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1.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 69, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although familial clustering of cancers is relatively common, only a small proportion of familial cancer risk can be explained by known cancer predisposition genes. METHODS: In this study we employed a two-stage approach to identify candidate sarcoma risk genes. First, we conducted whole exome sequencing in three multigenerational cancer families ascertained through a sarcoma proband (n = 19) in order to prioritize candidate genes for validation in an independent case-control cohort of sarcoma patients using family-based association and segregation analysis. The second stage employed a burden analysis of rare variants within prioritized candidate genes identified from stage one in 560 sarcoma cases and 1144 healthy ageing controls, for which whole genome sequence was available. RESULTS: Variants from eight genes were identified in stage one. Following gene-based burden testing and after correction for multiple testing, two of these genes, ABCB5 and C16orf96, were determined to show statistically significant association with cancer. The ABCB5 gene was found to have a higher burden of putative regulatory variants (OR = 4.9, p-value = 0.007, q-value = 0.04) based on allele counts in sarcoma cases compared to controls. C16orf96, was found to have a significantly lower burden (OR = 0.58, p-value = 0.0004, q-value = 0.003) of regulatory variants in controls compared to sarcoma cases. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these genetic association data we propose that ABCB5 and C16orf96 are novel candidate risk genes for sarcoma. Although neither of these two genes have been previously associated with sarcoma, ABCB5 has been shown to share clinical drug resistance associations with melanoma and leukaemia and C16orf96 shares regulatory elements with genes that are involved with TNF-alpha mediated apoptosis in a p53/TP53-dependent manner. Future genetic studies in other family and population cohorts will be required for further validation of these novel findings.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sarcoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , DNA/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 3012-3024, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785999

RESUMO

CONTEXT: "Accelerated aging," assessed by adult DNA methylation, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adolescent accelerated aging might predict CVD earlier. We investigated whether epigenetic age acceleration (assessed age, 17 years) was associated with adiposity/CVD risk measured (ages 17, 20, and 22 years) and projected CVD by middle age. DESIGN: DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood provided two estimates of epigenetic age acceleration: intrinsic (IEAA; preserved across cell types) and extrinsic (EEAA; dependent on cell admixture and methylation levels within each cell type). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, ultrasound, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (ages 17, 20, and 22 years). CVD risk factors [lipids, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, inflammatory markers] were assessed at age 17 years. CVD development by age 47 years was calculated by Framingham algorithms. Results are presented as regression coefficients per 5-year epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA/EEAA) for adiposity, CVD risk factors, and CVD development. RESULTS: In 995 participants (49.6% female; age, 17.3 ± 0.6 years), EEAA (per 5 years) was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) of 2.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 3.6%) and 2.4% (0.8% to 3.9%) at 17 and 22 years, respectively. EEAA was associated with increases of 23% (3% to 33%) in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 10% (4% to 17%) in interferon-γ-inducible protein of 10 kDa, and 4% (2% to 6%) in soluble TNF receptor 2, adjusted for BMI and HOMA-IR. EEAA (per 5 years) results in a 4% increase in hard endpoints of CVD by 47 years of age and a 3% increase, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated epigenetic age in adolescence was associated with inflammation, BMI measured 5 years later, and probability of middle age CVD. Irrespective of whether this is cause or effect, assessing epigenetic age might refine disease prediction.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(5): 974-988, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early life environment may influence susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disease in later life through epigenetic processes. SLC6A4 is an important mediator of serotonin bioavailability, and has a key role in energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that methylation of the SLC6A4 gene predicts adiposity across the life course. METHODS: DNA methylation at 5 CpGs within the SLC6A4 gene identified from a previous methyl binding domain array was measured by pyrosequencing. We measured DNA methylation in umbilical cord (UC) from children in the Southampton Women's Survey cohort (n = 680), in peripheral blood from adolescents in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study (n = 812), and in adipose tissue from lean and obese adults from the UK BIOCLAIMS cohort (n = 81). Real-time PCR was performed to assess whether there were corresponding alterations in gene expression in the adipose tissue. RESULTS: Lower UC methylation of CpG5 was associated with higher total fat mass at 4 years (p = 0.031), total fat mass at 6-7 years (p = 0.0001) and % fat mass at 6-7 years (p = 0.004). Lower UC methylation of CpG5 was also associated with higher triceps skinfold thickness at birth (p = 0.013), 6 months (p = 0.038), 12 months (p = 0.062), 2 years (p = 0.0003), 3 years (p = 0.00004) and 6-7 years (p = 0.013). Higher maternal pregnancy weight gain (p = 0.046) and lower parity (p = 0.029) were both associated with lower SLC6A4 CpG5 methylation. In adolescents, lower methylation of CpG5 in peripheral blood was associated with greater concurrent measures of adiposity including BMI (p ≤ 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.011), subcutaneous fat (p ≤ 0.001) and subscapular, abdominal and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses (p = 0.002, p = 0.008, p = 0.004, respectively). In adipose tissue, methylation of both SLC6A4 CpG5 (p = 0.019) and expression of SLC6A4 (p = 0.008) was lower in obese compared with lean adults. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that altered methylation of CpG loci within SLC6A4 may provide a robust marker of adiposity across the life course.

4.
J Hypertens ; 37(5): 997-1011, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a common and serious heritable disorder of human pregnancy. Although there have been notable successes in identification of maternal susceptibility genes a large proportion of the heritability of preeclampsia remains unaccounted for. It is has been postulated that rare variation may account for some of this missing heritability. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multiplex families to identify rare exonic risk variants. METHODS: We conducted WES in 244 individuals from 34 Australian/New Zealand multiplex preeclampsia families. Variants were tested for association with preeclampsia using a threshold model and logistic regression. RESULTS: We found significant association for two moderately rare missense variants, rs145743393 (Padj = 0.0032, minor allele frequency = 0.016) in the chromosome 1 open reading frame 35 (C1orf35) gene, and rs34270076 (Padj = 0.0128, minor allele frequency = 0.024) in the pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor (QRFPR) gene. To replicate these associations we performed imputation in our Australian genome wide association scan for preeclampsia and found no significant exonic variants in either C1orf35 or QRFPR. However, 11 variants demonstrating nominal significance (P < 0.05) in the genomic region between QRFPR and annexin A5 (ANXA5) were identified. We further leveraged publicly available genome-wide available summary data from the UK Biobank to investigate association of these two variants with the underlying clinical phenotypes of preeclampsia and detected nominal association of the QRFPR variant (rs34270076, P = 0.03) with protein levels in females. CONCLUSION: The study represents the first to use WES in multiplex families for preeclampsia and identifies two novel genes (QRFPR and C1orf35) not previously associated with preeclampsia and find nominal association of rs34270076 with protein levels, a key clinical feature of preeclampsia. We find further support for ANXA5 previously associated with pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia.

5.
Burns ; 45(3): 567-578, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595539

RESUMO

After similar extent of injury there is considerable variability in scarring between individuals, in part due to genetic factors. This study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with scar height and pliability after burn injury. An exome-wide array association study and gene pathway analysis were performed on a prospective cohort of 665 patients treated for burn injury. Outcomes were scar height (SH) and scar pliability (SP) sub-scores of the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS). DNA was genotyped using the Infinium® HumanCoreExome-24 BeadChip. Associations between genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and SH and SP were estimated using an additive genetic model adjusting for age, sex, number of surgical procedures and % total body surface area of burn in subjects of European ancestry. No individual genetic variants achieved the cut-off threshold of significance. Gene regions were analysed for spatially correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms and significant regions identified using comb-p software. This gene list was subject to gene pathway analysis to find which biological process terms were over-represented. Using this approach biological processes related to the nervous system and cell adhesion were the predominant gene pathways associated with both SH and SP. This study suggests genes associated with innervation may be important in scar fibrosis. Further studies using similar and larger datasets will be essential to validate these findings.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

8.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 77, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal data and repeated measurements in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) provide a rich resource for understanding epigenetics. We summarize 7 analytical approaches to the GAW20 data sets that addressed challenges and potential applications of phenotypic and epigenetic data. All contributions used the GAW20 real data set and employed either linear mixed effect (LME) models or marginal models through generalized estimating equations (GEE). These contributions were subdivided into 3 categories: (a) quality control (QC) methods for DNA methylation data; (b) heritability estimates pretreatment and posttreatment with fenofibrate; and (c) impact of drug response pretreatment and posttreatment with fenofibrate on DNA methylation and blood lipids. RESULTS: Two contributions addressed QC and identified large statistical differences with pretreatment and posttreatment DNA methylation, possibly a result of batch effects. Two contributions compared epigenome-wide heritability estimates pretreatment and posttreatment, with one employing a Bayesian LME and the other using a variance-component LME. Density curves comparing these studies indicated these heritability estimates were similar. Another contribution used a variance-component LME to depict the proportion of heritability resulting from a genetic and shared environment. By including environmental exposures as random effects, the authors found heritability estimates became more stable but not significantly different. Two contributions investigated treatment response. One estimated drug-associated methylation effects on triglyceride levels as the response, and identified 11 significant cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites with or without adjusting for high-density lipoprotein. The second contribution performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis and identified 6 significant modules of at least 30 CpG sites, including 3 modules with topological differences pretreatment and posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Four conclusions from this GAW20 working group are: (a) QC measures are an important consideration for EWAS studies that are investigating multiple time points or repeated measurements; (b) application of heritability estimates between time points for individual CpG sites is a useful QC measure for DNA methylation studies; (c) drug intervention demonstrated strong epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns across the 2 time points; and (d) new statistical methods are required to account for the environmental contributions of DNA methylation across time. These contributions demonstrate numerous opportunities exist for the analysis of longitudinal data in future epigenetic studies.

9.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486958

RESUMO

The importance of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) has long been recognized in the etiology of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report here the results from the CNV analysis of whole-genome sequences from 91 multiplex schizophrenia families. Employing four algorithms (CNVnator, Cn.mops, DELLY and LUMPY) to identify CNVs, we find 1231 rare deletions and 287 rare duplications in 300 individuals (77 with schizophrenia (SZ), 32 with schizoaffective disorder (SAD), 82 with another neuropsychiatric diagnosis and 109 unaffected). The size of the CNVs ranges from a few hundred base-pairs to about 1.3Mb. The total burden of CNVs does not differ significantly between affected (SZ and SAD) and unaffected individuals. Parent-to-child transmission rate for rare CNVs affecting exonic regions is significantly higher for affected (SZ and SAD) probands as compared to their siblings, but rates for all CNVs is not. We observe heterogeneity between families in terms of genes involved in CNVs, and find several CNVs involving genes previously implicated in either schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192348, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial transection (PT) of the optic nerve is an established experimental model of secondary degeneration in the central nervous system. After a dorsal transection, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with axons in ventral optic nerve are intact but vulnerable to secondary degeneration, whereas RGCs in dorsal retina with dorsal axons are affected by primary and secondary injuries. Using microarray, we quantified gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral retina at 1 and 7 days post PT, to characterize pathogenic pathways linked to primary and secondary degeneration. RESULTS: In comparison to uninjured retina Cryba1, Cryba2 and Crygs, were significantly downregulated in injured dorsal retina at days 1 and 7. While Ecel1, Timp1, Mt2A and CD74, which are associated with reducing excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, were significantly upregulated. Genes associated with oxygen binding pathways, immune responses, cytokine receptor activity and apoptosis were enriched in dorsal retina at day 1 after PT. Oxygen binding and apoptosis remained enriched at day 7, as were pathways involved in extracellular matrix modification. Fewer changes were observed in ventral retina at day 1 after PT, most associated with the regulation of protein homodimerization activity. By day 7, apoptosis, matrix organization and signal transduction pathways were enriched. Discriminant analysis was also performed for specific functional gene groups to compare expression intensities at each time point. Altered expression of selected genes (ATF3, GFAP, Ecel1, TIMP1, Tp53) and proteins (GFAP, ECEL1 and ATF3) were semi-quantitatively assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. CONCLUSION: There was an acute and complex primary injury response in dorsal retina indicative of a dynamic interaction between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative events; ventral retina vulnerable to secondary degeneration showed a delayed injury response. Both primary and secondary injury resulted in the upregulation of numerous genes linked to RGC death, but differences in the nature of these changes strongly suggest that death occurred via different molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/genética , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
11.
Hum Genet ; 137(1): 45-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181734

RESUMO

Over two billion adults are overweight or obese and therefore at an increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Obesity-related anthropometric traits genetically correlated with CMS may provide insight into CMS aetiology. The aim of this study was to utilise an empirically derived genetic relatedness matrix to calculate heritabilities and genetic correlations between CMS and anthropometric traits to determine whether they share genetic risk factors (pleiotropy). We used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on 4671 Busselton Health Study participants. Exploiting both known and unknown relatedness, empirical kinship probabilities were estimated using these SNP data. General linear mixed models implemented in SOLAR were used to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities (h 2) and genetic correlations (r g) between 15 anthropometric and 9 CMS traits. Anthropometric traits were adjusted by body mass index (BMI) to determine whether the observed genetic correlation was independent of obesity. After adjustment for multiple testing, all CMS and anthropometric traits were significantly heritable (h 2 range 0.18-0.57). We identified 50 significant genetic correlations (r g range: - 0.37 to 0.75) between CMS and anthropometric traits. Five genetic correlations remained significant after adjustment for BMI [high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-height ratio; non-HDL-C and waist-height ratio; insulin and iliac skinfold thickness]. This study provides evidence for the presence of potentially pleiotropic genes that affect both anthropometric and CMS traits, independently of obesity.

12.
Schizophr Bull ; 44(4): 908-921, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040798

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a major barrier to understanding the genetic architecture underlying schizophrenia. Incorporating endophenotypes is one way to reduce heterogeneity and facilitate more powerful genetic analysis. Candidate endophenotypes require systematic assessment against endophenotype criteria, and a ranking of their potential utility for genetic analysis. In this study we assess 20 cognitive and personality measures in a sample of 127 families with at least 2 cases of schizophrenia per family (n = 535) plus a set of 30 control families (n = 121) against 4 endophenotype criteria: (a) be associated with the illness but not be a part of its diagnosis, (b) be heritable, (c) co-segregate with the illness in families, and (d) be found in unaffected relatives at a higher rate than in the general population. The endophenotype ranking score (endophenotype ranking variable [ERV]) was used to rank candidate endophenotypes based on their heritability and genetic correlation with schizophrenia. Finally, we used factor analysis to explore latent factors underlying the cognitive and personality measures. Evidence for personality measures as endophenotypes was at least equivalent to that of the cognitive measures. Factor analysis indicated that personality and cognitive traits contribute to independent latent dimensions. The results suggest for this first time that a number of cognitive and personality measures are independent and informative endophenotypes. Use of these endophenotypes in genetic studies will likely improve power and facilitate novel aetiological insights.

13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
14.
J Hypertens ; 35(1): 132-139, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a complex heterogeneous disease commonly defined by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy. Women experiencing preeclampsia have increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. Preeclampsia and CVD share risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dysregulated inflammation and raised blood pressure. Despite commonalities, little is known about the contribution of shared genes (pleiotropy) to these diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether genetic risk factors for hypertension or inflammation are pleiotropic by also being associated with preeclampsia. METHODS: We genotyped 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in women with preeclampsia (n = 1006) and nonpreeclamptic controls (n = 816) from the Norwegian HUNT Study. SNPs were chosen on the basis of previously reported associations with either nongestational hypertension or inflammation in genome-wide association studies. The SNPs were tested for association with preeclampsia in a multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: The minor (G) allele of the intronic SNP rs17367504 in the gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was associated with a protective effect on preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.80) in the Norwegian cohort. This association did not replicate in an Australian preeclampsia case-control cohort (P = 0.68, odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.32, minor allele frequency = 0.15). CONCLUSION: MTHFR is important for regulating transmethylation processes and is involved in regulation of folate metabolism. The G allele of rs17367504 has previously been shown to protect against nongestational hypertension. Our study suggests a novel association between this allele and reduced risk for preeclampsia. This is the first study associating the minor (G) allele of a SNP within the MTHFR gene with a protective effect on preeclampsia, and in doing so identifying a possible pleiotropic protective effect on preeclampsia and hypertension.


Assuntos
Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Inflamação/genética , Noruega , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Adulto Jovem
15.
Schizophr Res ; 185: 9-16, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939555

RESUMO

The exome array assays rare-but-recurrent, likely deleterious, exonic variants and represents an intermediary between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and sequencing for genetic association studies. Multiplex families with multiple affected individuals may be enriched for disease-associated variants of this class compared to unrelated populations. We present an exome array study of schizophrenia in 99 multiplex families (n=341, including 118 cases) from the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (WAFSS). Compared to 55,726 individuals from the DIAGRAM sample not selected for schizophrenia, overall allele frequency of exome variants was higher in the WAFSS (P<2.2E-16). This was pronounced in variants nominally associated (P<0.05) with schizophrenia. Genes harbouring variants present only in WAFSS cases were enriched (FDR-corrected P=0.05) for membership of the 'extracellular matrix (ECM) - receptor interaction' biological pathway, adding to evidence that processes affecting the composition or turnover of ECM may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. We did not find individual variants significantly associated with schizophrenia, although like previous studies, power to detect associations of small effect size was low. Cases did not exhibit a higher burden of variants compared to their unaffected relatives and the finding of previous exome chip studies of unrelated samples that 'schizophrenia gene-sets' were enriched for case-only variants was not replicated in the WAFSS. The higher frequency of moderately rare, exonic variants in these multiplex families compared to a population-based sample may account for some of their genetic liability to schizophrenia, and adds to evidence for a role of exome array variants from previous studies of unrelated samples.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Saúde da Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
BMC Proc ; 10(Suppl 7): 67-70, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980613

RESUMO

Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 provided a platform for developing and evaluating statistical methods to analyze whole-genome sequence and gene expression data from a pedigree-based sample, as well as whole-exome sequence data from a large cohort of unrelated individuals. In this article we present an overview of the data sets, the GAW experience, and summaries of the contributions arranged into nine methodological themes.

17.
BMC Proc ; 10(Suppl 7): 329-332, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incorporation of longitudinal data into genetic epidemiological studies has the potential to provide valuable information regarding the effect of time on complex disease etiology. Yet, the majority of research focuses on variables collected from a single time point. This aim of this study was to test for main effects on a quantitative trait across time points using a constrained maximum-likelihood measured genotype approach. This method simultaneously accounts for all repeat measurements of a phenotype in families. We applied this method to systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements from three time points using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) whole-genome sequence family simulated data set and 200 simulated replicates. Data consisted of 849 individuals from 20 extended Mexican American pedigrees. Comparisons were made among 3 statistical approaches: (a) constrained, where the effect of a variant or gene region on the mean trait value was constrained to be equal across all measurements; (b) unconstrained, where the variant or gene region effect was estimated separately for each time point; and (c) the average SBP measurement from three time points. These approaches were run for nine genetic variants with known effect sizes (>0.001) for SBP variability and a known gene-centric kernel (MAP4)-based test under the GAW19 simulation model across 200 replicates. RESULTS: When compared to results using two time points, the constrained method utilizing all 3 time points increased power to detect association. Averaging SBP was equally effective when the variant has a large effect on the phenotype, but less powerful for variants with lower effect sizes. However, averaging SBP was far more effective than either the constrained or unconstrained approaches when using a gene-centric kernel-based test. CONCLUSION: We determined that this constrained multivariate approach improves genetic signal over the bivariate method. However, this method is still only effective in those variants that explain a moderate to large proportion of the phenotypic variance but is not as effective for gene-centric tests.

18.
BMC Genet ; 17 Suppl 2: 4, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal phenotypic data provides a rich potential resource for genetic studies which may allow for greater understanding of variants and their covariates over time. Herein, we review 3 longitudinal analytical approaches from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19). These contributions investigated both genome-wide association (GWA) and whole genome sequence (WGS) data from odd numbered chromosomes on up to 4 time points for blood pressure-related phenotypes. The statistical models used included generalized estimating equations (GEEs), latent class growth modeling (LCGM), linear mixed-effect (LME), and variance components (VC). The goal of these analyses was to test statistical approaches that use repeat measurements to increase genetic signal for variant identification. RESULTS: Two analytical methods were applied to the GAW19: GWA using real phenotypic data, and one approach to WGS using 200 simulated replicates. The first GWA approach applied a GEE-based model to identify gene-based associations with 4 derived hypertension phenotypes. This GEE model identified 1 significant locus, GRM7, which passed multiple test corrections for 2 hypertension-derived traits. The second GWA approach employed the LME to estimate genetic associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) change trajectories identified using LCGM. This LCGM method identified 5 SBP trajectories and association analyses identified a genome-wide significant locus, near ATOX1 (p = 1.0E(-8)). Finally, a third VC-based model using WGS and simulated SBP phenotypes that constrained the ß coefficient for a genetic variant across each time point was calculated and compared to an unconstrained approach. This constrained VC approach demonstrated increased power for WGS variants of moderate effect, but when larger genetic effects were present, averaging across time points was as effective. CONCLUSION: In this paper, we summarize 3 GAW19 contributions applying novel statistical methods and testing previously proposed techniques under alternative conditions for longitudinal genetic association. We conclude that these approaches when appropriately applied have the potential to: (a) increase statistical power; (b) decrease trait heterogeneity and standard error;


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Variação Genética , Hipertensão/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Cromossomos Humanos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
J Hypertens ; 33(11): 2294-302, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26259119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a complex genetic disease of pregnancy with a heterogenous presentation, unknown cause and potential severe outcomes for both mother and child. Preeclamptic women have increased risk for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to identify heritabilities and phenotypic correlations of preeclampsia and related conditions in the Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Biobank. METHODS: By applying a variance components model, a total of 493 individuals (from 138 families with increased occurrence of preeclampsia) were classified according to 30 disease-related phenotypes. RESULTS: Of parous women, 75.7% (263/338) had experienced preeclampsia and 35.7% of women with and 22.4% without preeclampsia delivered children small for gestational age (SGA). We identified 11 phenotypes as heritable. The increased occurrence of preeclampsia was reflected by the presence [heritability (H2r) = 0.60)] and severity (H2r = 0.15) of preeclampsia and being born in a preeclamptic pregnancy (H2r = 0.25). Other heritable phenotypes identified included SGA (H2r = 0.40), chronic hypertension (H2r = 0.57), severity of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (H2r = 0.31), BMI (H2r = 0.60) and pulmonary disease (H2r = 0.91). The heritable phenotype preeclampsia overlapped with SGA (P = 0.03), whereas pulmonary disease was phenotypically correlated with atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (P < 0.01), SGA (P = 0.02) and BMI (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This is the first study identifying the H2r of a range of health-related conditions in preeclamptic families. Our study demonstrates how refinement of phenotypes leads to better H2r estimation and the identification of a biological relationship between preeclampsia and related traits.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Noruega , Fenótipo , Gravidez
20.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0128230, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious hypertensive pregnancy disorder with a significant genetic component. Numerous genetic studies, including our own, have yielded many susceptibility genes from distinct functional groups. Additionally, transcriptome profiling of tissues at the maternal-fetal interface has likewise yielded many differentially expressed genes. Often there is little overlap between these two approaches, although genes identified in both approaches are significantly associated with PE. We have thus taken a novel integrative bioinformatics approach of analysing pathways common to the susceptibility genes and the PE transcriptome. METHODS: Using Illumina Human Ht12v4 and Wg6v3 BeadChips, transcriptome profiling was conducted on n = 65 normotensive and n = 60 PE decidua basalis tissues collected at delivery. The R software package libraries lumi and limma were used to preprocess transcript data for pathway analysis. Pathways were analysed and constructed using Pathway Studio. We examined ten candidate genes, which are from these functional groups: activin/inhibin signalling-ACVR1, ACVR1C, ACVR2A, INHA, INHBB; structural components-COL4A1, COL4A2 and M1 family aminopeptidases-ERAP1, ERAP2 and LNPEP. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Major common regulators/targets of these susceptibility genes identified were AGT, IFNG, IL6, INHBA, SERPINE1, TGFB1 and VEGFA. The top two categories of pathways associated with the susceptibility genes, which were significantly altered in the PE decidual transcriptome, were apoptosis and cell signaling (p < 0.001). Thus, susceptibility genes from distinct functional groups share similar downstream pathways through common regulators/targets, some of which are altered in PE. This study contributes to a better understanding of how susceptibility genes may interact in the development of PE. With this knowledge, more targeted functional analyses of PE susceptibility genes in these key pathways can be performed to examine their contributions to the pathogenesis and severity of PE.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez
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