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1.
Genetics ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111629

RESUMO

Centromeric localization of CENP-A (Cse4 in S. cerevisiae, CID in flies, CENP-A in humans) is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mislocalization of overexpressed CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in yeast, flies, humans and is proposed to promote tumorigenesis in human cancers. Hence, defining molecular mechanisms that promote or prevent mislocalization of CENP-A is an area of active investigation. In budding yeast, evolutionarily conserved histone chaperones Scm3 and chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) promote localization of Cse4 to centromeric and non-centromeric regions, respectively. Ubiquitin ligases such as Psh1 and Slx5 and histone chaperones (HIR complex) regulate proteolysis of overexpressed Cse4 and prevent its mislocalization to non-centromeric regions. In this study, we have identified sumoylation sites lysine (K) 215/216 in the C-terminus of Cse4 and shown that sumoylation of Cse4 K215/216 facilitates its genome-wide deposition into chromatin when overexpressed. Our results showed reduced levels of sumoylation of mutant Cse4 K215/216R/A (K changed to arginine (R) or alanine (A)) and reduced interaction of mutant Cse4 K215/215R/A with Scm3 and CAF-1 when compared to wild type Cse4. Consistent with these results, levels of Cse4 K215/216R/A in the chromatin fraction and localization to centromeric and non-centromeric regions were reduced. Furthermore, in contrast to GAL-CSE4 which exhibits Synthetic Dosage Lethality (SDL) in psh1∆, slx5∆, and hir2∆ strains, GAL-cse4 K215/216R does not exhibit SDL in these strains. Taken together, our results show that deposition of Cse4 into chromatin is facilitated by its C-terminal sumoylation.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040482

RESUMO

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a purine analog-responsive B-cell malignancy containing the BRAF V600E mutation, expressing CD22, CD11c, CD103, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) CD25, CD123, and annexin 1A. BRAF V600E and the latter 4 markers are usually absent in the more aggressive and chemoresistant variant HCLv. To evaluate differences between HCL and HCLv, expression microarrays comparing HCL with HCLv were performed for 24694 genes using 47323 probes. Microarray data from 35 HCL and 27 HCLv purified samples showed the greatest HCL-HCLv difference in the muscle-associated gene MYF6, expressed by its 2 probes 18.5- and 10.8-fold higher in HCL than HCLv (p<0.0001). By real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR), 100% of 152 classic HCL samples were MYF6-positive, vs 5 (6%) of 90 blood donors. MYF6-expression was also detected in 18 (35%) of 51 with HCLv, 11 (92%) of 12 with HCL expressing unmutated IGHV4-34, 35 (73%) of 48 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 1 (8%) of 12 with mantle cell lymphoma. Hypomethylation status of MYF6 supported expression in HCL more than HCLv. Posttreatment blood samples becoming negative by flow cytometry remained MYF6+ by RQ-PCR in 42 (48%) of 87 HCL patients, and MYF6 RQ-PCR could detect 1 HCL in 105 normal cells. MYF6, universally expressed in HCL and in most CLL samples, may be a useful biomarker for these leukemias. Further studies are underway to determine the role of MYF6 in HCL.

5.
Mol Cell Biol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041821

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs produced by a non-canonical form of alternative splicing called back-splicing. To investigate a potential role of circRNAs in the p53 pathway, we analyzed RNA-seq data from colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, RKO and SW48) untreated or treated with a DNA damaging agent. Surprisingly, unlike the strong p53-dependent induction of hundreds of p53-induced mRNAs upon DNA damage, only a few circRNAs were upregulated from p53-induced genes. Circ-MDM2, an annotated circRNA from the MDM2 locus, was one of the handful of circRNAs that originated from a p53-induced gene. Given the central role of MDM2 in suppressing p53 protein levels and p53 activity, we investigated the function of circ-MDM2 Knocking down circ-MDM2 with siRNAs that targeted circ-MDM2, did not alter MDM2 mRNA or MDM2 protein levels, but resulted in increased basal p53 levels and growth defects in vitro and in vivo Consistent with these results, transcriptome profiling showed increased expression of several direct p53 targets, reduced Rb phosphorylation and defects in G1-S progression upon silencing circ-MDM2 Our results on the initial characterization of circ-MDM2, identify a new player from the MDM2 locus that suppresses p53 levels and cell cycle progression.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(2): e1008597, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032354

RESUMO

Restricting the localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A (Cse4 in yeast, CID in flies) to centromeres is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mislocalization of CENP-A leads to chromosomal instability (CIN) in yeast, fly and human cells. Overexpression and mislocalization of CENP-A has been observed in many cancers and this correlates with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis. Yet genes that regulate CENP-A levels and localization under physiological conditions have not been defined. In this study we used a genome-wide genetic screen to identify essential genes required for Cse4 homeostasis to prevent its mislocalization for chromosomal stability. We show that two Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligases with the evolutionarily conserved F-box proteins Met30 and Cdc4 interact and cooperatively regulate proteolysis of endogenous Cse4 and prevent its mislocalization for faithful chromosome segregation under physiological conditions. The interaction of Met30 with Cdc4 is independent of the D domain, which is essential for their homodimerization and ubiquitination of other substrates. The requirement for both Cdc4 and Met30 for ubiquitination is specifc for Cse4; and a common substrate for Cdc4 and Met30 has not previously been described. Met30 is necessary for the interaction between Cdc4 and Cse4, and defects in this interaction lead to stabilization and mislocalization of Cse4, which in turn contributes to CIN. We provide the first direct link between Cse4 mislocalization to defects in kinetochore structure and show that SCF-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 is a major mechanism that prevents stable maintenance of Cse4 at non-centromeric regions, thus ensuring faithful chromosome segregation. In summary, we have identified essential pathways that regulate cellular levels of endogenous Cse4 and shown that proteolysis of Cse4 by SCF-Met30/Cdc4 prevents mislocalization and CIN in unperturbed cells.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 333, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949145

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive cancer of melanocytes with a strong propensity to metastasize. We posit that melanoma cells acquire metastatic capability by adopting an embryonic-like phenotype, and that a lineage approach would uncover metastatic melanoma biology. Using a genetically engineered mouse model to generate a rich melanoblast transcriptome dataset, we identify melanoblast-specific genes whose expression contribute to metastatic competence and derive a 43-gene signature that predicts patient survival. We identify a melanoblast gene, KDELR3, whose loss impairs experimental metastasis. In contrast, KDELR1 deficiency enhances metastasis, providing the first example of different disease etiologies within the KDELR-family of retrograde transporters. We show that KDELR3 regulates the metastasis suppressor, KAI1, and report an interaction with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gp78, a regulator of KAI1 degradation. Our work demonstrates that the melanoblast transcriptome can be mined to uncover targetable pathways for melanoma therapy.

8.
Cancer Inform ; 18: 1176935119890290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832011

RESUMO

Motivation: DNA copy number (CN) data are a fast-growing source of information used in basic and translational cancer research. Most CN segmentation data are presented without regard to the relationship between chromosomal regions. We offer both a toolkit to help scientists without programming experience visually explore the CN interactome and a package that constructs CN interactomes from publicly available data sets. Results: The CNVScope visualization, based on a publicly available neuroblastoma CN data set, clearly displays a distinct CN interaction in the region of the MYCN, a canonical frequent amplicon target in this cancer. Exploration of the data rapidly identified cis and trans events, including a strong anticorrelation between 11q loss and17q gain with the region of 11q loss bounded by the cell cycle regulator CCND1. Availability: The shiny application is readily available for use at http://cnvscope.nci.nih.gov/, and the package can be downloaded from CRAN (https://cran.r-project.org/package=CNVScope), where help pages and vignettes are located. A newer version is available on the GitHub site (https://github.com/jamesdalg/CNVScope/), which features an animated tutorial. The CNVScope package can be locally installed using instructions on the GitHub site for Windows and Macintosh systems. This CN analysis package also runs on a linux high-performance computing cluster, with options for multinode and multiprocessor analysis of CN variant data. The shiny application can be started using a single command (which will automatically install the public data package).

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836590

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia-absent radii (TAR) syndrome, characterized by neonatal thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia with thumbs present, is typically caused by the inheritance of a 1q21.1 deletion and a single-nucelotide polymorphism in RBM8A on the nondeleted allele. We evaluated two siblings with TAR-like dysmorphology but lacking thrombocytopenia in infancy. Family NCI-107 participated in an IRB-approved cohort study and underwent comprehensive clinical and genomic evaluations, including aCGH, whole-exome, whole-genome, and targeted sequencing. Gene expression assays and electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed to evaluate the variant of interest. The previously identified TAR-associated 1q21.1 deletion was present in the affected siblings and one healthy parent. Multiple sequencing approaches did not identify previously described TAR-associated SNPs or mutations in relevant genes. We discovered rs61746197 A > G heterozygosity in the parent without the deletion and apparent hemizygosity in both siblings. rs61746197 A > G overlaps a RelA-p65 binding motif, and EMSAs indicate the A allele has higher transcription factor binding efficiency than the G allele. Stimulation of K562 cells to induce megakaryocyte differentiation abrogated the shift of both reference and alternative probes. The 1q21.1 TAR-associated deletion in combination with the G variant of rs61746197 on the nondeleted allele is associated with a TAR-like phenotype. rs61746197 G could be a functional enhancer/repressor element, but more studies are required to identify the specific factor(s) responsible. Overall, our findings suggest a role of rs61746197 A > G and human disease in the setting of a 1q21.1 deletion on the other chromosome.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17213, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748606

RESUMO

Transgenic mice that express either a NUP98-PHF23 (NP23) or NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) fusion in the hematopoietic compartment develop a wide spectrum of leukemias, including myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic and lymphoid, at age 9-14 months. NP23-NHD13 double transgenic mice were generated by interbreeding NP23 and NHD13 mice. Remarkably, 100% of the NP23-NHD13 double transgenic mice developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within three months, characterized by replacement of the thymus with leukemic myeloblasts. The marked infiltration of thymus led to the intriguing hypothesis that AML generated in NP23-NHD13 mice arose in the thymus, as opposed to the bone marrow (BM). Transplantation of CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) thymocytes (which were also negative for Mac1 and Gr1) from leukemic NHD13/NP23 mice demonstrated that DN thymocytes could transmit AML, and limiting dilution studies showed that leukemia initiating cells were increased 14-fold in the thymus compared to BM. Further thymocyte fractionation demonstrated that DN1 and DN2, but not DN3 or DN4 fractions transmitted AML, and a marked expansion (100-fold) of Lineage-Sca1 + Kit + (LSK) cells in the thymus of the NP23-NHD13 mice. Taken together, these results show that the thymus of NP23-NHD13 mice acts as a reservoir for AML initiating cells and that thymic progenitors can transmit AML.

11.
JCI Insight ; 4(23)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622281

RESUMO

Mice homozygous for a hypomorphic allele of DNA replication factor minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (designated Mcm2cre/cre) develop precursor T cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pre-T LBL) with 4-32 small interstitial deletions per tumor. Mice that express a NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgene develop multiple types of leukemia, including myeloid and T and B lymphocyte. All Mcm2cre/cre NHD13+ mice develop pre-T LBL, and 26% develop an unrelated, concurrent B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Copy number alteration (CNA) analysis demonstrated that pre-T LBLs were characterized by homozygous deletions of Pten and Tcf3 and partial deletions of Notch1 leading to Notch1 activation. In contrast, BCP-ALLs were characterized by recurrent deletions involving Pax5 and Ptpn1 and copy number gain of Abl1 and Nup214 resulting in a Nup214-Abl1 fusion. We present a model in which Mcm2 deficiency leads to replicative stress, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and resultant CNAs due to errors in DNA DSB repair. CNAs that involve critical oncogenic pathways are then selected in vivo as malignant lymphoblasts because of a fitness advantage. Some CNAs, such as those involving Abl1 and Notch1, represent attractive targets for therapy.

12.
Cancer ; 125(20): 3514-3525, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355930

RESUMO

Patients who are diagnosed with osteosarcoma (OS) today receive the same therapy that patients have received over the last 4 decades. Extensive efforts to identify more effective or less toxic regimens have proved disappointing. As we enter a postgenomic era in which we now recognize OS not as a cancer of mutations but as one defined by p53 loss, chromosomal complexity, copy number alteration, and profound heterogeneity, emerging threads of discovery leave many hopeful that an improving understanding of biology will drive discoveries that improve clinical care. Under the organization of the Bone Tumor Biology Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, a team of clinicians and scientists sought to define the state of the science and to identify questions that, if answered, have the greatest potential to drive fundamental clinical advances. Having discussed these questions in a series of meetings, each led by invited experts, we distilled these conversations into a series of seven Provocative Questions. These include questions about the molecular events that trigger oncogenesis, the genomic and epigenomic drivers of disease, the biology of lung metastasis, research models that best predict clinical outcomes, and processes for translating findings into clinical trials. Here, we briefly present each Provocative Question, review the current scientific evidence, note the immediate opportunities, and speculate on the impact that answered questions might have on the field. We do so with an intent to provide a framework around which investigators can build programs and collaborations to tackle the hardest problems and to establish research priorities for those developing policies and providing funding.

13.
Cancer Res ; 79(13): 3514-3524, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113817

RESUMO

CellMiner (http://discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminer) and CellMinerCDB (https://discover.nci.nih.gov/cellminercdb/) are web-based applications for mining publicly available genomic, molecular, and pharmacologic datasets of human cancer cell lines including the NCI-60, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer, Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal, NCI/DTP small cell lung cancer, and NCI Almanac cell line sets. Here, we introduce our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data for the NCI-60 and their access and integration with the other databases. Correlation to transcript microarray expression levels for identical genes and identical cell lines across CellMinerCDB demonstrates the high quality of these new RNA-seq data. We provide composite and isoform transcript expression data and demonstrate diversity in isoform composition for individual cancer- and pharmacologically relevant genes, including HRAS, PTEN, EGFR, RAD51, ALKBH2, BRCA1, ERBB2, TP53, FGFR2, and CTNND1. We reveal cell-specific differences in the overall levels of isoforms and show their linkage to expression of RNA processing and splicing genes as well as resultant alterations in cancer and pharmacologic gene sets. Gene-drug pairings linked by pathways or functions show specific correlations to isoforms compared with composite gene expression, including ALKBH2-benzaldehyde, AKT3-vandetanib, BCR-imatinib, CDK1 and 20-palbociclib, CASP1-imexon, and FGFR3-pazopanib. Loss of MUC1 20 amino acid variable number tandem repeats, which is used to elicit immune response, and the presence of the androgen receptor AR-V4 and -V7 isoforms in all NCI-60 tissue of origin types demonstrate translational relevance. In summary, we introduce RNA-seq data to our CellMiner and CellMinerCDB web applications, allowing their exploration for both research and translational purposes. SIGNIFICANCE: The current study provides RNA sequencing data for the NCI-60 cell lines made accessible through both CellMiner and CellMinerCDB and is an important pharmacogenomics resource for the field.

14.
Blood ; 133(24): 2610-2614, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992267

RESUMO

Approximately 10% of NUP98-PHF23 (NP23) mice develop an aggressive acute lymphoblastic leukemia of B-1 lymphocyte progenitor origin (pro-B1 ALL), accompanied by somatic frameshift mutations of the BCL6 interacting corepressor (Bcor) gene, most commonly within a 9-bp "hotspot" in Bcor exon 8. To determine whether experimentally engineered Bcor mutations would lead to pro-B1 ALL, we used clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 to introduce a Bcor frameshift mutation into NP23 hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through the use of Bcor small guide RNAs (Bcor sgRNAs). Recipient mice transplanted with NP23 bone marrow or fetal liver cells that had been transduced with a Bcor sgRNA developed pro-B1 ALL, characterized by a B-1 progenitor immunophenotype, clonal Igh gene rearrangement, and Bcor indel mutation, whereas control recipients did not. Similar to a subset of human B-cell precursor ALL, the murine pro-B1 ALL had acquired somatic mutations in Jak kinase genes. JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and tofacitinib) inhibited the growth of pro-B1 ALL cell lines established from Bcor sgRNA/NP23 recipients at clinically achievable concentrations (100 nM). Our results demonstrate that Bcor mutations collaborate with NP23 to induce pro-B1 ALL, and that JAK inhibitors are potential therapies for pro-B1 ALL.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/patologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4544, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872698

RESUMO

Many tumors maintain chromosome-ends through a telomerase-independent, DNA-templated mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). While ALT occurs in only a subset of tumors, it is strongly associated with mutations in the genes ATRX and DAXX, which encode components of an H3.3 histone chaperone complex. The role of ATRX and DAXX mutations in potentiating the mechanism of ALT remains incompletely understood. Here we characterize an osteosarcoma cell line, G292, with wild-type ATRX but a unique chromosome translocation resulting in loss of DAXX function. While ATRX and DAXX form a complex in G292, this complex fails to localize to nuclear PML bodies. We demonstrate that introduction of wild type DAXX suppresses the ALT phenotype and restores the localization of ATRX/DAXX to PML bodies. Using an inducible system, we show that ALT-associated PML bodies are disrupted rapidly following DAXX induction and that ALT is again restored following withdrawal of DAXX.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 144(11): 2707-2717, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565669

RESUMO

Our previous study of DNA methylation in the pediatric soft tissue tumor rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) demonstrated that fusion-positive (FP) and fusion-negative (FN) RMS tumors exhibit distinct DNA methylation patterns. To further examine the significance of DNA methylation differences in RMS, we investigated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in discovery and validation cohorts. Unsupervised analysis of DNA methylation data identified novel distinct subsets associated with the specific fusion subtype in FP RMS and with RAS mutation status in FN RMS. Furthermore, the methylation pattern in normal muscle is most similar to the FN subset with wild-type RAS mutation status. Several biologically relevant genes were identified with methylation and expression differences between the two fusion subtypes of FP RMS or between the RAS wild-type and mutant subsets of FN RMS. Genomic localization studies showed that promoter and intergenic regions were hypomethylated and the 3' untranslated regions were hypermethylated in FP compared to FN tumors. There was also a significant difference in the distribution of PAX3-FOXO1 binding sites between genes with and without differential methylation. Moreover, genes with PAX3-FOXO1 binding sites and promoter hypomethylation exhibited the highest frequency of overexpression in FP tumors. Finally, a comparison of RMS model systems revealed that patient-derived xenografts most closely recapitulate the DNA methylation patterns found in human RMS tumors compared to cell lines and cell line-derived xenografts. In conclusion, these findings highlight the interaction of epigenetic changes with mutational alterations and transcriptional organization in RMS tumors, and contribute to improved molecular categorization of these tumors.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Musculares/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Músculo Estriado/patologia , Mutação Puntual , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteínas ras
17.
Urology ; 124: 91-97, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a family in which 3 members presented with mixed epithelial tumor of the kidney (MEST) and were found to possess a germline mutation in CDC73, a gene which is associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood and tumor DNA from three family members who presented with a primary diagnosis of MEST was subjected to targeted gene sequencing to identify potential genetic components. RESULTS: A germline start codon mutation (p.M1I) in CDC73 was identified in all 3 family members who presented with MEST and 2 tumors from 1 patient demonstrated somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Patients presented with no evidence of hyperparathyroidism or jaw tumors, but both female patients had hysterectomies at an early age due to excessive bleeding and numerous fibroids, which is common in HPT-JT. A germline p.M1I mutation has been previously reported in a family with clinical features of HPT-JT. CONCLUSION: Patients with MEST may be at risk for HPT-JT and CDC73 germline mutation testing of MEST patients should be considered.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Tumor Misto Maligno/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adenoma/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Fibroma/genética , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo/genética , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 6(1): 141, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors have not been effective for prostate cancer as single agents. Durvalumab is a human IgG1-K monoclonal antibody that targets programmed death ligand 1 and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer and locally advanced, unresectable stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer. Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has demonstrated an improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) in select patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Data from other trials suggest there may be improved activity in men with DNA damage repair (DDR) mutations treated with checkpoint inhibitors. This trial evaluated durvalumab and olaparib in patients with mCRPC with and without somatic or germline DDR mutations. METHODS: Eligible patients had received prior enzalutamide and/or abiraterone. Patients received durvalumab 1500 mg i.v. every 28 days and olaparib 300 mg tablets p.o. every 12 h until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. All patients had biopsies of metastatic lesions with an evaluation for both germline and somatic mutations. RESULTS: Seventeen patients received durvalumab and olaparib. Nausea was the only nonhematologic grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurring in > 1 patient (2/17). No patients were taken off trial for toxicity. Median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) for all patients is 16.1 months (95% CI: 4.5-16.1 months) with a 12-month rPFS of 51.5% (95% CI: 25.7-72.3%). Activity is seen in patients with alterations in DDR genes, with a median rPFS of 16.1 months (95% CI: 7.8-18.1 months). Nine of 17 (53%) patients had a radiographic and/or PSA response. Patients with fewer peripheral myeloid-derived suppressor cells and with alterations in DDR genes were more likely to respond. Early changes in circulating tumor cell counts and in both innate and adaptive immune characteristics were associated with response. CONCLUSIONS: Durvalumab plus olaparib has acceptable toxicity, and the combination demonstrates efficacy, particularly in men with DDR abnormalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02484404 .


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Mutação , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 123, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cancer diagnosis worldwide and the number one cause of cancer deaths. Exposure to cigarette smoke, the primary risk factor in lung cancer, reduces epithelial barrier integrity and increases susceptibility to infections. Herein, we hypothesize that somatic mutations together with cigarette smoke generate a dysbiotic microbiota that is associated with lung carcinogenesis. Using lung tissue from 33 controls and 143 cancer cases, we conduct 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bacterial gene sequencing, with RNA-sequencing data from lung cancer cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas serving as the validation cohort. RESULTS: Overall, we demonstrate a lower alpha diversity in normal lung as compared to non-tumor adjacent or tumor tissue. In squamous cell carcinoma specifically, a separate group of taxa are identified, in which Acidovorax is enriched in smokers. Acidovorax temporans is identified within tumor sections by fluorescent in situ hybridization and confirmed by two separate 16S rRNA strategies. Further, these taxa, including Acidovorax, exhibit higher abundance among the subset of squamous cell carcinoma cases with TP53 mutations, an association not seen in adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this comprehensive study show both microbiome-gene and microbiome-exposure interactions in squamous cell carcinoma lung cancer tissue. Specifically, tumors harboring TP53 mutations, which can impair epithelial function, have a unique bacterial consortium that is higher in relative abundance in smoking-associated tumors of this type. Given the significant need for clinical diagnostic tools in lung cancer, this study may provide novel biomarkers for early detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biodiversidade , Comamonadaceae/classificação , Comamonadaceae/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumantes , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
20.
Genetics ; 210(1): 203-218, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012561

RESUMO

Centromeric localization of the evolutionarily conserved centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (Cse4 in yeast) is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Overexpression and mislocalization of CENP-A lead to chromosome segregation defects in yeast, flies, and human cells. Overexpression of CENP-A has been observed in human cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms preventing CENP-A mislocalization are not fully understood. Here, we used a genome-wide synthetic genetic array (SGA) to identify gene deletions that exhibit synthetic dosage lethality (SDL) when Cse4 is overexpressed. Deletion for genes encoding the replication-independent histone chaperone HIR complex (HIR1, HIR2, HIR3, HPC2) and a Cse4-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, PSH1, showed highest SDL. We defined a role for Hir2 in proteolysis of Cse4 that prevents mislocalization of Cse4 to noncentromeric regions for genome stability. Hir2 interacts with Cse4 in vivo, and hir2∆ strains exhibit defects in Cse4 proteolysis and stabilization of chromatin-bound Cse4 Mislocalization of Cse4 to noncentromeric regions with a preferential enrichment at promoter regions was observed in hir2∆ strains. We determined that Hir2 facilitates the interaction of Cse4 with Psh1, and that defects in Psh1-mediated proteolysis contribute to increased Cse4 stability and mislocalization of Cse4 in the hir2∆ strain. In summary, our genome-wide screen provides insights into pathways that regulate proteolysis of Cse4 and defines a novel role for the HIR complex in preventing mislocalization of Cse4 by facilitating proteolysis of Cse4, thereby promoting genome stability.


Assuntos
Proteína Centromérica A/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Centrômero/metabolismo , Proteína Centromérica A/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Chaperonas de Histonas/genética , Chaperonas de Histonas/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
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