrated to be effective in the outcomes studied.

Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de una propuesta de asistencia nutricional prenatal (ANP) para las mujeres embarazadas adultas. Métodos: estudio del impacto de una intervención nutricional prenatal en los resultados perinatales, adecuación de la ganancia total de peso durante la gestación, frecuencia de anemia gestacional y complicaciones en el embarazo en una maternidad pública de Río de Janeiro. Los datos representan tres grupos de mujeres embarazadas adultas, durante 10 años: GI (1999-2001, n = 225), GII (2005-2006, n = 208) y GIII (2007-2008, n = 394). Resultados: en el GII (grupo de referencia) se incluyó una evaluación nutricional detallada, un plan de alimentación individualizado y una asistencia de por lo menos cuatro citas programadas con un nutricionista. La cobertura PNA se produjo en solo el 20,4% en el GI, el 100% en el GII y el 42,1% en el GIII (p < 0,001). Las mujeres del GI tenían una mayor proporción de ganancia total de peso insuficiente (OR 1,82; IC 95%: 1,20 -2,75), anemia (OR 2,18; IC 95%: 1,35-3,55) y complicaciones del embarazo (OR 1.57, IC 95%: 1,04 - 2,36), así como aquellas que se unieron al GIII, - OR 1,68 (IC 95%: 1.16 - 2.44), OR 2,45 (IC 95%: 1,56-3,84), OR 2,07 (IC 95%:1,42- 3,00), en comparación con las mujeres del GII. Conclusiones: el modelo probado en el GII PNA demostró ser eficaz según los resultados estudiados.

Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
Nutr Hosp ; 28(6): 1806-14, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24506355


INTRODUCTION: Several methods of dietetic counseling can be used in the nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The main methods are the traditional method (TM) and the carbohydrate counting (CCM). OBJECTIVE: Presenting a systematic review of the literature on the impact of nutritional therapy in GDM, through TM and CCM, evaluating the results for maternal and child health. METHODS: We searched databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs and CAPES Digital Bank of Thesis. The methodological quality of all the studies included was made using the Jadad score. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We have found five studies that evaluated the effects of nutritional therapy, through the TM, on the maternal and child health. None study evaluating the CCM was detected in pregnant women with GDM Nutritional therapy given during antenatal care was effective in reducing pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight gain, necessity for cesarean delivery, for insulin therapy and for shoulder dystocia), perinatal complications (macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and birth weight) and also in better glycemic control. The use of nutritional therapy should be highlighted within the antenatal care for pregnant women with GDM, giving the satisfactory results on metabolic control and on pregnancy outcomes. Studies examining the CCM to GDM patients should be conducted to show its effects on maternal and child health.

Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez