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1.
Membranes (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736307

RESUMO

At the beginning of 2020, the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus led to the fast sequencing of its genome to facilitate molecular engineering strategies to control the pathogen's spread. The spike (S) glycoprotein has been identified as the leading therapeutic agent due to its role in localizing the ACE2 receptor in the host's pulmonary cell membrane, binding, and eventually infecting the cells. Due to the difficulty of delivering bioactive molecules to the intracellular space, we hypothesized that the S protein could serve as a source of membrane translocating peptides. AHB-1, AHB-2, and AHB-3 peptides were identified and analyzed on a membrane model of DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An umbrella sampling approach was used to quantify the energy barrier necessary to cross the boundary (13.2 to 34.9 kcal/mol), and a flat-bottom pulling helped to gain a deeper understanding of the membrane's permeation dynamics. Our studies revealed that the novel peptide AHB-1 exhibited comparable penetration potential of already known potent cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) such as TP2, Buforin II, and Frenatin 2.3s. Results were confirmed by in vitro analysis of the peptides conjugated to chitosan nanoparticles, demonstrating its ability to reach the cytosol and escape endosomes, while maintaining high biocompatibility levels according to standardized assays.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628054

RESUMO

Microcurrent therapy can increase lipolytic activity. However, it is unknown if the increased availability of lipids can influence the selection of energy substrates during a single session of aerobic exercise. We aimed to analyze the effect of microcurrent application to the abdominal region in the consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during a single session of moderate aerobic exercise in young adults. A pilot study was conducted in which participants were allocated to intervention (IG) or placebo (PG) groups. In both groups, 40 min of microcurrent application with two frequencies (25 and 10 Hz) followed by 50 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (45-55% of heart rate reserve) on a cycloergometer were performed. The microcurrent application was performed without intensity in the PG. A portable gas analyzer (K4b2) was used during exercise in both groups. Thirty-eight participants (20.6 ± 1.8 years; 18 in IG and 20 in PG) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in the consumption of substrates or RER between the groups during exercise (p > 0.05). Microcurrent application seems to be insufficient to influence the consumption of energy substrates and RER during a single session of aerobic exercise in young adults.

3.
Respir Care ; 67(5): 579-593, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs can be offered to patients with COPD, but the literature on its effects is still not well summarized. Our purpose was to investigate the health-, physical-, and respiratory-related effects of community-based PR in individuals with COPD as compared to control groups. METHODS: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to May 17, 2021. We included randomized control trials that compared the effects of community-based PR as compared to control groups in individuals with COPD. The risk of bias was judged using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB2). Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI of the mean changes from baseline between groups. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to interpret certainty of results. RESULTS: We included 10 randomized control studies comprising a total of 9,350 participants with weighted mean age of 62.3 ± 2.38 y. The community-based interventions were based on exercise programs (resistance and/or endurance). All studies were judged as high risk and/or some concerns in one or more domains the risk of bias. All meta-analyses displayed very low certainty of evidence. The community-based PR interventions were significantly superior to control interventions in improving the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire Activity subscore (-0.40 [95% CI -0.72 to -0.08]; k = 5, n = 382) and total score (-0.73 [95% CI -1.29 to -0.18]; k = 4, n = 268) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire dyspnea subscore (0.36 [95% CI 0.03-0.69]; k = 6, n = 550). The mean changes from baseline were not different between the groups for all other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based PR tended to result in superior health-related quality of life and symptoms than control interventions, but the findings were inconsistent across outcomes and with very low certainty of evidence. Further studies are warranted for stronger conclusions.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Dispneia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-23], mar. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366525

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos de exercícios físicos baseados no método Pilates solo sobre a capacidade funcional, fatores antropométricos, níveis de marcadores inflamatórios circulantes e a qualidade de vida em idosas sedentárias. Trata­se de um delineamento quase experimental com pré e pós teste. A amostra foi constituída por 33 mulheres idosas com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos. Para avaliar a capacidade funcional (CF) foram utilizados os testes de velocidade de caminhada (VC) e de força de preensão manual (FPM). Para avaliar a presença de marcadores inflamatórios foram realizados exames laboratoriais a fim de quantificar os níveis séricos de proteína C reativa ultrassensível (PCR-us) e fibrinogênio. E para avaliar a qualidade de vida (QV) foi utilizado o questionário SF ­ 36. Na análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de normalidade Shapiro Wilk. Para os dados paramétricos teste t pareado e ANOVA one Way e, para os dados não paramétricos, o teste Wilcoxon e Kruskal-Wallis. O teste Qui-Quadrado foi utilizado para analises de associações. Os dados foram analisados pelo no programa SPSS-IBM, versão 22.0 devidamente registrado. O nível de significância adotado foi de p≤0,05. O grupo Pilates não apresentou alterações estatisticamente significativas em relação à CF (p>0,05), porém as demais variáveis apresentaram diferença significativa. Para variáveis antropométricas, PCR e fibrinogênio (p < 0,05); e QV, dois domínios apresentaram alterações significativas: limitações por aspectos físicos (p=0,045) e dor (p=0,011). Conclui-se que a prática do método Pilates solo promoveu redução significativa sobre a composição corporal, sobre os níveis séricos de marcadores inflamatórios, sobre a qualidade de vida e manutenção da capacidade funcional de idosas sedentárias. (AU)


The aim of the present study was investigate the effects of exercises based on the Pilates method on functional capacity, anthropometric factors, levels of circulating inflammatory markers and quality of life in sedentary elderly women. It is an almost experimental design with pre and post-test. The sample considered of 33 elderly individuals, aged 60 years and female. In order to evaluate the functional capacity (FC), the tests of walking speed (WS) and manual grip strength (MGS) were used; to evaluate the presence of inflammatory markers, laboratory tests were performed to quantify the serum levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, and the SF-36 questionnaire was used to evaluate the quality of life. For statistical analysis, Shapiro Wilk normality test was used. For parametric data, paired t- test and one-way ANOVA were used, and for nonparametric data, the Wilcoxon and Kruskal -Wallis test. Chi-square test was used for association analysis. All data were analyzed by SPSS-IBM, version 22.0 duly registered and the significance level of p ≤0.05 was stipulated. The Pilates group did not present significant alterations in relation to CF (p> 0.05), but the other variables presented. Anthropometric variables (total body mass, BMI, waist and hip circumference), C-reactive protein and fibrinogen (p< 0,05); and in relation to QV, two domains presented significant changes: limitations by physical aspects (p = 0.045) and pain (p = 0.011). It was concluded that the Pilates solo practice promoted a significant reduction in body composition, serum levels of inflammatory markers, quality of life and maintenance of functional capacity


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Mulheres , Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento , Inflamação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado , Fibrinogênio , Proteína C , Antropometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Sedentário , Velocidade de Caminhada
5.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE003562, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1364212

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo Caracterizar a produção científica nacional e internacional sobre erro no trabalho em saúde no período de 2000 a 2020. Métodos Trata-se de revisão integrativa de literatura, de estudos nacionais e internacionais, realizada nas bases MEDLINE, LILACS/BIREME, PubMed e SciELO. Foram encontrados 4164 estudos, sendo 148 incluídos e submetidos a análise de conteúdo temática. As buscas foram realizadas no período de janeiro a março de 2020 e abril de 2021. Os resultados foram sistematizados em três categorias temáticas. Resultados Na categoria Características dos estudos sobre erros, evidenciou-se que as categorias profissionais mais frequentes na ocorrência do erro são enfermeiras(os), médicos e farmacêuticos; quanto à Características do erro no trabalho em saúde, os tipos mais relatados são erro de medicação, de diagnóstico e na assistência de enfermagem, incluindo queda de pacientes, flebites decorrentes de cateteres venosos periféricos, ocorrência de úlceras por pressão e extubação de drenos, cateteres e sondas; e no Contexto para a ocorrência do erro, foram identificados elementos individuais e do contexto do trabalho, destacando-se este último. Conclusão Evidenciou-se que a ocorrência de erros no trabalho em saúde ocorre em um contexto de precarização do trabalho, com processos de trabalho marcados pela heterogeneidade. A partir da compreensão de que os trabalhadores da saúde erram e que a precarização do trabalho potencializa a ocorrência de erros, faz-se necessário a reorganização dos sistemas de saúde para que sejam reduzidas as oportunidades para o acontecimento de erros e que sejam promovidos os aprendizados quando estes ocorrerem.


Resumen Objetivo Caracterizar la producción científica nacional e internacional sobre el error en el trabajo en salud en el período de 2000 a 2020. Métodos Se trata de una revisión integrativa de literatura, de estudios nacionales e internacionales, realizada en las bases MEDLINE, LILACS/BIREME, PubMed y SciELO. Se encontraron 4164 estudios y 148 fueron incluidos y sometidos a un análisis temático de contenido. Las búsquedas se realizaron en el período de enero a marzo de 2020 y abril de 2021. Los resultados fueron sistematizados en tres categorías temáticas. Resultados En la categoría Características de los estudios sobre errores, se evidenció que las categorías profesionales más frecuentes en la ocurrencia del error son enfermeras(os), médicos y farmacéuticos; con relación a las Características del error en el trabajo en salud, los tipos más relatados son error de medicación, de diagnóstico y en la asistencia de enfermería, incluyendo la caída de pacientes, flebitis resultantes de catéteres venosos periféricos, y ocurrencia de úlceras por presión y extubación de drenaje, catéteres y sondas; y en el Contexto para la ocurrencia del error, se identificaron elementos individuales y del contexto del trabajo, destacándose este último. Conclusión Se evidenció que la ocurrencia de errores en el trabajo en salud se da en un contexto de precarización del trabajo, con procesos de trabajo marcados por la heterogeneidad. A partir del entendimiento de que los trabajadores de la salud cometen errores y que la precarización del trabajo potencia la ocurrencia de errores, se hace necesario reorganizar los sistemas de salud para que se reduzcan las oportunidades de que los errores ocurran y que se promuevan los aprendizajes cuando estos ocurran.


Abstract Objective To characterize the national and international scientific production on errors in health work from 2000 to 2020. Methods This is an integrative literature review of national and international studies, carried out in the MEDLINE, LILACS/BIREME, PubMed and SciELO databases. A total of 4164 studies were found, 148 of which were included and submitted to thematic content analysis. The searches were carried out from January to March 2020 and April 2021. The results were systematized into three thematic categories. Results In the category Characteristics of studies on errors, it was evidenced that the most frequent professional categories in error occurrence are nurses, physicians and pharmacists; regarding Characteristics of error in health work, the most reported types are medication, diagnosis and nursing care errors, including patient falls., phlebitis resulting from peripheral venous catheters, occurrence of pressure ulcers and extubation of drains, catheters and probes; and in Context for error occurrence, individual elements and work context were identified, highlighting the latter. Conclusion It was evident that error in health work occurs in a context of precarious work, with work processes marked by heterogeneity. From the understanding that health workers make mistakes and that the precariousness of work enhances error occurrence, it is necessary to reorganize health systems so that the opportunities for errors to occur are reduced and that learning is promoted when they occur.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Erros Médicos , Segurança do Paciente , Erros de Diagnóstico , Erros de Medicação , Cuidados de Enfermagem
6.
J Clin Med ; 12(1)2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615071

RESUMO

Step tests are important in community- and home-based rehabilitation programs to assess patients' exercise capacity. A new incremental step test was developed for this purpose, but its clinical interpretability is currently limited. This study aimed to establish a reference equation for this new incremental step test (IST) for the Portuguese adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on people without disabilities. Sociodemographic (age and sex), anthropometric (weight, height, and body mass index), smoking status, and physical activity (using the brief physical activity assessment tool) data were collected. Participants performed two repetitions of the IST and the best test was used to establish the reference equation with a forward stepwise multiple regression. An analysis comparing the results from the reference equation with the actual values was conducted with the Wilcoxon test. A total of 155 adult volunteers were recruited (60.6% female, 47.8 ± 19.7 years), and the reference equation was as follows: steps in IST = 475.52 - (4.68 × age years) + (30.5 × sex), where male = 1 and female = 0, and r2 = 60%. No significant differences were observed between the values performed and those obtained by the equation (p = 0.984). The established equation demonstrated that age and sex were the determinant variables for the variability of the results.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(23)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883582

RESUMO

Gelatin and chitosan nanoparticles have been widely used in pharmaceutical, biomedical, and nanofood applications due to their high biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study proposed a highly efficient synthesis method for type B gelatin and low-molecular-weight (LMW) chitosan nanoparticles. Gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized by the double desolvation method and the chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) by the ionic gelation method. The sizes of the obtained CNPs and GNPs (373 ± 71 nm and 244 ± 67 nm, respectively) and zeta potential (+36.60 ± 3.25 mV and -13.42 ± 1.16 mV, respectively) were determined via dynamic light scattering. Morphology and size were verified utilizing SEM and TEM images. Finally, their biocompatibility was tested to assure their potential applicability as bioactive molecule carriers and cell-penetrating agents.

8.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(8): 1033-1051, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297334

RESUMO

Cordia verbenacea DC (Boraginaceae) is a flowering shrub found along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Brazilian coast, and low areas of the Amazon. The crude extract of its leaves is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, both topically and orally. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activity of C. verbenacea ethanolic leaves extract (CVE) against UVB-triggered cutaneous inflammation and oxidative damage in hairless mice. CVE treatment recovered cutaneous antioxidant capacity demonstrated by scavenging ABTS+ free radical and iron-reducing antioxidant potential evaluated by FRAP. CVE also controlled the following UV-triggered events in the skin: reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, catalase activity decrease, and superoxide anion (O⋅-) build-up. Furthermore, mice treated with CVE exhibited less inflammation, shown by the reduction in COX-2 expression, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. CVE also regulated epidermal thickening and sunburn cells, reduced dermal mast cells, and preserved collagen integrity. The best results were obtained using 5% CVE-added emulsion. The present data demonstrate that topical administration of CVE presents photochemoprotective activity in a mouse model of UVB inflammation and oxidative stress. Because of the intricate network linking inflammation, oxidative stress, and skin cancer, these results also indicate the importance of further studies elucidating a possible role of C. verbenacea in the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer and evaluating a potential synergy between CVE and sunscreens in topical products against UVB damaging effects to the skin.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Emulsões , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Pele/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
9.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(1): e20200369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the contribution of nurses to the construction of health policy in the state of Bahia, from 1925 to 1930. METHODS: qualitative research, from a historical nature. Data were retrieved from five public archives, organized in a documentary corpus, and analyzed based on the health political analysis and the social control concepts, health policy and public health. RESULTS: from 1925 to 1930, the State seized the work of the woman/nurse and established it in public health. This fact enabled the nurse's contribution to the construction of the health policy of the state of Bahia, which took place by the implementation of sanitary education actions, home visits and hygienic surveillance. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the female nurse's work made the health policy of the state of Bahia viable and was an ideal instrument to access homes and instruct/advise people in their daily lives to adopt behaviors that prevent the occurrence and, above all, the spread of diseases.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/história , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Enfermagem em Saúde Pública/história , Brasil , Feminino , História da Enfermagem , História do Século XX , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Enfermagem em Saúde Pública/organização & administração
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 216: 112151, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581679

RESUMO

Photochemoprotection of the skin can be achieved by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress, which we tested using Cordia verbenacea extract, a medicinal plant known for its rich content of antioxidant molecules and anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro antioxidant evaluation of Cordia verbenacea leaves ethanolic extract (CVE) presented the following results: ferric reducing antioxidant power (886.32 µM equivalent of Trolox/g extract); IC50 of 19.128 µg/ml for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; IC50 of 12.48 µg/mL for scavenging 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid); decrease of hydroperoxides from linoleic acid (IC50 of 10.20 µg/mL); inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (IC50 8.90 µg/mL); iron-chelating ability in bathophenanthroline iron assay (IC50 47.35 µg/mL); chemiluminescence triggered by free radicals in the H2O2/horseradish peroxidase/luminol (IC50 0.286 µg/mL) and xanthine/xanthine oxidase/luminol (IC50 0.42 µg/mL) methods. CVE (10-100 mg per kg, 30 min before and immediately after UVB exposure) treatment was performed by gavage in hairless mice. CVE inhibited skin edema, neutrophil infiltration, and overproduction of MMP-9; reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL- 6; numbers of skin mast cells, epidermal thickening, number of epidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, and collagen degradation. CVE increased the skin's natural antioxidant defenses as observed by Nrf-2, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and heme oxygenase 1 mRNA expression enhancement. Furthermore, CVE inhibited lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion production and recovered antioxidant reduced glutathione, catalase activity, and ROS scavenging capacity of the skin. Concluding, CVE downregulates the skin inflammatory and oxidative damages triggered by UVB, demonstrating its potentialities as a therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cordia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/metabolismo , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Camundongos Pelados , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(6): 1714-1723, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased abdominal fat and sedentary lifestyles contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. The combination of exercise and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) appears to be an innovative method to increase the lipolytic rate of abdominal adipocytes, in order to reduce abdominal fat. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of one session of aerobic exercise associated with abdominal laser therapy in lipolytic activity, profile lipid, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein-CRP). METHODS: Experimental randomized controlled study in 36 participants of female sex divided into three groups: placebo group (PG) (n = 12), experimental group 1 (EG1) (n = 11), and experimental group 2 (EG2) (n = 13). The EG1 and EG2 performed the laser therapy protocol followed by 50 minutes of aerobic exercise on cycle ergometer, of 45%-55% of reserve heart rate; however, in EG2 the laser therapy was applied without power. The PG only performed the laser therapy protocol without power. The anthropometric measures were evaluated, and all participants were subject to blood samples at the beginning and at the end of the intervention for measure glycerol, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL), and CRP. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the groups in the quantitative variables and Fisher's test to compare the groups in the qualitative variables. To compare the variables between moments (M0 and M1), we used the t test for paired samples. RESULTS: In the group that performed physical exercise and lipolytic laser and in the group that performs only physical exercise, there was a significant increase in glycerol mobilization between M0 and M1 (P < .001). The same did not occur in the placebo group. Regarding the CRP levels and lipidic profile, no significant differences were observed between moments in the experimental groups. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that one session of aerobic exercise associated with LLLT and one session of aerobic exercise appears to be able to increase the lipolytic activity. However, it appears that LLLT does not provide increased value to the aerobic physical exercise by itself in lipolysis process.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Lipólise , Triglicerídeos
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 74(1): e20200369, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1288337

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the contribution of nurses to the construction of health policy in the state of Bahia, from 1925 to 1930. Methods: qualitative research, from a historical nature. Data were retrieved from five public archives, organized in a documentary corpus, and analyzed based on the health political analysis and the social control concepts, health policy and public health. Results: from 1925 to 1930, the State seized the work of the woman/nurse and established it in public health. This fact enabled the nurse's contribution to the construction of the health policy of the state of Bahia, which took place by the implementation of sanitary education actions, home visits and hygienic surveillance. Final considerations: the female nurse's work made the health policy of the state of Bahia viable and was an ideal instrument to access homes and instruct/advise people in their daily lives to adopt behaviors that prevent the occurrence and, above all, the spread of diseases.


RESUMEN Objetivos: analizar la participación de la enfermera en la construcción de la política de salud en Bahia entre 1925 y 1930. Métodos: investigación cualitativa de carácter histórico. Los datos fueron recolectados en cinco archivos públicos, organizados en un corpus documental y analizados a partir del análisis político en salud y los conceptos de control social, política de salud y salud pública. Resultados: entre 1925 y 1930, el Estado se apropió del trabajo de la mujer/enfermera y lo institucionalizó en el campo de la salud pública. Este hecho dio lugar a la participación de la enfermera en la construcción de la política de salud en Bahia, que se dio a través de la operacionalización de acciones de educación en salud, visitas domiciliarias y vigilancia higiénica. Consideraciones Finales: el trabajo de la enfermera hizo viable la política de salud en Bahia y fue un instrumento ideal para ingresar a los hogares y enseñar/asesorar a las personas en su vida diaria a adoptar comportamientos para prevenir la ocurrencia de enfermedades y, sobre todo, su propagación.


RESUMO Objetivos: analisar a participação da enfermeira na construção da política de saúde na Bahia entre 1925 e 1930. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa de natureza histórica. Os dados foram coletados em cinco arquivos públicos, organizados em um corpus documental e analisados com base na análise política em saúde e nos conceitos de controle social, política de saúde e saúde pública. Resultados: entre 1925 e 1930, o Estado apropriou-se do trabalho da mulher/enfermeira e o institucionalizou no campo da saúde pública. Esse fato ensejou a participação da enfermeira na construção da política de saúde baiana, que ocorreu por meio da operacionalização das ações de educação sanitária, visita domiciliar e vigilância higiênica. Considerações Finais: o trabalho da enfermeira viabilizou a política de saúde baiana e foi um instrumento ideal para adentrar nos domicílios e ensinar/aconselhar as pessoas em seu cotidiano a adotarem condutas que evitassem a ocorrência e, sobretudo, a propagação das doenças.

13.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e37479, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1149700

RESUMO

Objetivo refletir sobre o trabalho da enfermeira e do enfermeiro hoje, ano 2020, cujo registro na história será marcado pela pandemia da Covid-19. Método reflexão teórico-filosófica. Resultados a Covid-19 expõe para a sociedade brasileira os múltiplos desafios do trabalho da(o) enfermeira(o). O sofrimento no trabalho, se existente antes da pandemia, agora é potencializado pela singularidade do novo contexto, na presença do agente desconhecido, invisível, que ameaça e pode ser mortal. A pandemia do novo coronavírus demonstra que os desafios para que o trabalho da enfermeira(o) seja valorizado social e economicamente são maiores do que se imaginava. Conclusão a história e o contexto do trabalho na pandemia demonstra que é a solidariedade entre a "classe-que-vive-do-trabalho" que pode ser o amálgama imprescindível para o enfrentamento da Covid-19 e do desmonte dos direitos daquelas(es) que trabalham.


Objetivo reflexionar sobre el trabajo de las enfermeras hoy, 2020, cuyo historial estará marcado por la pandemia Covid-19. Método reflexión teórico-filosófica. Resultados Covid-19 expone a la sociedad brasileña los múltiples desafíos del trabajo de la enfermera. El sufrimiento en el trabajo, si presente antes de la pandemia, se ve ahora realzado por la singularidad del nuevo contexto, en presencia del agente desconocido e invisible que amenaza y puede ser mortal. La pandemia del nuevo coronavirus demuestra que los desafíos para que el trabajo de la enfermera sea valorado social y económicamente son mayores de lo que se pensaba anteriormente. Conclusión la historia y el contexto del trabajo en la pandemia demuestran que es la solidaridad entre la "clase-que-vive-del-trabajo" la que puede ser la amalgama indispensable para el enfrentamiento de la Covid-19 y el desmantelamiento de los derechos de quienes trabajan.


Objetivo refletir sobre o trabalho da enfermeira e do enfermeiro hoje, ano 2020, cujo registro na história será marcado pela pandemia da Covid-19. Método reflexão teórico-filosófica. Resultados a Covid-19 expõe para a sociedade brasileira os múltiplos desafios do trabalho da(o) enfermeira(o). O sofrimento no trabalho, se existente antes da pandemia, agora é potencializado pela singularidade do novo contexto, na presença do agente desconhecido, invisível, que ameaça e pode ser mortal. A pandemia do novo coronavírus demonstra que os desafios para que o trabalho da enfermeira(o) seja valorizado social e economicamente são maiores do que se imaginava. Conclusão a história e o contexto do trabalho na pandemia demonstra que é a solidariedade entre a "classe-que-vive-do-trabalho" que pode ser o amálgama imprescindível para o enfrentamento da Covid-19 e do desmonte dos direitos daquelas(es) que trabalham.


Assuntos
Humanos , Trabalho , Infecções por Coronavirus , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pandemias
14.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604968

RESUMO

Excessive exposure to UV, especially UVB, is the most important risk factor for skin cancer and premature skin aging. The identification of the specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) challenged the preexisting paradigm of how inflammation ends. Rather than a passive process, the resolution of inflammation relies on the active production of SPMs, such as Lipoxins (Lx), Maresins, protectins, and Resolvins. LXA4 is an SPM that exerts its action through ALX/FPR2 receptor. Stable ALX/FPR2 agonists are required because SPMs can be quickly metabolized within tissues near the site of formation. BML-111 is a commercially available synthetic ALX/FPR2 receptor agonist with analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on that, we aimed to determine the effect of BML-111 in a model of UVB-induced skin inflammation in hairless mice. We demonstrated that BML-111 ameliorates the signs of UVB-induced skin inflammation by reducing neutrophil recruitment and mast cell activation. Reduction of these cells by BML-111 led to lower number of sunburn cells formation, decrease in epidermal thickness, collagen degradation, cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, TGF, and IL-10), and oxidative stress (observed by an increase in total antioxidant capacity and Nrf2 signaling pathway), indicating that BML-111 might be a promising drug to treat skin disorders.


Assuntos
Dermatite/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Heptanoicos/administração & dosagem , Protetores contra Radiação/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Lipoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígenos CD59/metabolismo , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Heptanoicos/farmacologia , Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
15.
J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls ; 5(2): 42-46, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510030

RESUMO

MOVE.TE is a non-profit participatory physiotherapy platform that aims at translating knowledge in the field of physiotherapy and developing freely available evidence-based physiotherapy programmes targeting the primary care services of the Portuguese National Health service. A group of volunteer academics and clinicians collaborated at different stages and time points to create the first ever falls prevention and management programme and guidance for Physiotherapy in primary care, in Portugal. This report describes this seven-step process. In spite of many challenges, this project constitutes an example of advocacy in physiotherapy for the promotion of better healthcare for older adults.

16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3267, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the intensity of nursing work in public hospitals. METHOD: cross-sectional, quantitative study, carried out in 22 public hospitals. The sample was composed of 265 nurses and 810 nursing technicians and assistants. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with Exploratory Factor Analysis. The calculation of the distribution of the work intensity by category was done using a score ranging from -1 to +1 standard deviation of the data. Fisher's exact test (0.05

Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Assistentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
17.
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 2317/04/2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141572

RESUMO

O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar os fatores motivacionais que levam à prática da Dança do Ventre (DV). Aplicou-se um questioná - rio Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) em 60 praticantes de DV com idades entre 18 e 56 anos, pertencentes a nove turmas de quatro es- colas, avaliadas por tempo de prática, idade e frequência semanal. Os resultados mostraram que os fatores motivacionais mais relevantes são o bem-estar, o prazer e o controle do estresse. Os menos valorizados foram reconhecimento social, reabilitação da saúde e controle do peso corporal. Os dados sugerem que é necessário refletir sobre o sujeito e sobre o corpo de forma holística, tendo em mente que a complexidade das diferenças pautadas pelo contexto e pela história do sujeito pode interferir em sua motivação.


The objective was to analyze the motivational factors that lead the practice of Belly Dance (DV). An Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI- 2) questionnaire was applied to 60 DV practitioners aged 18 to 56 years, belonging to nine classes from four schools assessed by time of practice, age and weekly attendance. The results showed that the most relevant motivational factors are well-being, pleasure and stress control. The least valued were social recognition, health rehabilitation and body weight control. The data suggest that it is necessary to reflect on the subject and the body holistically, bearing in mind the complexity of differences based on the context and history of the subject may interfere with their motivation.


El objetivo era analizar los factores motivacionales que conducen la práctica de la danza del vientre (DV). Se aplicó un cuestionario del Inventario de Motivaciones de Ejercicio (EMI-2) a 60 profesionales de DV de 18 a 56 años, pertenecientes a nueve clases de cuatro escuelas evaluadas por tiempo de práctica, edad y asistencia semanal. Los resultados mostraron que los factores motivacionales más relevantes son el bienestar, el placer y el control del estrés. Los menos valorados fueron el reconocimiento social, la rehabilitación de la salud y el control del peso corporal. Los datos sugieren que es necesario reflexionar sobre el tema y el cuerpo de manera integral, teniendo en cuenta que la complejidad de las diferencias basadas en el contexto y la historia del tema puede interferir con su motivación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desejabilidade Social , Exercício Físico , Dança , Prazer , Motivação
18.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 205: 111824, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126496

RESUMO

Excessive exposure to UVB radiation can lead to oxidative and inflammatory damage that compromises the cutaneous integrity. The application on the skin of photochemoprotective products is considered a relevant approach for the prevention of oxidative damage. In this study the in vitro and in vivo photochemoprotective effects of antioxidant plant materials obtained from the leaves of Nectandra cuspidata Nees following UVB irradiation were evaluated. The cytoprotective effect, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed in L-929 fibroblasts treated with the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) or isolated compounds (epicatechin, isovitexin and vitexin) before or after irradiation with UVB (500 mJ/cm2). EAF substantially reduced the dead of cells and inhibited the UVB-induced ROS production and LPO in both treatments, compared with the irradiated untreated fibroblasts, presenting effects similar or better than pure compounds. The in vivo photochemoprotective effects of a topical emulsion containing 1% EAF (F2) were evaluated in hairless mice exposed to UVB. F2 improved all evaluated parameters in the skin of animals, inhibited ROS production, increased antioxidant defenses by decreasing reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase depletion, reduced the activities of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and myeloperoxidase, decreased epidermal thickness and skin edema, and inhibited the appearance of sunburn cells as well as the recruitment of neutrophils and mast cell inflammatory infiltrates. These findings show that EAF presents high photochemoprotective effects, and that a topical formulation containing it may have potential for skin care.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lauraceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Pelados , Folhas de Planta , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação
19.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e1339, fev.2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1149514

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as condições de trabalho vivenciadas por enfermeiras(os), técnicas(os) e auxiliares de Enfermagem em hospitais públicos. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo, em que foram entrevistadas 122 trabalhadoras de Enfermagem de 15 hospitais públicos de um estado do Nordeste do Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre os meses de março de 2015 e fevereiro de 2016, em setores assistenciais, incluindo ambulatórios, enfermarias e unidades de alta complexidade. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário semiestruturado com questões disparadoras. Os dados foram organizados e processados com o auxílio do software Iramuteq, que gerou nuvem de palavras e árvore de similitude. Resultados: da análise emergiram quatro categorias que revelaram, por meio dos discursos das trabalhadoras, que a falta de insumos, o local inadequado para descanso, a impossibilidade de gozar as folgas advindas das horas extras laboradas e os baixos salários são fatores que permitem classificar como precárias as condições de trabalho de enfermeiras, técnicas e auxiliares de Enfermagem nos hospitais públicos estudados. Conclusão: o desgaste da força de trabalho de profissionais da Enfermagem, em decorrência de condições precárias ofertadas pelo Estado, pode contribuir para o adoecimento das trabalhadoras e expor usuários a riscos, pois implicam diretamente a qualidade da prestação da assistência.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las condiciones laborales de enfermeros, técnicos y auxiliares de enfermería que trabajan en hospitales públicos. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo para el cual se entrevistaron a 122 trabajadores de enfermería de 15 hospitales públicos de un estado del noreste de Brasil. La recogida de datos se efectúo a través de un cuestionario semiestructuradocon preguntas desencadenantes,entre marzo de 2015 y febrero de 2016, en sectores que incluyeron consultorios externos, enfermerías y unidades de alta coplejidad.Los datos se organizaron y procesaron con la ayuda del software Iramuteq, generador de una nube de palabras y un árbol de semejanzas. Resultados: del análisis surgieron cuatro categorías. A través de los discursos de los trabajadores se constató que la falta de insumos, los espacios de descanso inadecuados, la imposibilidad de disponer de días libres porhoras extras trabajadas y los sueldos bajos son factores que señalan las precarias condiciones de trabajodel personal del enfermería enlos hospitales objeto de este estudio. Conclusión: el desgaste de la fuerza laboral del personal de enfermería, debido a las precarias condiciones que ofrece el estado,puede afectar la salud de los profesionales sanitarios y exponer a los usuarios a riesgos a causa dela calidad de la atención brindada.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the working conditions experienced by nurses, Nursing technicians, and assistants in public hospitals. Method: this is a qualitative, descriptive study, in which 122 Nursing workers from 15 public hospitals in a state in the northeast of Brazil were interviewed. Data collection took place between March 2015 and February 2016, in healthcare sectors, including outpatient clinics, wards, and highly complex units. The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire with trigger questions. The data were organized and processed using the Iramuteq software, which generated a word cloud and similarity tree. Results: from the analysis, four categories emerged that through the workers' speeches revealed that the lack of inputs, the inadequate place to rest, the impossibility of enjoying the breaks resulting from overtime worked and low wages are factors that allow classifying as the working conditions of nurses, Nursing technicians and assistants in the studied public hospitals are precarious. Conclusion: due to the precarious conditions offered by the State, the strain on the workforce of Nursing professionals can contribute to the illness of workers and expose patients to risks, as they directly imply the quality of care delivery.


Assuntos
Humanos , Condições de Trabalho , Hospitais Públicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Enfermagem do Trabalho
20.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [14], 01/01/2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128573

RESUMO

Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. fam. Meliaceae) has been extensively employed to combat diverse pathologies. Moreover, it has been described that its leaf extract present anticarcinogenic action. Thus, the neem extract (NE) chemical and antioxidant properties was evaluated, and also, the capacity of two dermatological formulations incorporated with neem extract (F1 and F2) to avoid oxidative UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. NE constituents were investigated and free radical scavenging ability were determined by different methods in vitro. Skin from mice treated with F1 and F2 and submitted to UVB radiation were tested for different parameters of inflammation and oxidative injury. Results show that the NE polyphenol and flavonoid content were 135.30 and 37.12mg/g, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results demonstrated the existence of azarachtin, rutin, ursolic acid and tannic acid. NE presented scavenging ability by ABTS radical, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibition of lipid peroxidation and iron chelation. In vivo, it was observed that mice treated with F1 and F2 showed amelioration of the inflammation by reducing UVB induced skin edema. However, only samples from animals treated with F1 had lower neutrophil recruitment (measured by myeloperoxidase activity), and returning the oxidative status to baseline levels in parameters such as reduced glutathione level, ferric reducing ability (FRAP), and scavenging of free radical (ABTS). Concluding, NE demonstrated a good antioxidant property in vitro, and the data suggest the use of NE added F1 to prevent skin damage caused by UVB irradiation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Azadirachta , Antioxidantes/efeitos da radiação , Administração Cutânea , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Camundongos
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