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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527590

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease but is made up of several different histologically defined subtypes that are associated with distinct genetic alterations which require subtype specific management and treatment. Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most common subtype after conventional/clear cell RCC (ccRCC), representing ~20% of cases, and is subcategorized into type 1 and type 2 pRCC. It is important for preclinical studies to have cell lines that accurately represent each specific RCC subtype. This study characterizes seven cell lines derived from both primary and metastatic sites of type 1 pRCC, including the first cell line derived from a hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC)-associated tumor. Complete or partial gain of chromosome 7 was observed in all cell lines and other common gains of chromosomes 16, 17, or 20 were seen in several cell lines. Activating mutations of MET were present in three cell lines that all demonstrated increased MET phosphorylation in response to HGF and abrogation of MET phosphorylation in response to MET inhibitors. CDKN2A loss due to mutation or gene deletion, associated with poor outcomes in type 1 pRCC patients, was observed in all cell line models. Six cell lines formed tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice and thus provide in vivo models of type 1 pRCC. These type 1 pRCC cell lines provide a comprehensive representation of the genetic alterations associated with pRCC that will give insight into the biology of this disease and be ideal preclinical models for therapeutic studies.

3.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(1): 137-142, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165095

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogenous disease composed of several different cancer types characterized by distinct histologies and genetic alterations, including mutation of the Krebs cycle enzyme genes for fumarate hydratase and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). This report describes a patient with multifocal renal tumors that presented with a novel, biphasic histologic morphology with one component consisting of small cells growing in a diffuse pattern occasionally forming glandular and cystic structures, reminiscent of type 1 papillary RCC, and the other component having larger cells with abundant eosinophilic and clear cytoplasm and appearing in a solid pattern of growth. Genetic analysis of multiple tumors showed that all had a somatic mutation of the IDH2 gene that created the known pathogenic, gain-of-function p.R172M alteration that results in abnormal accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Analysis of multiple tumors demonstrated highly elevated levels of 2-HG and a CpG island methylator phenotype that is characteristic of 2-HG-related inhibition of the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of DNA demethylases. In combination with fumarate hydratase-deficient and succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCCs that have increased levels of the fumarate and succinate oncometabolites, respectively, the mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 represents the third Krebs cycle enzyme alteration to be associated with oncometabolite-induced RCC tumorigenesis. This study associates the discovery of a new histologic presentation of RCC with the first report of an IDH2 gain-of-function mutation in RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
4.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299109

RESUMO

Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive pediatric cancer with about 80% of cases characterized by either a t(1;13)(p36;q14) or t(2;13)(q35;q14), which results in the formation of the fusion oncogenes PAX7-FOXO1 and PAX3-FOXO1, respectively. Since patients with fusion-positive ARMS (FP-RMS) have a poor prognosis and are treated with an aggressive therapeutic regimen, correct classification is of clinical importance. Detection of the translocation by different molecular methods is used for diagnostics, including fluorescence in situ hybridization and RT-PCR or NGS based approaches. Since these methods are complex and time consuming, we developed specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to the junction region on the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein. Two mAbs, PFM.1 and PFM.2, were developed and able to immunoprecipitate in vitro-translated PAX3-FOXO1 and cellular PAX3-FOXO1 from FP-RMS cells. Furthermore, the mAbs recognized a 105 kDa band in PAX3-FOXO1-transfected cells and in FP-RMS cell lines. The mAbs did not recognize proteins in fusion-negative embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, nor did they recognize PAX3 or FOXO1 alone when compared to anti-PAX3 and anti-FOXO1 antibodies. We next evaluated the ability of mAb PFM.2 to detect the fusion protein by immunohistochemistry. Both PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 were detected in HEK293 cells transfected with the corresponding cDNAs. Subsequently, we stained 26 primary tumor sections and a rhabdomyosarcoma tissue array and detected both fusion proteins with a positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 98%, specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 91%. While tumors are stained homogenously in PAX3-FOXO1 cases, the staining pattern is heterogenous with scattered positive cells only in tumors expressing PAX7-FOXO1. No staining was observed in stromal cells, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma. These results demonstrate that mAbs specific for the chimeric oncoproteins PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 can be used efficiently for simple and fast subclassification of rhabdomyosarcoma in routine diagnostics via immunohistochemical detection.

5.
Nature ; 586(7828): 292-298, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999459

RESUMO

The RecQ DNA helicase WRN is a synthetic lethal target for cancer cells with microsatellite instability (MSI), a form of genetic hypermutability that arises from impaired mismatch repair1-4. Depletion of WRN induces widespread DNA double-strand breaks in MSI cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which WRN protects MSI-associated cancers from double-strand breaks remains unclear. Here we show that TA-dinucleotide repeats are highly unstable in MSI cells and undergo large-scale expansions, distinct from previously described insertion or deletion mutations of a few nucleotides5. Expanded TA repeats form non-B DNA secondary structures that stall replication forks, activate the ATR checkpoint kinase, and require unwinding by the WRN helicase. In the absence of WRN, the expanded TA-dinucleotide repeats are susceptible to cleavage by the MUS81 nuclease, leading to massive chromosome shattering. These findings identify a distinct biomarker that underlies the synthetic lethal dependence on WRN, and support the development of therapeutic agents that target WRN for MSI-associated cancers.

6.
Elife ; 92020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112233

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often associated with polysomes, indicating coding potential. However, only a handful of endogenous proteins encoded by putative lncRNAs have been identified and assigned a function. Here, we report the discovery of a putative gastrointestinal-tract-specific lncRNA (LINC00675) that is regulated by the pioneer transcription factor FOXA1 and encodes a conserved small protein of 79 amino acids which we termed FORCP (FOXA1-Regulated Conserved Small Protein). FORCP transcript is undetectable in most cell types but is abundant in well-differentiated colorectal cancer (CRC) cells where it functions to inhibit proliferation, clonogenicity, and tumorigenesis. The epitope-tagged and endogenous FORCP protein predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to ER stress, FORCP depletion results in decreased apoptosis. Our findings on the initial characterization of FORCP demonstrate that FORCP is a novel, conserved small protein encoded by a mis-annotated lncRNA that regulates apoptosis and tumorigenicity in well-differentiated CRC cells.

7.
Cell Rep ; 33(3): 108296, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086069

RESUMO

CellMiner-SCLC (https://discover.nci.nih.gov/SclcCellMinerCDB/) integrates drug sensitivity and genomic data, including high-resolution methylome and transcriptome from 118 patient-derived small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, providing a resource for research into this "recalcitrant cancer." We demonstrate the reproducibility and stability of data from multiple sources and validate the SCLC consensus nomenclature on the basis of expression of master transcription factors NEUROD1, ASCL1, POU2F3, and YAP1. Our analyses reveal transcription networks linking SCLC subtypes with MYC and its paralogs and the NOTCH and HIPPO pathways. SCLC subsets express specific surface markers, providing potential opportunities for antibody-based targeted therapies. YAP1-driven SCLCs are notable for differential expression of the NOTCH pathway, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and antigen-presenting machinery (APM) genes and sensitivity to mTOR and AKT inhibitors. These analyses provide insights into SCLC biology and a framework for future investigations into subtype-specific SCLC vulnerabilities.

8.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(21)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839292

RESUMO

Differentiation status of tumors is correlated with metastatic potential and malignancy. FOXA1 (forkhead box A1) is a transcription factor known to regulate differentiation in certain tissues. Here, we investigate FOXA1 function in human colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that FOXA1 is robustly expressed in the normal human colon but significantly downregulated in colon adenocarcinoma. Applying FOXA1 chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing and transcriptome analysis upon FOXA1 knockdown in well-differentiated CRC cells and FOXA1 overexpression in poorly differentiated CRC cells, we identified novel protein-coding and lncRNA genes regulated by FOXA1. Among the numerous novel FOXA1 targets we identified, we focused on CEACAM5, a tumor marker and facilitator of cell adhesion. We show that FOXA1 binds to a distal enhancer downstream of CEACAM5 and strongly activates its expression. Consistent with these data, we show that FOXA1 inhibits anoikis in CRC cells. Collectively, our results uncover novel protein-coding and noncoding targets of FOXA1 and suggest a vital role of FOXA1 in enhancing CEACAM5 expression and anoikis resistance in CRC cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Anoikis/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Proteínas/genética , Pseudogenes
9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 93, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine lung cancer. SCLC progression and treatment resistance involve epigenetic processes. However, links between SCLC DNA methylation and drug response remain unclear. We performed an epigenome-wide study of 66 human SCLC cell lines using the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip array. Correlations of SCLC DNA methylation and gene expression with in vitro response to 526 antitumor agents were examined. RESULTS: We found multiple significant correlations between DNA methylation and chemosensitivity. A potentially important association was observed for TREX1, which encodes the 3' exonuclease I that serves as a STING antagonist in the regulation of a cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. Increased methylation and low expression of TREX1 were associated with the sensitivity to Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD-1152, SCH-1473759, SNS-314, and TAK-901; the CDK inhibitor R-547; the Vertex ATR inhibitor Cpd 45; and the mitotic spindle disruptor vinorelbine. Compared with cell lines of other cancer types, TREX1 had low mRNA expression and increased upstream region methylation in SCLC, suggesting a possible relationship with SCLC sensitivity to Aurora kinase inhibitors. We also identified multiple additional correlations indicative of potential mechanisms of chemosensitivity. Methylation of the 3'UTR of CEP350 and MLPH, involved in centrosome machinery and microtubule tracking, respectively, was associated with response to Aurora kinase inhibitors and other agents. EPAS1 methylation was associated with response to Aurora kinase inhibitors, a PLK-1 inhibitor and a Bcl-2 inhibitor. KDM1A methylation was associated with PLK-1 inhibitors and a KSP inhibitor. Increased promoter methylation of SLFN11 was correlated with resistance to DNA damaging agents, as a result of low or no SLFN11 expression. The 5' UTR of the epigenetic modifier EZH2 was associated with response to Aurora kinase inhibitors and a FGFR inhibitor. Methylation and expression of YAP1 were correlated with response to an mTOR inhibitor. Among non-neuroendocrine markers, EPHA2 was associated with response to Aurora kinase inhibitors and a PLK-1 inhibitor and CD151 with Bcl-2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple associations indicate potential epigenetic mechanisms affecting SCLC response to chemotherapy and suggest targets for combination therapies. While many correlations were not specific to SCLC lineages, several lineage markers were associated with specific agents.

10.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 59(8): 472-483, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259323

RESUMO

Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, aggressive disease that predominantly afflicts individuals of African or Mediterranean descent with sickle cell trait. RMC comprises 1% of all renal cell carcinoma diagnoses with a median overall survival of 13 months. Patients are typically young (median age-22) and male (male:female ratio of 2:1) and tumors are characterized by complete loss of expression of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor protein. Due to the low incidence of RMC and the disease's aggressiveness, treatment decisions are often based on case reports. Thus, it is critical to develop preclinical models of RMC to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and to identify effective forms of therapy. Two novel cell line models, UOK353 and UOK360, were derived from primary RMCs that both demonstrated the characteristic SMARCB1 loss. Both cell lines overexpressed EZH2 and other members of the polycomb repressive complex and EZH2 inhibition in RMC tumor spheroids resulted in decreased viability. High throughput drug screening of both cell lines revealed several additional candidate compounds, including bortezomib that had both in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. The activity of bortezomib was shown to be partially dependent on increased oxidative stress as addition of the N-acetyl cysteine antioxidant reduced the effect on cell proliferation. Combining bortezomib and cisplatin further decreased cell viability both in vitro and in vivo that single agent bortezomib treatment. The UOK353 and UOK360 cell lines represent novel preclinical models for the development of effective forms of therapy for RMC patients.

11.
Genetics ; 214(4): 839-854, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111629

RESUMO

Centromeric localization of CENP-A (Cse4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CID in flies, CENP-A in humans) is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mislocalization of overexpressed CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in yeast, flies, and humans, and is proposed to promote tumorigenesis in human cancers. Hence, defining molecular mechanisms that promote or prevent mislocalization of CENP-A is an area of active investigation. In budding yeast, evolutionarily conserved histone chaperones Scm3 and chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) promote localization of Cse4 to centromeric and noncentromeric regions, respectively. Ubiquitin ligases, such as Psh1 and Slx5, and histone chaperones (HIR complex) regulate proteolysis of overexpressed Cse4 and prevent its mislocalization to noncentromeric regions. In this study, we have identified sumoylation sites lysine (K) 215/216 in the C terminus of Cse4, and shown that sumoylation of Cse4 K215/216 facilitates its genome-wide deposition into chromatin when overexpressed. Our results showed reduced levels of sumoylation of mutant Cse4 K215/216R/A [K changed to arginine (R) or alanine (A)] and reduced interaction of mutant Cse4 K215/216R/A with Scm3 and CAF-1 when compared to wild-type Cse4 Consistent with these results, levels of Cse4 K215/216R/A in the chromatin fraction and localization to centromeric and noncentromeric regions were reduced. Furthermore, in contrast to GAL- CSE4, which exhibits Synthetic Dosage Lethality (SDL) in psh1∆, slx5∆, and hir2∆ strains, GAL- cse4 K215/216R does not exhibit SDL in these strains. Taken together, our results show that deposition of Cse4 into chromatin is facilitated by its C-terminal sumoylation.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(2): e1008597, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032354

RESUMO

Restricting the localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A (Cse4 in yeast, CID in flies) to centromeres is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mislocalization of CENP-A leads to chromosomal instability (CIN) in yeast, fly and human cells. Overexpression and mislocalization of CENP-A has been observed in many cancers and this correlates with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis. Yet genes that regulate CENP-A levels and localization under physiological conditions have not been defined. In this study we used a genome-wide genetic screen to identify essential genes required for Cse4 homeostasis to prevent its mislocalization for chromosomal stability. We show that two Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligases with the evolutionarily conserved F-box proteins Met30 and Cdc4 interact and cooperatively regulate proteolysis of endogenous Cse4 and prevent its mislocalization for faithful chromosome segregation under physiological conditions. The interaction of Met30 with Cdc4 is independent of the D domain, which is essential for their homodimerization and ubiquitination of other substrates. The requirement for both Cdc4 and Met30 for ubiquitination is specifc for Cse4; and a common substrate for Cdc4 and Met30 has not previously been described. Met30 is necessary for the interaction between Cdc4 and Cse4, and defects in this interaction lead to stabilization and mislocalization of Cse4, which in turn contributes to CIN. We provide the first direct link between Cse4 mislocalization to defects in kinetochore structure and show that SCF-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 is a major mechanism that prevents stable maintenance of Cse4 at non-centromeric regions, thus ensuring faithful chromosome segregation. In summary, we have identified essential pathways that regulate cellular levels of endogenous Cse4 and shown that proteolysis of Cse4 by SCF-Met30/Cdc4 prevents mislocalization and CIN in unperturbed cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Centrômero/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Domínios Proteicos , Proteólise , Ubiquitinação
14.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(9)2020 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041821

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs produced by a noncanonical form of alternative splicing called back-splicing. To investigate a potential role of circRNAs in the p53 pathway, we analyzed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, RKO, and SW48) that were untreated or treated with a DNA-damaging agent. Surprisingly, unlike the strong p53-dependent induction of hundreds of p53-induced mRNAs upon DNA damage, only a few circRNAs were upregulated from p53-induced genes. circ-MDM2, an annotated circRNA from the MDM2 locus, was one of the handful of circRNAs that originated from a p53-induced gene. Given the central role of MDM2 in suppressing p53 protein levels and p53 activity, we investigated the function of circ-MDM2 Knocking down circ-MDM2 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that targeted circ-MDM2 did not alter MDM2 mRNA or MDM2 protein levels but resulted in increased basal p53 levels and growth defects in vitro and in vivo Consistent with these results, transcriptome profiling showed increased expression of several direct p53 targets, reduced retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation, and defects in G1-S progression upon silencing circ-MDM2 Our results on the initial characterization of circ-MDM2 identify a new player from the MDM2 locus that suppresses p53 levels and cell cycle progression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dano ao DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040482

RESUMO

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a purine analog-responsive B-cell malignancy containing the BRAF V600E mutation, expressing CD22, CD11c, CD103, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) CD25, CD123, and annexin 1A. BRAF V600E and the latter 4 markers are usually absent in the more aggressive and chemoresistant variant HCLv. To evaluate differences between HCL and HCLv, expression microarrays comparing HCL with HCLv were performed for 24694 genes using 47323 probes. Microarray data from 35 HCL and 27 HCLv purified samples showed the greatest HCL-HCLv difference in the muscle-associated gene MYF6, expressed by its 2 probes 18.5- and 10.8-fold higher in HCL than HCLv (p<0.0001). By real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR), 100% of 152 classic HCL samples were MYF6-positive, vs 5 (6%) of 90 blood donors. MYF6-expression was also detected in 18 (35%) of 51 with HCLv, 11 (92%) of 12 with HCL expressing unmutated IGHV4-34, 35 (73%) of 48 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 1 (8%) of 12 with mantle cell lymphoma. Hypomethylation status of MYF6 supported expression in HCL more than HCLv. Posttreatment blood samples becoming negative by flow cytometry remained MYF6+ by RQ-PCR in 42 (48%) of 87 HCL patients, and MYF6 RQ-PCR could detect 1 HCL in 105 normal cells. MYF6, universally expressed in HCL and in most CLL samples, may be a useful biomarker for these leukemias. Further studies are underway to determine the role of MYF6 in HCL.


Assuntos
Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/metabolismo , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Neoplasia Residual/patologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 333, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949145

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive cancer of melanocytes with a strong propensity to metastasize. We posit that melanoma cells acquire metastatic capability by adopting an embryonic-like phenotype, and that a lineage approach would uncover metastatic melanoma biology. Using a genetically engineered mouse model to generate a rich melanoblast transcriptome dataset, we identify melanoblast-specific genes whose expression contribute to metastatic competence and derive a 43-gene signature that predicts patient survival. We identify a melanoblast gene, KDELR3, whose loss impairs experimental metastasis. In contrast, KDELR1 deficiency enhances metastasis, providing the first example of different disease etiologies within the KDELR-family of retrograde transporters. We show that KDELR3 regulates the metastasis suppressor, KAI1, and report an interaction with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gp78, a regulator of KAI1 degradation. Our work demonstrates that the melanoblast transcriptome can be mined to uncover targetable pathways for melanoma therapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Kangai-1/genética , Proteína Kangai-1/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836590

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia-absent radii (TAR) syndrome, characterized by neonatal thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia with thumbs present, is typically caused by the inheritance of a 1q21.1 deletion and a single-nucelotide polymorphism in RBM8A on the nondeleted allele. We evaluated two siblings with TAR-like dysmorphology but lacking thrombocytopenia in infancy. Family NCI-107 participated in an IRB-approved cohort study and underwent comprehensive clinical and genomic evaluations, including aCGH, whole-exome, whole-genome, and targeted sequencing. Gene expression assays and electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed to evaluate the variant of interest. The previously identified TAR-associated 1q21.1 deletion was present in the affected siblings and one healthy parent. Multiple sequencing approaches did not identify previously described TAR-associated SNPs or mutations in relevant genes. We discovered rs61746197 A > G heterozygosity in the parent without the deletion and apparent hemizygosity in both siblings. rs61746197 A > G overlaps a RelA-p65 binding motif, and EMSAs indicate the A allele has higher transcription factor binding efficiency than the G allele. Stimulation of K562 cells to induce megakaryocyte differentiation abrogated the shift of both reference and alternative probes. The 1q21.1 TAR-associated deletion in combination with the G variant of rs61746197 on the nondeleted allele is associated with a TAR-like phenotype. rs61746197 G could be a functional enhancer/repressor element, but more studies are required to identify the specific factor(s) responsible. Overall, our findings suggest a role of rs61746197 A > G and human disease in the setting of a 1q21.1 deletion on the other chromosome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Síndrome Congênita de Insuficiência da Medula Óssea/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Trombocitopenia/genética , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Superiores/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Família , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Rádio (Anatomia) , Irmãos , Síndrome
19.
Cancer Inform ; 18: 1176935119890290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832011

RESUMO

Motivation: DNA copy number (CN) data are a fast-growing source of information used in basic and translational cancer research. Most CN segmentation data are presented without regard to the relationship between chromosomal regions. We offer both a toolkit to help scientists without programming experience visually explore the CN interactome and a package that constructs CN interactomes from publicly available data sets. Results: The CNVScope visualization, based on a publicly available neuroblastoma CN data set, clearly displays a distinct CN interaction in the region of the MYCN, a canonical frequent amplicon target in this cancer. Exploration of the data rapidly identified cis and trans events, including a strong anticorrelation between 11q loss and17q gain with the region of 11q loss bounded by the cell cycle regulator CCND1. Availability: The shiny application is readily available for use at http://cnvscope.nci.nih.gov/, and the package can be downloaded from CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/package=CNVScope), where help pages and vignettes are located. A newer version is available on the GitHub site (https://github.com/jamesdalg/CNVScope/), which features an animated tutorial. The CNVScope package can be locally installed using instructions on the GitHub site for Windows and Macintosh systems. This CN analysis package also runs on a linux high-performance computing cluster, with options for multinode and multiprocessor analysis of CN variant data. The shiny application can be started using a single command (which will automatically install the public data package).

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17213, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748606

RESUMO

Transgenic mice that express either a NUP98-PHF23 (NP23) or NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) fusion in the hematopoietic compartment develop a wide spectrum of leukemias, including myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic and lymphoid, at age 9-14 months. NP23-NHD13 double transgenic mice were generated by interbreeding NP23 and NHD13 mice. Remarkably, 100% of the NP23-NHD13 double transgenic mice developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within three months, characterized by replacement of the thymus with leukemic myeloblasts. The marked infiltration of thymus led to the intriguing hypothesis that AML generated in NP23-NHD13 mice arose in the thymus, as opposed to the bone marrow (BM). Transplantation of CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) thymocytes (which were also negative for Mac1 and Gr1) from leukemic NHD13/NP23 mice demonstrated that DN thymocytes could transmit AML, and limiting dilution studies showed that leukemia initiating cells were increased 14-fold in the thymus compared to BM. Further thymocyte fractionation demonstrated that DN1 and DN2, but not DN3 or DN4 fractions transmitted AML, and a marked expansion (100-fold) of Lineage-Sca1 + Kit + (LSK) cells in the thymus of the NP23-NHD13 mice. Taken together, these results show that the thymus of NP23-NHD13 mice acts as a reservoir for AML initiating cells and that thymic progenitors can transmit AML.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Timócitos/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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