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1.
Hum Immunol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785098

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.

2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(30): 7597-7607, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739557

RESUMO

Accurate analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish is important to protect seafood safety and human health. In this study, the performance of different extraction protocols for PSTs from scallop tissues is compared and discussed, including regular extraction solvents hydrochloric acid (HCl) and acetic acid (AcOH) followed by heating and solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification, and a novel technique of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) without heating. The possible conversion of C1/2 and GTX2/3 standards after heating, and the stability of PSTs in wet scallop tissues stored at -20 °C for a 6-month period are also explored. Results showed that the MSPD technique could effectively mitigate matrix interference, but its recoveries of PSTs were significantly lower than those of the HCl and AcOH extraction methods followed by carbon SPE purification. The molar concentrations of M-toxins obtained by the MSPD method were generally lower than those analyzed by the HCl and AcOH extraction methods, which demonstrated a weak chemical conversion of C1/2 and GTX2/3 due to the heating process. Most of the PSTs were relatively stable in scallop tissues during 1-month storage at -20 °C, while the concentrations of PSTs in scallop tissues obviously changed after 6 months due to the degradation and transformation of PSTs during long-term storage at -20 °C. This work helps improve our understanding of the performance of different extraction methods and the stability of PSTs in scallop tissues stored at -20 °C.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118541, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800588

RESUMO

Antibiotics are widely applied to prevent and treat diseases occurred in mariculture. The often-open nature of mariculture production systems has led to antibiotic residue accumulation in the culturing and adjacent environments, which can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems, and even human. This review summarizes the occurrence, environmental behavior, and ecological effects of antibiotics in mariculture systems based on peer-reviewed papers. Forty-five different antibiotics (categorized into ten groups) have been detected in mariculture systems around the world, which is far greater than the number officially allowed. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics is relatively high among major producing countries in Asia, which highlights the need for stricter enforcement of regulations and policies and effective antibiotic removal methods. Compared with other environmental systems, some environmental characteristics of mariculture systems, such as high salinity and dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, can affect the migration and transformation processes of antibiotics. Residues of antibiotics favor the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Antibiotics and ARGs alter microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles, as well as posing threats to marine organisms and human health. This review may provide a valuable summary of the effects of antibiotics on mariculture systems.

4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 26-35, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607671

RESUMO

Microcosmic experiments were performed under a simulated marine environment to investigate the natural attenuation of C9 aromatics using nine components (propylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, 2-ethyltoluene, 3-ethyltoluene, 4-ethyltoluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and indene). This research aims to assess the contribution of biodegradation and abiotic activity to total attenuation of C9 aromatics and ascertain the changes in the comprehensive toxicity of seawater in the natural environment. The process of natural attenuation indicates the agreement with pseudo-first-order kinetics for all nine components in microcosmic experiments. The half-lives of the nine main compounds in C9 aromatics ranged between 0.34 day and 0.44 day under optimal conditions. The experiments showed that the natural attenuation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons mainly occurred via abiotic processes. Seawater samples significantly inhibited the luminescence of P. phosphoreum (the luminescence inhibition ratio reached 100%) at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, the toxicity declined slowly and continued for 25 days. The attenuation kinetics and changes in toxicity could be applied to explore the natural attenuation of C9 aromatics in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Água do Mar , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cinética
5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 704481, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483908

RESUMO

Background: Psoriasis is a T help 17 (Th17) cell-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recent studies have shown that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) can significantly reduce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and rheumatoid arthritis by regulating Th17 cells. Objective: To verify whether DHA can improve the symptoms of psoriasis and to further explore the possible mechanism. Methods: The efficiency of DHA was preliminary detected on human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells in psoriatic condition. Then, imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like model in BALB/c mice was established to evaluate the effects of DHA in vivo. Results: Under the stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), DHA inhibited the proliferation of HaCaT cells and significantly affected the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, interleukin (IL), IL-17A and IL-23. DHA treatment reduced the severity of psoriasis-like skin and resulted in less infiltration of immune cells in skin lesions. DHA restored the expression of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-23 in skins, as well as a decrease of cytokines and chemokines in skin supernatant. DHA also altered the cellular composition in the spleen, which is the makeup of the T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages. DHA recovered Th17-related profile with decreased frequency of IL-17+CD4+T cells from splenocyte of mice. Furthermore, DHA also inhibited the concentration of IL-17 from Th17 cells and the expression of Th17 cell-related transcription factors retinoid-related orphan receptor-gamma t (ROR-γt) in vitro. In addition, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) was significantly reduced in DHA treatment mice, suggesting that the IL-23/Th17 axis plays a pivotal role. Conclusion: DHA inhibits the progression of psoriasis by regulating IL-23/Th17 axis and is expected to be an effective drug for the treatment of psoriasis.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 737248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484172

RESUMO

Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are a serviceable method for the industrial utilization of the microalgae, which can improve the phenotype, performance, and stability of microalgae to obtain strains containing beneficial mutations. In this article, we reviewed the research into the microalgae ALE test and assessed the improvement of microalgae growth, tolerance, metabolism, and substrate utilization by ALE. In addition, the principles of ALE and the key factors of experimental design, as well as the issues and drawbacks of the microalgae ALE method were discussed. In general, improving the efficiency of ALE and verifying the stability of ALE resulting strains are the primary problems that need to be solved in future research, making it a promising method for the application of microalgae biotechnology.

7.
Front Nutr ; 8: 700132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490322

RESUMO

Objective: At present, the association of body mass index (BMI) with the prognosis of liver cirrhosis is controversial. Our retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impact of BMI on the outcome of liver cirrhosis. Methods: In the first part, long-term death was evaluated in 436 patients with cirrhosis and without malignancy from our prospectively established single-center database. In the second part, in-hospital death was evaluated in 379 patients with cirrhosis and with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) from our retrospective multicenter study. BMI was calculated and categorized as underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23.0 kg/m2), and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m2). Results: In the first part, Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated a significantly higher cumulative survival rate in the overweight/obese group than the normal weight group (p = 0.047). Cox regression analyses demonstrated that overweight/obesity was significantly associated with decreased long-term mortality compared with the normal weight group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.635; 95% CI: 0.405-0.998; p = 0.049] but not an independent predictor after adjusting for age, gender, and Child-Pugh score (HR = 0.758; 95%CI: 0.479-1.199; p = 0.236). In the second part, Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated no significant difference in the cumulative survival rate between the overweight/obese and the normal weight groups (p = 0.094). Cox regression analyses also demonstrated that overweight/obesity was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality compared with normal weight group (HR = 0.349; 95%CI: 0.096-1.269; p = 0.110). In both of the two parts, the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated no significant difference in the cumulative survival rate between underweight and normal weight groups. Conclusion: Overweight/obesity is modestly associated with long-term survival in patients with cirrhosis but not an independent prognostic predictor. There is little effect of overweight/obesity on the short-term survival of patients with cirrhosis and with AGIB.

8.
Nat Metab ; 3(7): 909-922, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158670

RESUMO

Exosomes represent a subtype of extracellular vesicle that is released through retrograde transport and fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane1. Although no perfect methodologies currently exist for the high-throughput, unbiased isolation of pure plasma exosomes2,3, investigation of exosome-enriched plasma fractions of extracellular vesicles can confer a glimpse into the endocytic pathway on a systems level. Here we conduct high-coverage lipidomics with an emphasis on sterols and oxysterols, and proteomic analyses of exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs hereafter) from patients at different temporal stages of COVID-19, including the presymptomatic, hyperinflammatory, resolution and convalescent phases. Our study highlights dysregulated raft lipid metabolism that underlies changes in EV lipid membrane anisotropy that alter the exosomal localization of presenilin-1 (PS-1) in the hyperinflammatory phase. We also show in vitro that EVs from different temporal phases trigger distinct metabolic and transcriptional responses in recipient cells, including in alveolar epithelial cells, which denote the primary site of infection, and liver hepatocytes, which represent a distal secondary site. In comparison to the hyperinflammatory phase, EVs from the resolution phase induce opposing effects on eukaryotic translation and Notch signalling. Our results provide insights into cellular lipid metabolism and inter-tissue crosstalk at different stages of COVID-19 and are a resource to increase our understanding of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Metabolômica , SARS-CoV-2 , Transporte Biológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fracionamento Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fracionamento Químico , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Lipidômica/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5635-5637, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930189

RESUMO

An outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had emerged in 2019 and rapidly posed a global epidemic. Here, we report the breadth of concomitant virological features of a family cluster with COVID-19. The period of virus shedding is significantly different between upper respiratory and feces samples. Even the SARS-CoV-2 virus titers were undetectable in feces, it could be positive again soon and likely related to fluctuated inflammation levels (interleukin-6, etc.) and lowered immune responses (CD4 + T lymphocyte, etc.). Our findings expand the novel understanding of the breadth of concomitant virological features during a non-severe family cluster of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Fezes/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , China , Surtos de Doenças , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924256

RESUMO

Microplastics (MP) widely distributed in aquatic environments have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Currently, the impact of MP on toxigenic red tide microalgae is poorly understood. In this study, the strain of Alexandrium pacificum ATHK, typically producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), was selected as the target. Effects of 1 and 0.1 µm polystyrene MP with three concentration gradients (5 mg L-1, 25 mg L-1 and 100 mg L-1) on the growth, chlorophyll a (Chl a), photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) and PST production of ATHK were explored. Results showed that the high concentration (100 mg L-1) of 1 µm and 0.1 µm MP significantly inhibited the growth of ATHK, and the inhibition depended on the size and concentration of MP. Contents of Chl a showed an increase with various degrees after MP exposure in all cases. The photosynthesis indicator Fv/Fm of ATHK was significantly inhibited in the first 11 days, then gradually returned to the level of control group at day 13, and finally was gradually inhibited in the 1 µm MP treatments, and promotion or inhibition to some degree also occurred at different periods after exposure to 0.1 µm MP. Overall, both particle sizes of MP at 5 and 25 mg L-1 had no significant effect on cell toxin quota, and the high concentration 100 mg L-1 significantly promoted the PST biosynthesis on the day 7, 11 and 15. No significant difference occurred in the cell toxin quota and the total toxin content in all treatments at the end of the experiment (day 21). All MP treatments did not change the toxin profiles of ATHK, nor did the relative molar percentage of main PST components. The growth of ATHK, Chl a content, Fv/Fm and toxin production were not affected by MP shading. This is the first report on the effects of MP on the PST-producing microalgae, which will improve the understanding of the adverse impact of MP on the growth and toxin production of A. pacificum.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678150

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the current global pandemic of COVID-19; this virus infects multiple organs, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. The microbiome in these organs, including the bacteriome and virome, responds to infection and might also influence disease progression and treatment outcome. In a cohort of 13 COVID-19 patients in Beijing, China, we observed that the gut virome and bacteriome in the COVID-19 patients were notably different from those of five healthy controls. We identified a bacterial dysbiosis signature by observing reduced diversity and viral shifts in patients, and among the patients, the bacterial/viral compositions were different between patients of different severities, although these differences are not entirely distinguishable from the effect of antibiotics. Severe cases of COVID-19 exhibited a greater abundance of opportunistic pathogens but were depleted for butyrate-producing groups of bacteria compared with mild to moderate cases. We replicated our findings in a mouse COVID-19 model, confirmed virome differences and bacteriome dysbiosis due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and observed that immune/infection-related genes were differentially expressed in gut epithelial cells during infection, possibly explaining the virome and bacteriome dynamics. Our results suggest that the components of the microbiome, including the bacteriome and virome, are affected by SARS-CoV-2 infections, while their compositional signatures could reflect or even contribute to disease severity and recovery processes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Viroma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma
12.
Environ Res ; 195: 110873, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582131

RESUMO

Microalgal cultivation in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can realize the coupling of wastewater treatment and microalgae energy utilization, however, the residual antibiotics in effluents from WWTPs affect the growth of microalgae. In this study, green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) cells were inoculated into the effluents to ascertain the attenuation pathways of erythromycin (ERY) and the biochemical responses of microalga in a microalga-effluent system. Results showed that hydrolysis, photolysis, and biodegradation (including bioadsorption) cause the attenuation of ERY in a microalga-effluent system, and the biodegradation (including bioadsorption) has the greatest removal rate (reaching a maximum of 57.87%), followed by hydrolysis (reaching a maximum of 34.13%), and photolysis (less than 5%) after five days. The photosynthetic pigment contents in cells of microalga decreased the most (by 35.66% for chlorophyll a), and the production of ROS was stimulated (by 33.75%) after five-day exposure to ERY at an initial concentration of 100 µg/L. Meanwhile, the activity of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) decreased by 55.65%, and the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) increased by 55.65%. The ROS level, photosynthetic pigment content, and RuBPCase activity were extremely significantly correlated with each other (P < 0.01), indicating that exposure to ERY changed those biochemical responses related to the rate of photosynthesis of microalga, inhibiting the growth thereof. On the other hand, exposure to ERY increased lipid production by microalga through the induced ACCase activity.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Eritromicina , Lipídeos
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 58, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568628

RESUMO

Treatment of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging. We performed a phase 2 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) to treat severe COVID-19 patients with lung damage, based on our phase 1 data. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, we recruited 101 severe COVID-19 patients with lung damage. They were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive either UC-MSCs (4 × 107 cells per infusion) or placebo on day 0, 3, and 6. The primary endpoint was an altered proportion of whole lung lesion volumes from baseline to day 28. Other imaging outcomes, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), maximum vital capacity, diffusing capacity, and adverse events were recorded and analyzed. In all, 100 COVID-19 patients were finally received either UC-MSCs (n = 65) or placebo (n = 35). UC-MSCs administration exerted numerical improvement in whole lung lesion volume from baseline to day 28 compared with the placebo (the median difference was -13.31%, 95% CI -29.14%, 2.13%, P = 0.080). UC-MSCs significantly reduced the proportions of solid component lesion volume compared with the placebo (median difference: -15.45%; 95% CI -30.82%, -0.39%; P = 0.043). The 6-MWT showed an increased distance in patients treated with UC-MSCs (difference: 27.00 m; 95% CI 0.00, 57.00; P = 0.057). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. These results suggest that UC-MSCs treatment is a safe and potentially effective therapeutic approach for COVID-19 patients with lung damage. A phase 3 trial is required to evaluate effects on reducing mortality and preventing long-term pulmonary disability. (Funded by The National Key R&D Program of China and others. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04288102.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , SARS-CoV-2 , Cordão Umbilical , Idoso , Aloenxertos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 2): 128533, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059290

RESUMO

Propylbenzenes (PBZs) and trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) are aromatic hydrocarbon compounds widely used in many industries with potential release to different environments. The fate and aquatic effects of these compounds in the environment were evaluated. Evidence suggests that PBZs and TMBs will rapidly volatilise from water and bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, these compounds are readily biodegradable, whereby 1,2,3-TMB is more stable than the others. In air, all five compounds have atmospheric photo-oxidation half-lives ranging from 0.31 to 1.55 d. The toxicity data collectively show that PBZs, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-TMB pose high acute toxicity effects on aquatic organisms. Furthermore, freshwater species are more sensitive to these compounds than marine species. There is not much data on the occurrence of PZBs and TMBs in the aquatic environment. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the fate of PBZs and TMBs. Moreover, the acute and joint toxicity of these compounds to different aquatic organisms, especially in marine organisms, warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Água Doce , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111571, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254419

RESUMO

Marine microalgae with high removal efficiency of phenol are needed for the remediation of polluted seawater in cases involving phenol spills. To achieve this purpose, adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was performed by a microalga Isochrysis galbana Parke MACC/H59, which is capable of degrading phenol at concentrations of less than 100 mg L-1 in 4 d. Two acclimation conditions were used: (i) 90 d at 100 mg L-1 phenol, and (ii) 90 d at 100 mg L-1 phenol followed by another 90 d at 200 mg L-1 phenol. By doing so, two strains (PAS-1 and PAS-2) could be obtained respectively. They grew rapidly at phenol concentrations up to 200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1, respectively, with a specific growth rate 2.52-3.40 times and 1.93-3.23 times that of the control (without phenol). Also, both strains had a higher removal capacity of phenol than the unacclimated alga. Phenol at an initial concentration of 200 mg L-1 was completely removed in 5 d thereby. For 300 mg L-1 phenol, a removal efficiency of 92% was achieved in 10 days by using PAS-2, with a removal rate constant of 30.01 d-1 (about twice that of PAS-1) and a half-life of 4.90 d (about half that of PAS-1), showing that a better strain may be obtained by extending the acclimation time. The enhancement of phenol biodegradation can be explained by the elevated activity of phenol hydroxylase (PH) in both strains. These results indicated that ALE could be an efficient tool used to enhance the tolerance and biodegradation of marine microalgae to phenol in seawater.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Haptófitas/fisiologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Haptófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fenol/metabolismo , Água do Mar
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 161, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic. It is critical to identify COVID-19 patients who are most likely to develop a severe disease. This study was designed to determine the clinical and epidemiological features of COVID-19 patients associated with the development of pneumonia and factors associated with disease progression. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with etiologically confirmed COVID-19 admitted to PLA General Hospital in Beijing, China from December 27, 2019 to March 12, 2020 were enrolled in this study and followed-up to March 16, 2020. Differences in clinical and laboratory findings between COVID-19 patients with pneumonia and those without were determined by the χ2 test or the Fisher exact test (categorical variables) and independent group t test or Mann-Whitney U test (continuous variables). The Cox proportional hazard model and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to evaluate factors that predicted the progression of COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean incubation was 8.67 (95% confidence interval, 6.78-10.56) days. Mean duration from the first test severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive to conversion was 11.38 (9.86-12.90) days. Compared to pneumonia-free patients, pneumonia patients were 16.5 years older and had higher frequencies of having hypertension, fever, and cough and higher circulating levels of neutrophil proportion, interleukin-6, low count (< 190/µl) of CD8+ T cells, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Thirteen patients deteriorated during hospitalization. Cox regression analysis indicated that older age and higher serum levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate at admission significantly predicted the progression of COVID-19. During hospitalization, circulating counts of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were lower, whereas neutrophil proportion, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the circulating levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were higher, in pneumonia patients than in pneumonia-free patients. CD8+ lymphocyte count in pneumonia patients did not recover when discharged. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitionin, interleukin-6, and lactate might predict COVID-19 progression. T lymphocyte, especially CD8+ cell-mediated immunity is critical in recovery of COVID-19. This study may help in predicting disease progression and designing immunotherapy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
19.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020948668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783479

RESUMO

Resistiveness to care is very common among patients of dementia as these patients do not take medicines, meals or bath very easily. Indeed, it is a very challenging task for health caregivers and there is a significant rise in time and cost involved in managing dementia patients. Amongst different factors, the type of communication between resident dementia patients and health caregivers is an important contributing factor in the development of resistiveness to care. Elderspeak (baby talk) is a type of communication in which health caregivers adjust their language and style while interacting with elderly and dependent patients. It involves the use of short sentences, simple grammar, slow and high pitch voice, repeating phrases to provide a comfortable and friendly environment to patients. Most of the time, caregivers tend to adapt elderspeak as they handle weak and fragile older patients for routine activities. Although elderspeak is meant to provide support, warmth and care to patients, yet patients perceive elderspeak as patronizing and it induces negative feelings about self-esteem. Scientists have found a correlation between the development of resistiveness to care and the extent of elderspeak in communication. Therefore, there have been strategies to develop alternative communication strategies by avoiding the use of elderspeak. Moreover, the beneficial effects of such communications have been documented as it improves the quality of life, reduces aggression, agitation and psychosocial symptoms. The present review discusses the scientific studies discussing the use of elderspeak in communication and development of resistiveness to care in resident patients of dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Cuidadores , Comunicação , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente
20.
Immunity ; 53(3): 685-696.e3, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783921

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a current world-wide public health threat. However, little is known about its hallmarks compared to other infectious diseases. Here, we report the single-cell transcriptional landscape of longitudinally collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both COVID-19- and influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients. We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients. Further analyses revealed distinct signaling pathways activated in COVID-19 (STAT1 and IRF3) versus IAV (STAT3 and NFκB) patients and substantial differences in the expression of key factors. These factors include relatively increase of interleukin (IL)6R and IL6ST expression in COVID-19 patients but similarly increased IL-6 concentrations compared to IAV patients, supporting the clinical observations of increased proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients. Thus, we provide the landscape of PBMCs and unveil distinct immune response pathways in COVID-19 and IAV patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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