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3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(5): e11177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825779

RESUMO

Women have always played an important role in the development of toxicology all over the world. Specifically in Brazil, toxicology has had greater female representation than other countries, but women's participation at high hierarchical levels is low. Although more than 62% of the members of the Brazilian Society of Toxicology are women, only 7 out of the 22 presidents have been women throughout its 48 years of existence. This article aims to celebrate women in the field of toxicology in Brazil, based on interviews with five of these scientists who have changed the field of toxicology in Brazil as we know it today, each in their specific sub-areas. These women are: Dr. Ester de Camargo Fonseca Moraes, Dr. Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Dr. Alice Aparecida da Matta Chasin, Dr. Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, and Dr. Tania Marcourakis. They are not only pioneers but they are also examples of admirable persistence in fighting the adversities presented to them. They broke the glass ceiling and opened doors for future generations of women in science. We hope that this article helps inspire women in their careers in toxicology.


Assuntos
Toxicologia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Toxicologia/tendências
4.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(1): 32-45, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501630

RESUMO

As large amounts of natural environments are lost due to urbanization, the role of remnant native vegetation in the preservation of biodiversity has become even more significant. Remnant native forest patches are essential refugia for flora and fauna and are crucial for the maintenance of ecosystem processes in urbanized landscapes. We evaluated the influence of landscape structure on ants and spiders associated with Atlantic Forest remnants in urban landscapes. We sampled 14 forest areas in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador and tested the effect of the landscapes' proportion of forest cover, mean landscape isolation, and mean landscape shape complexity on the taxonomic and functional richness and the community composition of both groups. The species collected were classified into functional groups based on behavioral attributes and environmental preferences. Overall, there were strong adverse effects of forest loss, decreased connectivity, and an increase in edge effects associated with the mean shape complexity of the forest remnants. However, the spiders responded to all three landscape structure characteristics whereas the ants only responded to the landscape mean shape complexity. Our findings indicate that the maintenance of urban forest habitats is essential for the conservation of biodiversity in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador and the preservation of ecological functions performed by species within the forest areas.

5.
Neotrop Entomol, in press, jan. 2021
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3499

RESUMO

As large amounts of natural environments are lost due to urbanization, the role of remnant native vegetation in the preservation of biodiversity has become even more significant. Remnant native forest patches are essential refugia for flora and fauna and are crucial for the maintenance of ecosystem processes in urbanized landscapes. We evaluated the influence of landscape structure on ants and spiders associated with Atlantic Forest remnants in urban landscapes. We sampled 14 forest areas in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador and tested the effect of the landscapes’ proportion of forest cover, mean landscape isolation, and mean landscape shape complexity on the taxonomic and functional richness and the community composition of both groups. The species collected were classified into functional groups based on behavioral attributes and environmental preferences. Overall, there were strong adverse effects of forest loss, decreased connectivity, and an increase in edge effects associated with the mean shape complexity of the forest remnants. However, the spiders responded to all three landscape structure characteristics whereas the ants only responded to the landscape mean shape complexity. Our findings indicate that the maintenance of urban forest habitats is essential for the conservation of biodiversity in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador and the preservation of ecological functions performed by species within the forest areas.

6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e11177, 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180739

RESUMO

Women have always played an important role in the development of toxicology all over the world. Specifically in Brazil, toxicology has had greater female representation than other countries, but women's participation at high hierarchical levels is low. Although more than 62% of the members of the Brazilian Society of Toxicology are women, only 7 out of the 22 presidents have been women throughout its 48 years of existence. This article aims to celebrate women in the field of toxicology in Brazil, based on interviews with five of these scientists who have changed the field of toxicology in Brazil as we know it today, each in their specific sub-areas. These women are: Dr. Ester de Camargo Fonseca Moraes, Dr. Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Dr. Alice Aparecida da Matta Chasin, Dr. Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, and Dr. Tania Marcourakis. They are not only pioneers but they are also examples of admirable persistence in fighting the adversities presented to them. They broke the glass ceiling and opened doors for future generations of women in science. We hope that this article helps inspire women in their careers in toxicology.

7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 50(1): e5630, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28076453

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20-25 g (n=6-8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Ciclobutanos/farmacologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/patologia
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(3): 874-884, June 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-679125

RESUMO

O óleo essencial de erva-doce (OED) foi avaliado como alternativa aos antimicrobianos na ração de frangos de corte alojados em cama nova (CNo) e reciclada (CRe). Foram alojadas 1.050 aves, e adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em que de um a 21 dias as aves foram mantidas somente em CNo, resultando em sete tratamentos com 10 repetições de 15 aves: T1= dieta controle positivo (CP) com antimicrobiano (ANT); T2= dieta controle negativo (CN) sem ANT e sem OED; T3= CN + 0,004% OED; T4= CN + 0,008% OED; T5= CN + 0,016% OED; T6= CN + 0,032% OED e T7= CN + 0,064% OED. De 22 a 42 dias, metade das aves foram criadas em CRe, e a outra metade em CNo, resultando em 14 tratamentos com cinco repetições de 15 aves. O OED foi adicionado pela manhã, na proporção de 1/4 do consumo diário da dieta, e, na parte da tarde, o fornecimento foi à vontade. Na fase pré-inicial, a inclusão de 0,015 e 0,026% de OED melhorou o consumo de ração e o ganho de peso, respectivamente. A inclusão de 0,031% de OED melhorou a conversão alimentar dos frangos de um a 21 dias. O OED promoveu maior peso de carcaça de aves alojadas em CNo, maiores pesos de coxa, sobrecoxa e rendimento de sobrecoxa de frangos criados em CRe. O OED melhorou o desempenho de frangos alojados sob condições de CRe.


The effect of essential fennel oil (EFO) as an alternative to antimicrobials in the diet of broiler chickens allotted on two type of new (LNo) and recycled (LRe) litter was evaluated. 1,050 birds were housed and adopted a completely randomized design in which from 1 to 21 days the birds were housed only LNo, with seven treatments and 10 replicates of 15 birds: T1 = positive control diet (PC) with antimicrobials (AM), T2 = negative control diet (NC) without AM and EFO, T3 = NC + 0.004% EFO, T4 = NC + 0.008% EFO, T5 = NC + 0.016% EFO T6 = NC + 0.032% EFO and T7 = NC + 0.064% EFO. From 22 to 42 days half of the birds housed in LRe and half continued in LNo, resulting in 14 treatments with five replicates of 15 birds. The EFO was added in the morning, at a ratio of 1/4 of the daily diet and in the afternoon the supply was at ease. In the pre-initial inclusion of 0.015 and 0.026% of EFO, feed intake and weight gain improved, respectively. The inclusion of 0.031% of EFO improved feed conversion of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The EFO promoted higher carcass in birds housed in LNo, higher drumstick weight, and thigh and drumstick yield for broilers reared in LRe. EFO improved the performance of chickens accommodated under LRe.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos/análise , Pimpinella , Ração Animal , Galinhas/classificação
9.
Cancer Lett ; 128(2): 177-82, 1998 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9683280

RESUMO

Pretreatment of EMT-6 murine tumor cells for 24 h with 10(-4) M 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) increased the photocytotoxicity of Photofrin II (P2) after cell exposure to low doses (1-1.5 J/cm2) of UVA by two- to three-fold. 8-MOP alone had no cytotoxic action under these experimental conditions and did not significantly change the amount of P2 recovered in cells. 8-MOP enhanced the lipid peroxidation end product formation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) during cell photosensitization by P2. The psoralen alone also slightly increased the TBARS level after UVA exposure. These results suggest that 8-MOP, albeit non-photocytotoxic by itself under our experimental conditions, could enhance the efficiency of P2 by increasing cellular lipid peroxidation following light exposure.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Éter de Diematoporfirina/farmacologia , Metoxaleno/farmacologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Photochem Photobiol ; 67(5): 561-4, 1998 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9613239

RESUMO

The phototoxic effect of psoralen (PSO), 5-methoxypsoralen (5MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimetylpsoralen (TMP) has been compared on the NCTC 2544 keratinocyte cell line in terms of cell mortality and lipid peroxidation. The order of effectiveness for cell photokilling is TMP, 5MOP >> 8MOP, PSO, whereas a little lipid peroxidation is observed for the four psoralens under study. Oxygen-independent membrane damage seem to play a key role in the lethal photodamage because the biological effectiveness of the most hydrophobic lipid-soluble psoralens, TMP and 5MOP, is about an order of magnitude higher than that of the more water-soluble 8MOP and PSO. In relation to this hypothesis, and in contrast to 8MOP, TMP is readily extracted from cells by ethyl acetate, a good membrane solvent, as shown by GC/MS analysis on cell extracts. The results are discussed in terms of the highly microenvironment-dependent photophysical properties of psoralens. By the measure of the intracellular psoralen concentration, the neutral red uptake and the lipid peroxidation products, this work provides evidence that PUVA therapy-mediated cell mortality is a lipid peroxidation-independent phenomenon.


Assuntos
Furocumarinas/efeitos adversos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia PUVA/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 80(1): 1-6, 1983 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6848605

RESUMO

The physico-chemical properties and the stability of anthralin, a potent antipsoriatic agent, has been investigated in model systems by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Systematic studies were carried out on anthralin and its oxidation products (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 1,8-1',8'-tetrahydroxydianthron). Anthralin and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone are shown to readily bind to human serum albumin and not to DNA. Anthralin bound to albumin readily oxidizes, yielding the 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone which is fairly stable. These results are correlated with those obtained with intact whole human epidermis and suction blister fluid showing that, in the former case, anthralin binds to protein as suggested by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis makes it easy to detect anthralin and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone in suction blister fluid doped with anthralin but not in suction blister obtained after topical application on normal human skin.


Assuntos
Antracenos/metabolismo , Antralina/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Luz , Oxirredução , Solventes , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria
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