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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573388

RESUMO

In recent years, a rare form of autosomal recessive brachyolmia associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) has been described as a novel nosologic entity. This disorder is characterized by skeletal dysplasia (e.g., platyspondyly, short trunk, scoliosis, broad ilia, elongated femoral necks with coxa valga) and severe enamel and dental anomalies. Pathogenic variants in the latent transforming growth factor-ß binding protein 3 (LTBP3) gene have been found implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. So far, biallelic pathogenic LTBP3 variants have been identified in less than 10 families. We here report a young boy born from consanguineous parents with a complex phenotype including skeletal dysplasia associated with aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypodontia and amelogenesis imperfecta caused by a previously unreported homozygous LTBP3 splice site variant. We also compare the genotypes and phenotypes of patients reported to date. This work provides further evidence that brachyolmia with amelogenesis imperfecta is a distinct nosologic entity and that variations in LTBP3 are involved in its pathogenesis.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445317

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common genomic disorder in humans and is the result of a recurrent 1.5 to 2.5 Mb deletion, encompassing approximately 20-40 genes, respectively. The clinical presentation of the typical deletion includes: Velocardiofacial, Di George, Opitz G/BBB and Conotruncalanomaly face syndromes. Atypical deletions (proximal, distal or nested) are rare and characterized mainly by normal phenotype or mild intellectual disability and variable clinical features. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disorder are not completely understood. Because the 22q11.2 region harbours genes coding for transcriptional factors and chromatin remodelers, in this study, we performed analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation of peripheral blood from 49 patients with 22q11.2DS using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC bead chip arrays. This cohort comprises 43 typical, 2 proximal and 4 distal deletions. We demonstrated the evidence of a unique and highly specific episignature in all typical and proximal 22q11.2DS. The sensitivity and specificity of this signature was further confirmed by comparing it to over 1500 patients with other neurodevelopmental disorders with known episignatures. Mapping the 22q11.2DS DNA methylation episignature provides both novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder and an effective tool in the molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(4): 1204-1210, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442900

RESUMO

Feingold Syndrome type 1 (FS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder due to a loss of function mutations in the MYCN gene. FS1 is generally clinically characterized by mild learning disability, microcephaly, short palpebral fissures, short stature, brachymesophalangy, hypoplastic thumbs, as well as syndactyly of toes, variably associated with organ abnormalities, the most common being gastrointestinal atresia. In current literature, more than 120 FS1 patients have been described, but diagnostic criteria are not well agreed upon, likewise the genotype-phenotype correlations are not well understood. Here, we describe 11 FS1 patients, belonging to six distinct families, where we have identified three novel MYCN mutations along with three pathogenetic variants, the latter which have already been reported. Several patients presented a mild phenotype of the condition and they have been diagnosed as being affected only after segregation analyses of the MYCN mutation identified in the propositus. We also describe here the first ever FS1 patient with severe intellectual disability having a maternally inherited MYCN variant together with an additional GNAO1 mutation inherited paternally. Mutations in the GNAO1 gene are associated with a specific form of intellectual disability and epilepsy, thus the finding of two different rare diseases in the same patient could explain his severe phenotype. Therein, a thorough investigation is merited into the possibility that additional variants in patients with a MYCN mutation and severe phenotype do exist. Finally, in order to guarantee a more reliable diagnosis of FS1, we suggest using both major and minor clinical-molecular diagnostic criteria.


Assuntos
Pálpebras/anormalidades , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pálpebras/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/complicações , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/complicações , Microcefalia/patologia , Fenótipo , Sindactilia/complicações , Sindactilia/genética , Sindactilia/patologia , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/complicações , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/patologia
4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(10): 2377-2383, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744787

RESUMO

Mutations in the MBOAT7 gene have been described in 43 patients, belonging to 18 families, showing nonspecific clinical features (intellectual disability [ID], seizures, microcephaly or macrocephaly, and mild to moderate cerebellar atrophy) that make the clinical diagnosis difficult. Here we report the first Italian patient, a 22.5-year-old female, one of the oldest reported, born to apparently consanguineous parents. She shows severe ID, macrocephaly, seizures, aggressive outbursts, hyperphagia. We also documented progressive atrophy of the cerebellar vermis, that appeared not before the age of 7. The whole-exome sequencing of the trio identified a novel homozygous variant c.1057_1058delGCinsCA (p.Ala353His) in the MBOAT7 gene. The variant is considered to be likely pathogenic, since it is absent from population database and it lies in a highly conserved amino acid residue. This disorder has a neurometabolic pathogenesis, implicating a phospholipid remodeling abnormalities. A brain hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) examination in our patient disclosed a peculiar neurometabolic profile in the cerebellar hemispheric region. This new finding could address the clinical suspicion of MBOAT7-related disorder, among the wide range of genetic conditions associated with ID and cerebellar atrophy. Moreover, the documented progression of cerebellar atrophy and the worsening of the disease only after some years open to the possibility of a therapeutic window after birth.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Atrofias Olivopontocerebelares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Consanguinidade , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Atrofias Olivopontocerebelares/patologia , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1260-1266, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936464

RESUMO

Schilbach-Rott syndrome (SRS, OMIM%164220) is a disorder of unknown aetiology that is characterised by hypotelorism, epichantal folds, cleft palate, dysmorphic face, hypospadia in males and mild mental retardation in some patients. To date, 5 families and 17 patients have exhibited this phenotype, and recurrence in two of these families suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. SRS overlaps with a mild form of holoprosencephaly (HPE), but array-CGH analysis and sequencing of some HPE-related genes (SEPT9, SHH and TWIST) did not reveal any variants in at least one family. Herein, we investigated by array-CGH analysis a 11-year-old female patient and her father, both exhibiting the typical SRS phenotype, disclosing in the daughter-father couple the same microduplication of chromosome 9q22.32q22.33 [arr[hg19]9q22.32(98,049,611_98,049,636)x3,9q22.33 (99,301,483_99,301,508)x3], involving eight genes, including PTCH1. The duplication segregated with the disease, since it was not found in the healthy paternal grandparents of the proband. The gain-of-function variants of the PTCH1 gene are responsible for a mild form of HPE. This is the first genetic variant found in SRS. This finding reinforces the hypothesis that SRS belongs to the HPE clinical spectrum and suggests to perform array-CGH in patients with SRS phenotype and, if negative, to consider a potential benefit from sequencing of HPE-related genes.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Hipospadia/genética , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Criança , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Pai , Feminino , Holoprosencefalia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipospadia/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332768

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is one of the most common overgrowth diseases and it predisposes patients to cancer, generally in childhood. The prevalence of this genetic disorder is 1:10,000⁻1:50,000, and it is characterized by wide allelic heterogeneity, with more than 100 different known mutations in the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain containing protein 1 (NSD1) gene. Most of these alterations are deletions and common micro-deletions with haploinsufficiency. Singular variants are missense mutations. The present study reports a case of a 4-year-old boy with specific clinical features of Sotos syndrome and a particular complex skin hamartoma on the right femoral side, in addition to other minor findings, such as a "café-au-lait" spot on the right hemithorax and syndactyly of the second and third right toes. NSD1 gene analysis identified a de novo missense mutation, "c.[5867T>A]+[=]"; "p.[Leu1956Gln]+[=]", that was not previously described in the literature. This mutation was localized to the functional domain of the gene and was likely the cause of Sotos syndrome in our patient. We also compared aspects of our patient's condition with the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis (TSC), which is an autosomal neurocutaneous syndrome caused by mutations in the TSC1/TSC2 genes. These genes control cell growth and cell survival. This disorder is characterized by hamartomas in multiple organ systems, several coetaneous abnormalities, epilepsy, and increased risk of several types of tumors.


Assuntos
Hamartoma/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Pele/patologia , Síndrome de Sotos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermoscopia , Feminino , Histona Metiltransferases , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Linhagem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692759

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations in the SHOX gene or in the upstream and downstream enhancer elements are associated with 2-22% of cases of idiopathic short stature (OMIM #300582) and with 60% of cases of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (OMIM #127300) with which female subjects are generally more severely affected. Approximately 80-90% of SHOX pathogenic variants are deletions or duplications, and the remaining 10-20% are point mutations that primarily give rise to missense variants. The clinical interpretation of novel variants, particularly missense variants, can be challenging and can remain of uncertain significance. Here, we describe a novel missense variant (c.1044 G>T, p.Arg118Met) in a Moroccan boy with a disproportionately short stature and without any radiological traits or bone deformities and in his mother, who had a disproportionately short stature and a Madelung deformity. This variant has not been reported to date in the updated SHOX allelic variant or Human Gene Mutation Databases nor is it listed as a polymorphism in the ExAC browser, dbSNP, or 1000G. This mutation was predicted to be deleterious by three different bioinformatics tools since it modifies an amino acid in a highly conserved DNA-binding domain of the SHOX protein. Based on this evidence, the patient was treated with recombinant human growth hormone.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(11): 3961-3969, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938448

RESUMO

Context: Familial isolated hypoparathyroidism (FIH) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), glial cells missing-2 (GCM2), guanine nucleotide binding protein α11 (GNA11), or parathyroid hormone (PTH) genes. Thus far, only four cases with homozygous and two cases with heterozygous mutations in the PTH gene have been reported. Objective: To clinically describe an FIH family and identify and characterize the causal gene mutation. Design: Genomic DNA of the family members was subjected to CASR, GCM2, GNA11, and PTH gene mutational analysis. Functional assays were performed on the variant identified. Participants: Six subjects of a three-generation FIH family with three affected individuals having severe hypocalcemia and inappropriately low serum PTH. Results: No mutations were detected in the CASR, GCM2, and GNA11 genes. A heterozygous variant that segregated with the disease was identified in PTH gene exon 2 (c.41T>A; p.M14K). This missense variant, in the hydrophobic core of the signal sequence, was predicted in silico to impair cleavage of preproPTH to proPTH. Functional assays in HEK293 cells demonstrated much greater retention intracellularly but impaired secretion into the medium of the M14K mutant relative to wild type. The addition of the pharmacological chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, led to a reduction of cellular retention and increased accumulation in the cell medium of the M14K mutant. Conclusions: We report a heterozygous PTH mutation in an FIH family and demonstrate accumulation of the mutant intracellularly and its impaired secretion. An accurate genetic diagnosis in such hypoparathyroid patients is critical for appropriate treatment and genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Genes Dominantes , Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Linhagem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(9)2017 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926972

RESUMO

Moyamoya angiopathy (MA) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder characterised by the progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Its aetiology is uncertain, but a genetic background seems likely, given the high MA familial rate. To investigate the aetiology of craniosynostosis and juvenile moyamoya in a 14-year-old male patient, we performed an array-comparative genomic hybridisation revealing a de novo interstitial deletion of 8.5 Mb in chromosome region 1p32p31. The deletion involved 34 protein coding genes, including NF1A, whose haploinsufficiency is indicated as being mainly responsible for the 1p32-p31 chromosome deletion syndrome phenotype (OMIM 613735). Our patient also has a deleted FOXD3 of the FOX gene family of transcription factors, which plays an important role in neural crest cell growth and differentiation. As the murine FOXD3-/- model shows craniofacial anomalies and abnormal common carotid artery morphology, it can be hypothesised that FOXD3 is involved in the pathogenesis of the craniofacial and vascular defects observed in our patient. In support of our assumption, we found in the literature another patient with a syndromic form of MA who had a deletion involving another FOX gene (FOXC1). In addition to describing the clinical history of our patient, we have reviewed all of the available literature concerning other patients with a 1p32p31 deletion, including cases from the Decipher database, and we have also reviewed the genetic disorders associated with MA, which is a useful guide for the diagnosis of syndromic form of MA.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Doença de Moyamoya/genética , Adolescente , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico , Síndrome
10.
Public Health Genomics ; 19(6): 336-341, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27728908

RESUMO

Genetic testing strategies and counseling in cystic fibrosis (CF) can be problematic due to its extreme allelic heterogeneity and the difficult clinical interpretation of rare variants. Since in a previous survey of Italian CF patients, Umbria (a small region with about 900,000 inhabitants) was excluded due to the low number of chromosomes tested (<50), we have performed a comprehensive retrospective clinical and molecular survey of 62 CF patients coming from this region. We have summarized all the genotypic and phenotypic data in a table, and we interviewed the older patients in order to obtain a comprehensive overview of their conditions. We found that the c.2052_2053insA (2184insA) variant, a class I mutation with high frequency in Eastern Europe but very rare in Italy, is the fourth most frequent allele in Umbria. The 2184insA variant was not included in the first-level regional screening, and we therefore suggest the implementation of this variant in the future.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Revelação , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(9): 2377-82, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27312080

RESUMO

Mutations of the MED12 gene have been reported mainly in males with FG (Opitz-Kaveggia), Lujan-Fryns, or X-linked Ohdo syndromes. Recently, a different phenotype characterized by minor anomalies, severe intellectual disability (ID), and absent language was reported in female and male patients belonging to the same family and carrying a frameshift MED12 mutation (c.5898dupC). Here, we report on two brothers and their niece affected by severe and mild ID, respectively, where whole exome sequencing combined with variant analysis within a panel of ID-related genes, disclosed a novel c.2312T>C (p.Ile771Thr) MED12 mutation. This variant, which has not been reported as a polymorphism, was not present in a third unaffected brother, and was predicted to be deleterious by five bioinformatic databases. This finding together with the phenotypic analogies shared with the carriers of c.5898dupC mutation suggests the existence of a fourth MED12-related disorder, characterized by severe ID, absent or deficient language and, milder, clinical manifestation in heterozygotes. We have reviewed the literature on MED12 heterozygotes, their clinical manifestations, and discuss the possible biological causes of this condition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/patologia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(11): 2746-9, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21990121

RESUMO

Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare condition belonging to the group of ectodermal dysplasias caused by TP63 mutations. Its clinical phenotype is similar to ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) and limb-mammary syndrome (LMS), and differs from these disorders mainly by the absence of cleft lip and/or palate. We report on a 39-year-old patient who was found to be heterozygous for a c.401G > T (p.Gly134Val) de novo mutation of TP63. This patient had the ADULT phenotype associated with cleft palate. Our findings, rather than extend the clinical spectrum of ADULT syndrome, suggest that cleft palate can no longer be considered an element for differential diagnosis for ADULT, EEC, and LMS. Our data, added to other reports on overlapping phenotypes, support the combining of these three phenotypes into a unique entity that we propose to call "ELA syndrome," which is an acronym of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate, limb-mammary, and ADULT syndromes.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Unhas Malformadas/genética , Transtornos da Pigmentação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Abreviaturas como Assunto , Adulto , Mama/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Sindactilia/genética
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