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1.
J Pediatr ; 212: 44-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in the first year of life and the influence of different neonatal factors on development of FGIDs. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort multicenter study including neonates, consecutively enrolled at birth, and followed up until 1 year. Gestational age, neonatal antibiotic administration, duration of hospitalization, mode of delivery, birth weight, and feeding pattern were recorded. FGIDs were classified according to Rome III criteria and assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of life. RESULTS: Among 1152 newborns enrolled, 934 (81.1%) completed the study, 302 (32%) were newborns born preterm, 320 (34%) had neonatal antibiotics, and 718 (76.9%) had at least 1 FGID according to Rome III criteria (443 [47.4%] infantile colic, 374 [40.0%] regurgitation, 297 [31.8%] infant dyschezia, 248 [26.6%] functional constipation, and 34 [3.6%] functional diarrhea) throughout the first year of life. The proportion of infants born preterm presenting with FGIDs (86%) was significantly greater compared with infants born full term (72.5%) (χ2 = 21.3, P = .0001). On multivariate analysis, prematurity and neonatal use of antibiotics was significantly associated with at least 1 FGID. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate FGIDs in infants, likely related to the population recruited, the long observation period, the diagnosis based on Rome III criteria, and parental reports. Preterm delivery and neonatal use of antibiotics in the first months of life are associated with an increased incidence of FGIDs, particularly infantile colic and regurgitation. In our population, cesarean delivery and feeding pattern at 1 month of life emerged as additional risk factors for infant dyschezia and functional diarrhea. Other neonatal factors associated with FGIDs need to be further explored.

2.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(5): 586-591, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032665

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the accuracy of noninvasive parameters, fecal calprotectin (FC), increased bowel wall thickening (BWT) at intestinal ultrasound (IUS) and blood inflammatory indexes (BII), alone or in combination, as diagnostic tools for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric patients. Methods: Retrospective data were collected on consecutive children (age 2-18 years) referred to our pediatric gastroenterology clinic, for recurrent abdominal pain and/or altered bowel habit from 2007 to 2013. Subjects who had diagnostic workup: laboratory tests (FC, BII, white blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)) and IUS as initial assessment were eligible. Subjects with known gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, or signs or symptoms highly suggestive for organic diseases necessitating prompt endoscopy (e.g., perianal disease or rectal bleeding), or who had recently performed endoscopy were excluded. The accuracy of noninvasive tests for detecting IBD was assessed using endoscopic and/or radiological investigations, performed in subsequent clinical follow up, as reference gold standard. Results: Seventy-seven patients (mean age 11.3, 44 males) were included, 23 (29.9%) with a final diagnosis of IBD. As single tests, FC gave the highest sensitivity (96%) but lower specificity (72%) and IUS highest specificity (96%) with lower sensitivity (70%). The combination of FC + IUS showed excellent accuracy for detecting children with IBD with positive predictive value: 100%; negative predictive value: 88.5%. The probability of IBD in children with normal FC, BII and IUS was 0.09%. Conclusions: FC and increased BWT at IUS are accurate to guide reassurance or proceeding with further invasive procedures for detecting IBD in children with mild GI symptoms.

3.
Trials ; 20(1): 67, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and feeding intolerance are common conditions in preterm infants and among the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. For many years, preterm infants with RDS have been treated with mechanical ventilation, increasing risks of acute lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years non-invasive ventilation techniques have been developed. Showing similar efficacy and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) have become the most widespread techniques in neonatal intensive care units. However, their impact on nutrition, particularly on feeding tolerance and risk of complications, is still unknown in preterm infants. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of NCPAP vs HHHFNC on enteral feeding and to identify the most suitable technique for preterm infants with RDS. METHODS: A multicenter randomized single-blind controlled trial was designed. All preterm infants with a gestational age of 25-29 weeks treated with NCPAP or HHHFNC for RDS and demonstrating stability for at least 48 h along with the compliance with inclusion criteria (age less than 7 days, need for non-invasive respiratory support, suitability to start enteral feeding) will be enrolled in the study and randomized to the NCPAP or HHHFNC arm. All patients will be monitored until discharge, and data will be analyzed according to an intention-to-treat model. The primary outcome is the time to reach full enteral feeding, while parameters of respiratory support, feeding tolerance, and overall health status will be evaluated as secondary outcomes. The sample size was calculated at 141 patients per arm. DISCUSSION: The identification of the most suitable technique (NCPAP vs HHHFNC) for preterm infants with feeding intolerance could reduce gastrointestinal complications, improve growth, and reduce hospital length of stay, thus improving clinical outcomes and reducing health costs. The evaluation of the timing of oral feeding could be useful in understanding the influence that these techniques could have on the development of sucking-swallow coordination. Moreover, the evaluation of the response to NCPAP and HHHFNC could clarify their efficacy as a treatment for RDS in extremely preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03548324 . Registered on 7 June 2018.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Respiração , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Apoio Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nutrients ; 10(5)2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the 2016 Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) data in Italy, about 6.7% of all newborns are born prematurely. Due to the lack of data on current complementary feeding in preterm infants in Italy, the aim of the survey was to evaluate individual attitudes of primary care paediatricians, concerning the introduction of complementary foods in preterm infants. METHODS: An internet-based survey was conducted among primary care paediatricians, working in Italy, regarding (1) timing of the introduction of complementary foods to preterm newborns; (2) type of complementary foods introduced; (3) vitamin D and iron supplementations. RESULTS: A total of 347 primary care Italian paediatricians answered the questionnaire; 44% of responders based the timing of the introduction of solid food exclusively on an infant's age, 18% on an infant's neurodevelopmental status and 4% on the body weight; the remaining 34% based the timing on two or more of these aspects. The type of complementary foods did not comply with an evidence-based sequence; 98% of participants promoted vitamin D supplementation and 89% promoted iron supplementation with great diversity in timing and doses. CONCLUSIONS: Due to limited evidence, there is a great heterogeneity in the attitudes of primary care paediatricians concerning the introduction of complementary foods to preterm newborns. Further research is needed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding weaning preterm newborns.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desmame , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pediatras , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
5.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829405

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p < 0.0001). According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p < 0.0001). Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57-0.80) p < 0.00001). The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Peso ao Nascer , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Pediatr Med Chir ; 39(4): 183, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502385

RESUMO

The last decades have seen significant improvements in the care of premature infants. The introduction of new approaches, especially in the ventilatory management, have led to significant increase of survival rate of low and extremely low gestational age infants. These populations of neonates, however, often experience prolonged mechanical ventilation, which is widely recognized to be closely related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) development. The management of BPD, which is a multifactorial disease, requires a multidisciplinary approach and remains challenging for all the physicians involved. In fact, short and long-term sequelae are not only related to pulmonary performances but include neurological impairment and growth deficiency. A proper nutrition management since the very first days has shown to significantly contribute to the optimal maturation and functionality of the lung. In this paper, we aim to give an overall of the main principles of nutrition in infants born prematurely, with specific regard to the interventions, which could be relevant in infants affected by BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Criança , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Alta do Paciente , Respiração Artificial
7.
Pediatr Med Chir ; 39(4): 184, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502386

RESUMO

The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases' onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e.g., neonatal intensive care unit) and genetic factors. Thanks to a proper maternal and neonatal supplementation with specific functional nutrients, it is now possible to correct dysbiosis, thus reducing the risks for the newborn's health. In this review of the literature, we give an overview of the studies highlighting the composition of the maternal, fetal and neonatal microbiota, the factors potentially responsible for dysbiosis and the use of functional nutrients to prevent diseases' onset.


Assuntos
Disbiose/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disbiose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
8.
Nutrients ; 8(8)2016 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483319

RESUMO

Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 41: 89, 2015 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567539

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) affects predominantly preterm infants, who have specific risk factors leading to intestinal dysbiosis. Manipulations of gut microbiota through probiotics have the potential to prevent NEC.The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for NEC prevention in preterm infants, with a focus on specific strains, microbiological strength of currently available studies, and high-risk populations. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for trials published within 4th February 2015. Randomized-controlled trials reporting on NEC and involving preterm infants who were given probiotics in the first month of life were included in the systematic review.Twenty-six studies were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis.Data about study design, population, intervention and outcome were extracted and summarized independently by two observers. Study quality and quality of evidence were also evaluated.Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models where significant heterogeneity was present. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity among studies. Results were expresses as risk ratio (RR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI). The main outcome was incidence of NEC stage ≥2 according to Bell's criteria. Probiotics prevented NEC in preterm infants (RR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36-0.60], p < 0.00001). Strain-specific sub-meta-analyses showed a significant effect for Bifidobacteria (RR 0.24 [95 % CI 0.10-0.54], p = 0.0006) and for probiotic mixtures (RR 0.39 [95 % CI 0.27-0.56], p < 0.00001). Probiotics prevented NEC in very-low-birth-weight infants (RR 0.48 [95 % CI 0.37-0.62], p < 0.00001); there were insufficient data for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. The majority of studies presented severe or moderate microbiological flaws.Probiotics had an overall preventive effect on NEC in preterm infants. However, there are still insufficient data on the specific probiotic strain to be used and on the effect of probiotics in high-risk populations such as extremely-low-birth-weight infants, before a widespread use of these products can be recommended.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nutrients ; 5(11): 4553-65, 2013 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24253052

RESUMO

Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for celiac disease (CD). GFD implies a strict and lifelong elimination from the diet of gluten, the storage protein found in wheat, barley, rye and hybrids of these grains, such as kamut and triticale. The absence of gluten in natural and processed foods, despite being the key aspect of GFD, may lead to nutritional consequences, such as deficits and imbalances. The nutritional adequacy of GFD is particularly important in children, this the age being of maximal energy and nutrient requirements for growth, development and activity. In recent years, attention has focused on the nutritional quality of gluten-free products (GFPs) available in the market. It is well recognized that GFPs are considered of lower quality and poorer nutritional value compared to the gluten-containing counterparts. The present review focuses on the nutritional adequacy of GFD at the pediatric age, with the aim being to increase awareness of the potential complications associated with this diet, to identify strategies in order to avoid them and to promote a healthier diet and lifestyle in children with CD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/normas , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Criança , Humanos
12.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 5(7): 727-44, 2012 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24281709

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in the potential beneficial role of probiotic supplementation in the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in children. Probiotics are defined as ingested live microorganisms that, when administered in an adequate amount, confer a health benefit to the host. They are mainly represented by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Several epidemiological data demonstrate that intestinal microflora of atopic children is different from the one of healthy children. Many literature data show that probiotics may modulate the intestinal microflora composition and may have immunomodulatory effect. Based on this hypothesis, probiotics are supposed to confer benefits to allergic diseases. Administration of probiotics when a natural population of indigenous intestinal bacteria is still developing could theoretically influence immune development by favoring the balance between Th1 and Th2 inflammatory responses. For this reason, some studies have evaluated the potential impact of probiotics supplementation in the prevention of atopic dermatitis, with contrasting results. Clinical improvement in immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized (atopic) eczema following probiotic supplementation has been reported in some published studies and the therapeutic effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis seemed to be encouraging. However, as far as the usefulness of probiotics as a prevention strategy is concerned, results are still inconclusive. In fact, the clinical benefits of probiotic therapy depend upon numerous factors, such as the type of bacteria, dosing regimen, delivery method and other underlying host factors, such as age and diet. More studies are still needed to definitively prove the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic eczema.

13.
Clin Kidney J ; 5(5): 431-3, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26019822

RESUMO

A 34-week infant born from a mother with a history of drug abuse developed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the first hours of life. Urine drug screening was positive for cocaine and heroin. The infant developed acute kidney injury and bilateral hydronephrosis while receiving oral morphine for control of NAS. Cessation of morphine therapy and urinary catheterization resulted in a rapid and complete resolution of the symptoms. Our patient was homozygous for the C3435T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene, a polymorphism previously associated with impaired P-glycoprotein activity. We hypothesize that acute renal toxicity was related to accumulation of morphine within urothelial cells due to genetically determined impaired P-glycoprotein activity.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 10: 218, 2010 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20649961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydrating diarrhea in young children. METHODS: To estimate the proportion of hospital admissions for rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and identify the circulating G and P genotypes among children under five years of age, we conducted a prospective observational study from January to December 2008, recruiting children consecutively admitted to six hospitals in Milan and nearby towns in northern Italy. Typing was done on stool samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. RESULTS: Of the 521 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis, 34.9% (95%CI, 30.8 to 39.2%) were rotavirus-positive. Two thirds (67.6%) were under two years of age, and 13.2% were under six months. The predominant G type was G1 (40.7%), followed by G9 (22.5%), G2 (13.2%), G3 (5.5%), G4 (3.8%) and G10 (1.6%). Twenty-one (11.7%) mixed-G infections were identified: G1+G10 (8.8%); G1+G9 (1.6%); and G2+G10 (1.2%). Only P[8] (67.6%) and P[4] (12.6%) types were P genotyped. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P[8] (39.7%), followed by G9P[8] (25.3%), G2P[4] (14.3%), and G3P[8] (4.1%). All G-mixed types combined with P[8]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show an high prevalence of rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis caused by different rotavirus strains circulating in the area studied.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
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