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1.
J Infect ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: . A major, prolonged measles outbreak occurred in Israel during 2018-19, despite vaccination coverage rates of 97% and 96% for the first and second doses, respectively, of measles containing vaccine (MCV). AIM: . To study the causes and patterns of the outbreak through analysis of the epidemiological data, review the control measures taken, and identify lessons learned and efforts needed to prevent recurrences. METHODS: . All reported cases of measles in Israel from 1 March 2018 through 30 September 2019 were analysed using the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and demographic data that are systematically reported to the Division of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health. RESULTS: . A total of 4,311 measles cases were reported. 75% of case patients were children and 25% were adults. Pockets of undervaccination and delayed vaccination were identified: 72.6% of measles patients whose vaccination histories were known had not received any doses of MCV. Case importation was also a key factor, with a majority being adults coming from European countries and over half from Ukraine, a major locus of measles cases during the recent measles resurgence in Europe. Control measures were implemented at the local, district, and national levels. CONCLUSIONS: . Similarities were noted between the 2018-19 outbreak and the prior one in 2007-08, principally pockets of undervaccination in the Jewish ultra-orthodox community, and case importation. Efforts to improve timeliness and coverage in pockets of undervaccination, and compliance with travel immunization guidelines, will be continued.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccine coverage and effectiveness, the incidence of symptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been increasing in Israel. Whether the increasing incidence of infection is due to waning immunity after the receipt of two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month longitudinal prospective study involving vaccinated health care workers who were tested monthly for the presence of anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Linear mixed models were used to assess the dynamics of antibody levels and to determine predictors of antibody levels at 6 months. RESULTS: The study included 4868 participants, with 3808 being included in the linear mixed-model analyses. The level of IgG antibodies decreased at a consistent rate, whereas the neutralizing antibody level decreased rapidly for the first 3 months with a relatively slow decrease thereafter. Although IgG antibody levels were highly correlated with neutralizing antibody titers (Spearman's rank correlation between 0.68 and 0.75), the regression relationship between the IgG and neutralizing antibody levels depended on the time since receipt of the second vaccine dose. Six months after receipt of the second dose, neutralizing antibody titers were substantially lower among men than among women (ratio of means, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.75), lower among persons 65 years of age or older than among those 18 to less than 45 years of age (ratio of means, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.70), and lower among participants with immunosuppression than among those without immunosuppression (ratio of means, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Six months after receipt of the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, humoral response was substantially decreased, especially among men, among persons 65 years of age or older, and among persons with immunosuppression.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0050621, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612692

RESUMO

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 (SC-2) variants with increased infectivity and vaccine resistance are of major concern. Rapid identification of such variants is important for the public health decision making and to provide valuable data for epidemiological and policy decision making. We developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that can specifically identify and differentiate between the emerging B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 SC-2 variants. In a single assay, we combined four reactions-one that detects SC-2 RNA independently of the strain, one that detects the D3L mutation, which is specific to variant B.1.1.7, one that detects the 242 to 244 deletion, which is specific to variant B.1.351, and the fourth reaction, which identifies the human RNAseP gene, serving as an endogenous control for RNA extraction integrity. We show that the strain-specific reactions target mutations that are strongly associated with the target variants and not with other major known variants. The assay's specificity was tested against a panel of respiratory pathogens (n = 16), showing high specificity toward SC-2 RNA. The assay's sensitivity was assessed using both in vitro transcribed RNA and clinical samples and was determined to be between 20 and 40 viral RNA copies per reaction. The assay performance was corroborated with Sanger and whole-genome sequencing, showing complete agreement with the sequencing results. The new assay is currently implemented in the routine diagnostic work at the Central Virology Laboratory, and may be used in other laboratories to facilitate the diagnosis of these major worldwide-circulating SC-2 variants. IMPORTANCE This study describes the design and utilization of a multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to identify SARS-COV-2 (SC2) RNA in general and, specifically, to detect whether it is of lineage B.1.1.7 or B.1.351. Implementation of this method in diagnostic and research laboratories worldwide may help the efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The method can be easily scaled up and be used in high-throughput laboratories, as well as small ones. In addition to immediate help in diagnostic efforts, this method may also help in epidemiological studies focused on the spread of emerging SC-2 lineages.

4.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131194, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467943

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic created a global crisis impacting not only healthcare systems, but also economics and society. Therefore, it is important to find novel methods for monitoring disease activity. Recent data have indicated that fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 is common, and that viral RNA can be detected in wastewater. This suggests that wastewater monitoring is a potentially efficient tool for both epidemiological surveillance, and early warning for SARS-CoV-2 circulation at the population level. In this study we sampled an urban wastewater infrastructure in the city of Ashkelon (Ì´ 150,000 population), Israel, during the end of the first COVID-19 wave in May 2020 when the number of infections seemed to be waning. We were able to show varying presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater from several locations in the city during two sampling periods, before the resurgence was clinically apparent. This was expressed with a new index, Normalized Viral Load (NVL) which can be used in different area scales to define levels of virus activity such as red (high) or green (no), and to follow morbidity in the population at the tested area. The rise in viral load between the two sampling periods (one week apart) indicated an increase in morbidity that was evident two weeks to a month later in the population. Thus, this methodology may provide an early indication for SARS-CoV-2 infection outbreak in a population before an outbreak is clinically apparent.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esgotos , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506497

RESUMO

Measles outbreaks escalated globally despite worldwide elimination efforts. Molecular epidemiological investigations utilizing partial measles virus (MeV) genomes are challenged by reduction in global genotypes and low evolutionary rates. Greater resolution was reached using MeV complete genomes, however time and costs limit the application to numerous samples. We developed an approach to unbiasedly sequence complete MeV genomes directly from patient urine samples. Samples were enriched for MeV using filtration or nucleases and the minimal number of sequence reads to allocate per sample based on its MeV content was assessed using in-silico reduction of sequencing depth. Application of limited-resource sequencing to treated MeV-positive samples demonstrated that 1-5 million sequences for samples with high/medium MeV quantities and 10-15 million sequences for samples with lower MeV quantities are sufficient to obtain >98% MeV genome coverage and over X50 average depth. This approach enables real-time high-resolution molecular epidemiological investigations of large-scale MeV outbreaks.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351998

RESUMO

Accurate and timely diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is clinically essential, and is required also to monitor confirmed cases aiming to prevent further spread. Positive real-time PCR results at late time points following initial diagnosis may be clinically misleading as this methodology cannot account for the infection capabilities and the existence of whole genome sequences. In this study, 47 serial respiratory samples were tested by Allplex-nCoV test (Seegene), a triplex of three assays targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP, E and N genes and subsequently assessed by next generation sequencing (NGS). COVID19 patients were tested at an early stage of the disease, when all these viral gene targets were positive, and at an advanced stage, when only the N gene target was positive in the Allplex-nCoV test. The corresponding NGS results showed the presence of complete viral genome copies at both early and advanced stages of the disease, although the total number of mapped sequences was lower in samples from advanced disease stages. We conclude that reduced viral transmission at this late disease stage may result from the low quantities of complete viral sequences and not solely from transcription favoring the N gene.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
7.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 616-619, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398244

RESUMO

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants may influence the effectiveness of existing laboratory diagnostics. In the current study we determined whether the British (20I/501Y.V1) and South African (20H/501Y.V2) SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are detected with an in-house S1-based antigen detection assay, analyzing spiked pools of quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-negative nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The assay, combining 4 monoclonal antibodies, allowed sensitive detection of both the wild type and the variants of concern, despite accumulation of several mutations in the variants' S1 region-results suggesting that this combination, targeting distinct epitopes, enables both specificity and the universality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
8.
Cell Rep ; 36(10): 109679, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464610

RESUMO

A wide range of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been reported, most of which target the spike glycoprotein. Therapeutic implementation of these antibodies has been challenged by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutated spike versions. Consequently, re-assessment of previously identified mAbs is of high priority. Four previously selected mAbs targeting non-overlapping epitopes are now evaluated for binding potency to mutated RBD versions, reported to mediate escape from antibody neutralization. In vitro neutralization potencies of these mAbs, and two NTD-specific mAbs, are evaluated against two frequent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the B.1.1.7 Alpha and the B.1.351 Beta. Furthermore, we demonstrate therapeutic potential of three selected mAbs by treatment of K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice 2 days post-infection with each virus variant. Thus, despite the accumulation of spike mutations, the highly potent MD65 and BL6 mAbs retain their ability to bind the prevalent viral mutants, effectively protecting against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Afinidade de Anticorpos , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451995

RESUMO

Response to and monitoring of viral outbreaks can be efficiently focused when rapid, quantitative, kinetic information provides the location and the number of infected individuals. Environmental surveillance traditionally provides information on location of populations with contagious, infected individuals since infectious poliovirus is excreted whether infections are asymptomatic or symptomatic. Here, we describe development of rapid (1 week turnaround time, TAT), quantitative RT-PCR of poliovirus RNA extracted directly from concentrated environmental surveillance samples to infer the number of infected individuals excreting poliovirus. The quantitation method was validated using data from vaccination with bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV). The method was then applied to infer the weekly number of excreters in a large, sustained, asymptomatic outbreak of wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel (2013) in a population where >90% of the individuals received three doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Evidence-based intervention strategies were based on the short TAT for direct quantitative detection. Furthermore, a TAT shorter than the duration of poliovirus excretion allowed resampling of infected individuals. Finally, the method documented absence of infections after successful intervention of the asymptomatic outbreak. The methodologies described here can be applied to outbreaks of other excreted viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), where there are (1) significant numbers of asymptomatic infections; (2) long incubation times during which infectious virus is excreted; and (3) limited resources, facilities, and manpower that restrict the number of individuals who can be tested and re-tested.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452062

RESUMO

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants may threaten global vaccination efforts and the awaited reduction in outbreak burden. In this study, we report a novel variant carrying the L452R mutation that emerged from a local B.1.362 lineage, B.1.362+L452R. The L452R mutation is associated with the Delta and Epsilon variants and was shown to cause increased infection and reduction in neutralization in pseudoviruses. Indeed, the B.1.362+L452R variant demonstrated a X4-fold reduction in neutralization capacity of sera from BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals compared to a wild-type strain. The variant infected 270 individuals in Israel between December 2020 and March 2021, until diminishing due to the gain in dominance of the Alpha variant in February 2021. This study demonstrates an independent, local emergence of a variant carrying a critical mutation, L452R, which may have the potential of becoming a variant of concern and emphasizes the importance of routine surveillance and detection of novel variants among efforts undertaken to prevent further disease spread.

11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e153, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372950

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is still ongoing along with the global vaccination efforts against it. Here, we aimed to understand the longevity and strength of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses in a small community (n = 283) six months following local SARS-COV-2 outbreak in March 2020. Three serological assays were compared and neutralisation capability was also determined. Overall 16.6% (47/283) of the participants were seropositive and 89.4% (42/47) of the IgG positives had neutralising antibodies. Most of the symptomatic individuals confirmed as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive during the outbreak were seropositive (30/32, 93.8%) and 33.3% of the individuals who quarantined with a PCR confirmed patient had antibodies. Serological assays comparison revealed that Architect (Abbott) targeting the N protein LIASON® (DiaSorin) targeting the S protein and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting receptor binding domain detected 9.5% (27/283), 17.3% (49/283) and 17% (48/283), respectively, as IgG positives. The latter two assays highly agreed (kappa = 0.89) between each other. In addition, 95%, (19/20, by ELISA) and 90.9% (20/22, with LIASON) and only 71.4% (15/21, by Architect) of individuals that were seropositive in May 2020 were found positive also in September. The unexpected low rate of overall immunity indicates the absence of un-noticed, asymptomatic infections. Lack of overall high correlation between the assays is attributed mainly to target-mediated antibody responses and suggests that using a single serological assay may be misleading.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 148002, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323811

RESUMO

Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 spread and identification of variants in sewers has been demonstrated to accurately detect prevalence of viral strains and is advantageous to clinical sampling in population catchment size. Herein, we utilized an established nationwide system of wastewater sampling and viral concentration approaches to perform large-scale surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants in nine different locations across Israel that were sampled from August 2020 to February 2021 and sequenced (n = 58). Viral sequences obtained from the wastewater samples had high coverages of the genome, and mutation analyses successfully identified the penetration of the B.1.1.7 variant into Israel in December 2020 in the central and north regions, and its spread into additional regions in January and February 2021, corresponding with clinical sampling results. Moreover, the wastewater analysis identified the B.1.1.7 variant in December 2020 in regions in which non-sufficient clinical sampling was available. Other variants of concern examined, including P.1 (Brazil/Manaus), B.1.429 (USA/California), B.1.526 (USA/New York), A.23.1 (Uganda) and B.1.525 (Unknown origin), did not show consistently elevated frequencies. This study exemplifies that surveillance by sewage is a robust approach which allows to monitor the diversity of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in the community. Most importantly, this approach can pre-identify the emergence of epidemiologically or clinically relevant mutations/variants, aiding in public health decision making.

13.
Euro Surveill ; 26(26)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212838

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) and other VOCs are spreading in Europe. Micro-neutralisation assays with sera obtained after Comirnaty (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccination in 36 healthcare workers (31 female) demonstrated significant fold change reduction in neutralising titres compared with the original virus: Gamma (P.1) 2.3, Beta (B.1.351) 10.4, Delta 2.1 and 2.6. The reduction of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant was not significant. Despite being lower, remaining neutralisation capacity conferred by Comirnaty against Delta and other VOCs is probably protective.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Vacinação
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 999-1009, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concurrent with the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in Israel initiated on Dec 19, 2020, we assessed the early antibody responses and antibody kinetics after each vaccine dose in health-care workers of different ages and sexes, and with different comorbidities. METHODS: We did a prospective, single-centre, longitudinal cohort study at the Sheba Medical Centre (Tel-Hashomer, Israel). Eligible participants were health-care workers at the centre who had a negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay before receiving the first dose of the intramuscular vaccine, and at least one serological antibody test after the first dose of the vaccine. Health-care workers with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test before vaccination, a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology test before vaccination, or infection with COVID-19 after vaccination were excluded from the study. Participants were followed up weekly for 5 weeks after the first vaccine dose; a second dose was given at week 3. Serum samples were obtained at baseline and at each weekly follow-up, and antibodies were tested at 1-2 weeks after the first vaccine dose, at week 3 with the administration of the second vaccine dose, and at weeks 4-5 (ie, 1-2 weeks after the second vaccine dose). Participants with comorbidities were approached to participate in an enriched comorbidities subgroup, and at least two neutralising assays were done during the 5 weeks of follow-up in those individuals. IgG assays were done for the entire study population, whereas IgM, IgA, and neutralising antibody assays were done only in the enriched comorbidities subgroup. Concentrations of IgG greater than 0·62 sample-to-cutoff (s/co) ratio and of IgA greater than 1·1 s/co, and titres of neutralising antibodies greater than 10 were considered positive. Scatter plot and correlation analyses, logistic and linear regression analyses, and linear mixed models were used to investigate the longitudinal antibody responses. FINDINGS: Between Dec 19, 2020, and Jan 30, 2021, we obtained 4026 serum samples from 2607 eligible, vaccinated participants. 342 individuals were included in the enriched comorbidities subgroup. The first vaccine dose elicited positive IgG and neutralising antibody responses at week 3 in 707 (88·0%) of 803 individuals, and 264 (71·0%) of 372 individuals, respectively, which were rapidly increased at week 4 (ie, 1 week after the second vaccine dose) in 1011 (98·4%) of 1027 and 357 (96·5%) of 370 individuals, respectively. Over 4 weeks of follow-up after vaccination, a high correlation (r=0·92) was detected between IgG against the receptor-binding domain and neutralising antibody titres. First-dose induced IgG response was significantly lower in individuals aged 66 years and older (ratio of means 0·25, 95% CI 0·19-0·31) and immunosuppressed individuals (0·21, 0·14-0·31) compared with individuals aged 18·00-45·99 years and individuals with no immunosuppression, respectively. This disparity was partly abrogated following the second dose. Overall, endpoint regression analysis showed that lower antibody concentrations were consistently associated with male sex (ratio of means 0·84, 95% CI 0·80-0·89), older age (ie, ≥66 years; 0·64, 0·58-0·71), immunosuppression (0·44, 0·33-0·58), and other specific comorbidities: diabetes (0·88, 0·79-0·98), hypertension (0·90, 0·82-0·98), heart disease (0·86, 0·75-1·00), and autoimmune diseases (0·82, 0·73-0·92). INTERPRETATION: BNT162b2 vaccine induces a robust and rapid antibody response. The significant correlation between receptor-binding domain IgG antibodies and neutralisation titres suggests that IgG antibodies might serve as a correlate of neutralisation. The second vaccine dose is particularly important for older and immunosuppressed individuals, highlighting the need for timely second vaccinations and potentially a revaluation of the long gap between doses in some countries. Antibody responses were reduced in susceptible populations and therefore they might be more prone to breakthrough infections. FUNDING: Sheba Medical Center, Israel Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0243265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770098

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes corona virus disease (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has since led to a global pandemic. Importations of SARS-CoV-2 to Israel in late February from multiple countries initiated a rapid outbreak across the country. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 whole genomes were sequenced from 59 imported samples with a recorded country of importation and 101 early circulating samples in February to mid-March 2020 and analyzed to infer clades and mutational patterns with additional sequences identified Israel available in public databases. Recorded importations in February to mid-March, mostly from Europe, led to multiple transmissions in all districts in Israel. Although all SARS-CoV-2 defined clades were imported, clade 20C became the dominating clade in the circulating samples. Identification of novel, frequently altered mutated positions correlating with clade-defining positions provide data for surveillance of this evolving pandemic and spread of specific clades of this virus. SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and mutate in Israel and across the globe. With economy and travel resuming, surveillance of clades and accumulating mutations is crucial for understanding its evolution and spread patterns and may aid in decision making concerning public health issues.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784369

RESUMO

Conducting numerous, rapid, and reliable PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 is essential for our ability to monitor and control the current COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we tested the sensitivity and efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 detection in clinical samples collected directly into a mix of lysis buffer and RNA preservative, thus inactivating the virus immediately after sampling. We tested 79 COVID-19 patients and 20 healthy controls. We collected two samples (nasopharyngeal swabs) from each participant: one swab was inserted into a test tube with Viral Transport Medium (VTM), following the standard guideline used as the recommended method for sample collection; the other swab was inserted into a lysis buffer supplemented with nucleic acid stabilization mix (coined NSLB). We found that RT-qPCR tests of patients were significantly more sensitive with NSLB sampling, reaching detection threshold 2.1±0.6 (Mean±SE) PCR cycles earlier then VTM samples from the same patient. We show that this improvement is most likely since NSLB samples are not diluted in lysis buffer before RNA extraction. Re-extracting RNA from NSLB samples after 72 hours at room temperature did not affect the sensitivity of detection, demonstrating that NSLB allows for long periods of sample preservation without special cooling equipment. We also show that swirling the swab in NSLB and discarding it did not reduce sensitivity compared to retaining the swab in the tube, thus allowing improved automation of COVID-19 tests. Overall, we show that using NSLB instead of VTM can improve the sensitivity, safety, and rapidity of COVID-19 tests at a time most needed.


Assuntos
Limite de Detecção , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Segurança , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Tampões (Química) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Fatores de Tempo
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630927

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause mild to severe respiratory infection. Most of the common cold illnesses are caused by one of four HCoVs, namely HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43. Several studies have applied global transcriptomic methods to understand host responses to HCoV infection, with most studies focusing on the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing was used to gain new insights into cellular transcriptomic changes elicited by alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E. HCoV-229E-infected MRC-5 cells showed marked downregulation of superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis and eIF2 signaling pathways. Moreover, upregulation of cyclins, cell cycle control of chromosomal replication, and the role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response, alongside downregulation of the cell cycle G1/S checkpoint, suggest that HCoV-229E may favors S phase for viral infection. Intriguingly, a significant portion of key factors of cell innate immunity, interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and other transcripts of early antiviral response genes were downregulated early in HCoV-229E infection. On the other hand, early upregulation of the antiviral response factor Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) was observed. APOBEC3B cytidine deaminase signature (C-to-T) was previously observed in genomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 but not HCoV-229E. Higher levels of C-to-T mutations were found in countries with high mortality rates caused by SARS-CoV-2. APOBEC activity could be a marker for new emerging CoVs. This study will enhance our understanding of commonly circulating HCoVs and hopefully provide critical information about still-emerging coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano 229E/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Transcriptoma , Linhagem Celular , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos
19.
Euro Surveill ; 26(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573709

RESUMO

IntroductionUniversal vaccination of toddlers has led to very low hepatitis A (HAV) endemicity in Israel. However, sporadic outbreaks still occur, necessitating better surveillance.AimTo implement a comprehensive HAV surveillance programme.MethodsIn 2017 and 2018, sera from suspected HAV cases that tested positive for anti-HAV IgM antibodies were transferred to the Central Virology Laboratory (CVL) for molecular confirmation and genotyping. Sewage samples were collected in Israel and Palestine* and were molecularly analysed. All molecular (CVL), epidemiological (District Health Offices and Epidemiological Division) and clinical (treating physicians) data were combined and concordantly assessed.ResultsOverall, 146 cases (78 in 2017 and 68 in 2018, median age 34 years, 102 male) and 240 sewage samples were studied. Most cases (96%) were unvaccinated. In 2017, 89% of cases were male, 45% of whom were men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2018, 49% were male, but only 3% of them were MSM (p < 0.01). In 2017, 82% of cases and 63% of sewage samples were genotype 1A, phylogenetically associated with a global MSM-HAV outbreak. In 2018, 80% of cases and 71% of sewage samples were genotype 1B, related to the endemic strain previously identified in Israel and Palestine*. Environmental analysis revealed clustering of sewage and cases' sequences, and country-wide circulation of HAV.ConclusionsMolecular confirmation of HAV infection in cases and analysis of environmental samples, combined with clinical and epidemiological investigation, may improve HAV surveillance. Sequence-based typing of both clinical and sewage-derived samples could assist in understanding viral circulation.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A , Hepatite A , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(1): 125-128, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198831

RESUMO

Up until now, there is much debate about the role of asymptomatic patients and pauci-symptomatic patients in severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, and little is known about the kinetics of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) shedding in these populations. This article aims to describe key features and the nature of asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The cohort consisted of six participants, three pairs, which were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during February 2020 on board the Diamond Princess. Of the six confirmed (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) cases, four were initially diagnosed in Japan and two upon their arrival to Israel. Duration of infection was between four days and up to 26 days. Of the six patients, three were completely asymptomatic and the others were pauci-symptomatic. All five patients in whom a computerized tomography (CT) scan was performed had lung pathology. In one patient, infectivity was tested using cell culture and a cytopathic effect was demonstrated. A serology test was performed in three of the patients and all three had a positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) four to eight weeks after disease onset. This case series demonstrates that asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic patients may play a role in infection transmission by demonstrating probable transmission among asymptomatic spouses and by demonstrating a viable virus via a cell culture. Additionally, asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic patients can have lung pathology and developing IgG antibodies.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Navios
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