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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 231: 113180, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026584

RESUMO

1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) is a pervasive environmental pollutant, and overexposure to this hazardous material causes brain edema and demyelination in humans. We found that 1,2-DCE inhibits aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and is a primary pathogenic effector of 1,2-DCE-induced brain edema in animals. However, AQP4 down-regulation's link with cortex demyelination after 1,2-DCE exposure remains unclear. Thus, we exposed wild-type (WT) CD-1 mice and AQP4 knockout (AQP4-KO) mice to 0, 100, 350 and 700 mg/m3 1,2-DCE by inhalation for 28 days. We applied label-free proteomics and a cell co-culture system to elucidate the role of AQP4 inhibition in 1,2-DCE-induced demyelination. The results showed that 1,2-DCE down-regulated AQP4 in the WT mouse cortexes. Both 1,2-DCE exposure and AQP4 deletion induced neurotoxicity in mice, including increased brain water content, abnormal pathological vacuolations, and neurobehavioral damage. Tests for interaction of multiple regression analysis highlighted different effects of 1,2-DCE exposure level depending on the genotype, indicating the core role of AQP4 in regulation on 1,2-DCE-caused neurotoxicity. We used label-free quantitative proteomics to detect differentially expressed proteins associated with 1,2-DCE exposure and AQP4 inhibition, and identified down-regulation in myelin basic protein (MBP) and tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (FYN) in a dose-dependent manner in WT mice but not in AQP4-KO mice. 1,2-DCE and AQP4 deletion separately resulted in demyelination, as detected by Luxol fast blue staining, and manifested as disordered nerve fibers and cavitation in the cortexes. Western blot and immunofluorescence confirmed the decreased AQP4 in the astrocytes and the down-regulated MBP in the oligodendrocytes by 1,2-DCE exposure and AQP4 inhibition, respectively. Finally, the co-culture results of SVG p12 and MO3.13 cells showed that 1,2-DCE-induced AQP4 down-regulation in the astrocytes was responsible for demyelination, by decreasing MBP in the oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, 1,2-DCE induced cortex demyelination by depressing MBP via AQP4 inhibition in the mice.

2.
Front Chem ; 9: 781198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858949

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes are believed to have important biological functions, so many small molecules have been screened or developed for targeting G-quadruplexes. However, it is still a major challenge to find molecules that recognize specific G-quadruplexes. Here, by using a combination of surface plasmon resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, Western blot, luciferase assay, and reverse transcriptase stop assay, we observed a small molecule, namely, oxymatrine (OMT) that could selectively bind to the RNA G-quadruplex in 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF), but could not bind to other G-quadruplexes. OMT could selectively repress the translation of VEGF in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, it could recognize VEGF RNA G-quadruplexes in special conformations. The results indicate that OMT may serve as a potentially special tool for studying the VEGF RNA G-quadruplex in cells and as a valuable scaffold for the design of ligands that recognize different G-quadruplexes.

3.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(33): 10355-10361, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is characterized by coagulation dysfunction accompanied by decreased coagulation factor activity and fibrinogen (FBG) concentrations. We report a patient with VICC caused by snake bite who manifested persistent FBG deficiency without abnormal coagulation factor activity. This information may be helpful in diagnosing and treating VICC. CASE SUMMARY: A 49-year-old man who had been bitten by a snake 13 h previously was admitted to the Emergency Department of our hospital with visible swelling of a finger and a bleeding puncture site. The provisional diagnosis was VICC, this being made based on persistent bleeding from the puncture site and subcutaneous hemorrhage. Laboratory evidence of coagulation abnormalities, including fibrinolysis, and findings on thromboelastography confirmed VICC. He had persistent afibrinogenemia requiring intravenous infusions of cryoprecipitate and fresh frozen plasma, together with continuous large doses of human FBG. After this treatment, the patient's right upper limb swelling improved significantly and his subcutaneous hemorrhage resolved. All of his abnormal laboratory findings returned to normal by day 25. During 6 months' of follow-up, the patient had no further hemorrhagic events. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic snake venom can result in coagulation dysfunction characterized by persistent FBG deficiency without abnormal coagulation factor activity.

4.
Front Genet ; 12: 698590, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the 1990s, there have been a lot of research on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and different diseases, including many studies on 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism and essential hypertension (EH). Nevertheless, their conclusions were controversial. So far, six previous meta-analyses discussed the internal relationship between the MTHFR polymorphism and EH, respectively. However, they did not evaluate the credibility of the positive associations. To build on previous meta-analyses, we updated the literature by including previously included papers as well as nine new articles, improved the inclusion criteria by also considering the quality of the papers, and applied new statistical techniques to assess the observed associations. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the degree of risk correlation between two MTHFR polymorphisms and EH. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wan Fang electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies. We evaluated the relation between the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms and EH by calculating the odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals (CI). Here we used subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis, assessment of publication bias, meta-regression meta, False-positive report probability (FPRP), Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP), and Venice criterion. RESULTS: Overall, harboring the variant of MTHFR C677T was associated with an increased risk of EH in the overall populations, East Asians, Southeast Asians, South Asians, Caucasians/Europeans, and Africans. After the sensitivity analysis, positive results were found only in the overall population (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.30, P h = 0.032, I 2 = 39.8%; TT + TC vs. CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29, P h = 0.040, I 2 = 38.1%; T vs. C: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, P h = 0.005, I 2 = 50.2%) and Asian population (TC vs. CC: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P h = 0.265, I 2 = 16.8%; TT + TC vs. CC: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.30, P h = 0.105, I 2 = 32.9%; T vs. C: OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19, P h = 0.018, I 2 = 48.6%). However, after further statistical assessment by FPRP, BFDP, and Venice criteria, the positive associations reported here could be deemed to be false-positives and present only weak evidence for a causal relationship. In addition, when we performed pooled analysis and sensitivity analysis on MTHFR A1298C; all the results were negative. CONCLUSION: The positive relationships between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with the susceptibility to present with hypertension were not robust enough to withstand statistical interrogation by FPRP, BFDP, and Venice criteria. Therefore, these SNPs are probably not important in EH etiology.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842248

RESUMO

This review discusses the design and syntheses of molecular-scale pillar[n]arene-based porous materials with promising applications and summarises the development of using pillar[n]arenes as the building blocks of porous materials. From the perspective of "role of participation" in the syntheses of molecular-scale pillar[n]arene-based porous materials, the content can be divided into pillar[n]arenes serving as supramolecular nanovalves on surfaces and as ligands for metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic polymers. By integrating pillararenes, which possess rigid pillar-like structures, electron-rich cavities and desirable host-guest properties, with porous polymers of large surface areas and abundant active sites, applications of the resulting materials in drug release platforms, molecular recognition, sensing, detection, gas adsorption, removal of water pollution, organic photovoltaic materials and heterogeneous catalysis can be realised simultaneously and efficiently. Finally, in the conclusions and perspectives part, we put forward the challenges and viewpoints of the current research on pillar[n]arene-based porous materials. We hope this article can provide a timely and valuable reference for researchers interested in synthetic macrocycles and porous materials.

7.
Insects ; 12(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821821

RESUMO

The longan lanternfly, Pyrops candelaria (L.), has been invading mainland Taiwan since 2018, but the distribution of the species has been confined to northern Taiwan until now. The manual removal of the adult insects from the longan is still the main control strategy because of the uncertainty around other key host plants, especially for eggs and nymphs. In this study, large numbers of eggs and nymphs were found on Triadica sebifera (L.) Small and Acacia confusa Merr. The occurrence of immature individuals on Triadica sebifera increased with developmental stage from eggs to the last instar from May to July 2021. On 30 April, the first egg mass was recorded. More egg masses were recorded in May, and some could be found in July. In May, only two younger instars were detected. Third and fourth instars began to appear from June, while the fifth instar was mainly recorded from July onwards. The results of this study provide great strategic value for decision-makers to allow for effective control of the target tree species. For now, we proved that longan and pomelo trees, preferred by adults, are not the key hosts for the immature stages of this insect, because few immature individuals were found on them. Therefore, we suggest that the existence of Triadica sebifera should be considered when analyzing possible spreading areas of this invasive lanternfly in Taiwan.

8.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 54: 101990, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784499

RESUMO

Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACTD) is a rare and life-threatening autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO). Most patients with CACTD develop severe metabolic decompensation which deteriorates progressively and rapidly, causing death in infancy or childhood. As CACTD in some patients is asymptomatic or only with some nonspecific symptoms, the diagnosis is easy to be ignored, resulting in sudden death, which often triggers medical disputes. Herein, we report a case of neonatal sudden death with CACTD. The neonate showed a series of severe metabolic crisis, deteriorated rapidly and eventually died 3 days after delivery. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) screening of dry blood spots before death showed that the level of long-chain acylcarnitines, especially C12-C18 acylcarnitine, was increased significantly, and therefore a diagnosis of inherited metabolic disease (IMD) was suspected. Autopsy and histopathological results demonstrated that there were diffuse vacuoles in the heart and liver of the deceased. Mutation analysis revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote with c.199-10 T > G and a novel c.1A > T mutation in the SLC25A20 gene. Pathological changes such as heart failure, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest related to mitochondrial FAO disorders are the direct cause of death, while gene mutation is the underlying cause of death.

9.
Hum Cell ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807408

RESUMO

This study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) regulated by HtrA2/Omi during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). We utilized the mnd2 mouse model, which has a missense mutation in HtrA2/Omi, to investigate the HtrA2/Omi regulation in mitochondria after I/R injury in the cerebral cortex. Compared to homozygous (HtrA2mnd2) mice, heterozygous (HtrA2Hetero) mice showed aging signs at a later age, increased HtrA2/Omi expression in the brain cortex, and lesser neurodegenerative signs. The brain cortex of HtrA2Hetero mice had increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); higher expressions of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR)-related proteins, NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7 (Ndufs7), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins; more mitochondrial fission; higher levels of ATP and mtDNA copies; elevated sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) activity; and increased NAD+/NADH ratio. After 1.5 h of I/R, the brain cortex of HtrA2Hetero mice had a larger infarction size, reduced HtrA2/Omi expression, decreased S-X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and increased C-Caspase3 than that of wild-type animals (WT). Mitochondria from the HtrA2Hetero brain cortex showed decreased ATP production and MQC deficiency after 1.5 h I/R. Genipin pre-treatment reduced the aforementioned I/R injury in the HtrA2Hetero brain cortex. In conclusion, mitochondrial function is compensated in the HtrA2Hetero brain cortex via the upregulation of the UCP2-SIRT3-PGC1 axis. Decreased HtrA2/Omi function damages mitochondrial quality in the HtrA2Hetero mouse brain cortex, leading to more brain I/R injury. Genipin pre-treatment ameliorates brain damages via the mitochondrial UCP2-SIRT3-PGC1 axis.

10.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(11): 1072-6, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of single-segment lumbar microdiscectomy without drainage. METHODS: The clinical data of 135 patients with single-segment lumbar disc herniation treated by microdiscectomy surgery from January 2018 to August 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 95 males and 40 females, aged from 18 to 40 years old, with a mean of (28.3±5.4) years. They were divided into drainage group (78 cases) and non-drainage group (57 cases) according to whether the drainage tube was placed during operation. The general conditions of patients were recorded such as age, gender, operation segment, body mass index(BMI), symptom duration, follow-up time, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, out-of-bed time, hospital stay, postoperative drainage removal time and drainage volume of drainage group, postoperative body temperature. VAS of incisional pain in supine resting state on the 1 and 3 days after operation, the VAS of low back pain and lower extremity radiating pain during ground exercise before operation, 3 days, 1 month and 3 months after operation were compared. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was collected before operation, 1 month and 3 months after operation. The ratio of complications was calculated such as symptomatic incision hematoma, poor incision healing, incision infection, exacerbation and progressive aggravation of neurological dysfunction, and unplanned secondary surgery. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, operation segment, BMI, symptom duration, follow-up time, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative body temperature between two groups. The average hospital stay and out-of-bed time in non-drainage group were shorter than in drainage group(P=0.0000). VAS of incision pain in non-drainage group was lower than that in control group at 1 and 3 days after surgery (P<0.05). Postoperative low back pain VAS and ODI of all patients were significantly reduced compared with those before surgery. No symptomatic hematoma occurred in two groups. Postoperative neurological dysfunction immediately aggravated each one patient in two groups, and no progressive aggravation of neurological function was found in two groups. Incision infection occurred in one case in each of the two groups, and both were cured by drug treatment; poor incision healing occurred in one case in each of the two groups, and both were healed after repeated dressing changes. There was one case of unplanned second operation in drainage group, the patient received a second operation due to disc protrusion recurrence within 1 month. CONCLUSION: Single-segment lumbar microdiscectomy without drainage can shorten the average hospital stay and promote early exercise out of bed, and reduce the trauma and stress reaction of drainage. No drainage may be an option for patients with enhanced recovery after lumbar microdiscectomy.


Assuntos
Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Vértebras Lombares , Adolescente , Adulto , Drenagem , Feminino , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722595

RESUMO

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, the prevalence of GI symptoms and their association with outcomes remain controversial in COVID-19 patients. Methods: All COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital from February 2020 to April 2020 were collected. Disease severity and outcomes were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without GI symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of GI symptoms with the composite endpoint and death in COVID-19 patients. A composite endpoint was defined as transfer to intensive care unit, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and death. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 2,552 COVID-19 patients were included. The prevalence of GI symptoms was 21.0% (537/2,552). Diarrhea (8.9%, 226/2,552) was the most common GI symptom. Patients with GI symptoms had significantly higher proportions of severe COVID-19 and worse outcomes than those without. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that GI symptoms were significantly associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.426, 95% CI = 1.608-3.661; P < 0.001) and death (OR = 2.137, 95% CI = 1.209-3.778; P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, sex, and severe/critical COVID-19, GI symptoms were still independently associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.029, 95% CI = 1.294-3.182; P = 0.002), but not death (OR = 1.726, 95% CI = 0.946-3.150; P = 0.075). According to the type of GI symptoms, GI bleeding was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (OR = 8.416, 95% CI = 3.465-20.438, P < 0.001) and death (OR = 6.640, 95% CI = 2.567-17.179, P < 0.001), but not other GI symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and/or vomiting, constipation, acid reflux and/or heartburn, or abdominal pain). Conclusion: GI symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and may be associated with their worse outcomes. Notably, such a negative impact of GI symptoms on the outcomes should be attributed to GI bleeding.

13.
Clin Spine Surg ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654776

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in pars repair of lumbar spondylolysis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: BMP-2 is a growth factor that plays a role in the formation of bone and promotes bone healing. However, few studies of using rhBMP-2 in pars repair have been reported. METHODS: Direct pars repair and pedicle screw fixation was performed, which were added with 1 mg of rhBMP-2 and iliac crest bone graft in the study group (rhBMP-2 group, n=32) and iliac crest bone graft alone in the autograft group (n=36). Patients completed the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index preoperation, 3, 6, and 12 months after the operation. Computed tomography scans with axial and sagittal reconstructions were performed at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Baseline demographic data showed no significant difference between 2 groups. There were significant differences for the Oswestry Disability Index score at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, which were higher in the autograft group. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the overall union status. As for union speed, the trabecular bone appeared earlier and union rates were higher in rhBMP-2 group than in the autograft group at 9, and 12 months postoperatively. No complications were identified in either group. One case in the rhBMP-2 group and 2 cases in the autograft group underwent revision surgery. CONCLUSION: Compared with iliac crest bone graft alone, the use of rhBMP-2 can accelerate fusion in pars repair for young patients with spondylolysis. The union rates were significantly different at 9 and 12 months after surgery. This study showed no clinical difference when adding rhBMP-2 compared with iliac crest bone graft alone.

14.
Orthop Surg ; 13(6): 1843-1852, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of core decompression (CD) with local administration of zoledronate and enriched bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCS) for the treatment of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). METHODS: A total of 17 patients (30 hips) diagnosed with stage II and III ONFH according to the 2019 revised Association for Research on Osseous Circulation (ARCO) staging criteria from 2012 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients received the following therapy: the BMMCs and zoledronate were injected into the necrotic zone, respectively, along with CD. The mean age of the patients was 36.8 years; 14 were men and three were women. All patients included had non-traumatic ONFH and a minimum follow-up of 5 years, which ended when total hip arthroplasty (THA) was performed. Imaging modalities, including plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were taken pre- and postoperatively. Harris hip score (HHS) was used to evaluate the functional outcomes of femoral head necrosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was adopted to determine the probability of survivorship with THA as the end point in this series of patients. The correlation between radiological progression or THA and related risk factors were further analyzed. All complications were recorded. RESULTS: With THA as the follow-up endpoint, All patients were followed up for an average of 69.1 ± 20.5 months (range, 18-95 months). Preoperative imaging found six hips (20%) at ARCO stage II, 14 hips (46.7%) at stage IIIA, 10 hips (33.3%) at stage IIIB. Fourteen hips (46.7%) shown progression radiologically, while six hips (20%) underwent TKA among these patients with hip preservation. The cumulative survival was 80% (95% CI, 0.608-905) at 5 years with THA as the end point. HHS improved from 63.3 ± 8.7 preoperatively to 74.6 ± 20.6 postoperatively (P = 0.000). Radiological progression was found to be associated with ARCO stage, Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) type, and corticosteroid exposure (P = 0.047; P = 0.012; P = 0.031). However, no correlation was found between conversion to THA and the known risk factors. No major complication was reported, with only four patients complaining about general weakness and muscle soreness, and all disappeared within 2-3 days. CONCLUSIONS: The novel treatment modality could relieve pain, delay the progression of collapse, which might be an effective and safe method for hip preservation of early and mid-term ONFH. However, the effect of this method may be related to ARCO stage, JIC type, and corticosteroid exposure.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/terapia , Ácido Zoledrônico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(5): 855-862, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708243

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to explore the correlation between θ-γ neural oscillations phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in hippocampal CA3 area and the changes of spatial identifying and cognitive ability before and after shock avoidance training in rats. According to the results of Y-type maze shock avoidance training, the rats were divided into two groups: the fast avoidance response group and the general avoidance response group. The local field potential (LFP) of hippocampal CA3 area was recorded by wireless telemetry before and after shock avoidance training. The variation of θ oscillation (3-7 Hz) and low-γ neural oscillation (30-60 Hz) PAC in hippocampal CA3 area was analyzed by MATLAB wavelet packet extraction technique. The results showed that, compared with the general avoidance response group, the fast avoidance response group exhibited higher θ-γ neural oscillation PAC in hippocampal CA3 area before training. θ-γ oscillation PAC in hippocampal CA3 area was increased in both groups after training. It was also noticed that θ-γ neural oscillation PAC of some frequency bands in the general avoidance response group were significantly higher than those in the fast avoidance response group. The results suggest that certain intensity of training can change the spatial identifying and cognitive ability of rats, and the mechanism may involve the increase of the synchrony of θ-γ neural oscillation, i.e., the enhancement of θ-γ phase-amplitude alternating frequency coupling in hippocampal neurons.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Ritmo Teta , Animais , Cognição , Neurônios , Ratos
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 354: 1-13, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718095

RESUMO

Aurantio-obtusin (AO) is a major anthraquinone (AQ) compound derived from Cassiae semen (CS). Although pharmacological studies have shown that the CS extracts can serve as effective agents in preclinical and clinical practice, AQ-induced hepatotoxicity in humans has attracted widespread attention. To explore whether AO induces hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms, we exposed larval zebrafish and mice to AO. We found that AO delayed yolk sac absorption, and increased liver area and inflammation in the larval zebrafish. This inflammation was manifested as an increase in liver neutrophils and the up-regulated mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (Il-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnf-α) in the larval zebrafish. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetics study showed that AO was quickly absorbed into the blood and rapidly metabolized in the mice. Of note, AO induced hepatotoxicity in a gender-dependent manner, characterized by liver dysfunction, increased hepatocyte necrosis with inflammatory infiltration, and up-regulated mRNAs of Il-6, Tnf-α and monocyte chemotactic protein 1(Mcp1) in the female mice after 28-day oral administration. It also highlighted that AO triggered NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP) signaling in the female mice, as evidenced by the increased NLRP3, Caspase-1, pro-IL-1ß, IL-1ß and IL-18. Finally, we found that AO led to a significant increase in potassium calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 4 (KCNN4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, along with decreased nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), in the female mouse livers. In conclusion, AO induced hepatotoxicity by activating NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, at least in part, through increased KCNN4 and ROS production, and NF-κB inhibition.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(10): 4826-4833, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581125

RESUMO

To explore the mechanism and efficiency of ammonia nitrogen removal, a pilot-scale biofilter for the simultaneous removal of high concentrations of iron, manganese, and ammonia nitrogen[Fe(Ⅱ) 11.9-14.8 mg·L-1, Mn(Ⅱ) 1.1-1.5mg·L-1, and NH4+-N 1.1-3.2 mg·L-1] from low temperature(5-6℃) groundwater was operated in a water supply plant in Northeast China. Results indicated excellent performance for ammonia nitrogen removal during the initial start-up stage. According to theoretical analysis and experimental verification, TNloss was driven by the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen by iron oxides, and the conversion of ammonia nitrogen into nitrate nitrogen occurred via biological nitrification. When the concentration of ammonia nitrogen increased, due to limited adsorption sites, the adsorption capacity of iron oxides remained stable at approximately 1 mg·L-1. For the same period, the amount of ammonia nitrogen removal via oxidation continued to increase, with higher quantities removed in the upper filter layer than in the lower filter layer. Dissolved oxygen(DO) is the limiting factor in the further increase in the removal of ammonia nitrogen by oxidation. With an increase in the filtration rate, the adsorption time of ammonia nitrogen by iron oxides was shortened, and the adsorption amount was reduced. Meanwhile, the shortening of EBCT reduced the ammonia nitrogen removed by nitrification under the action of nitrifying bacteria in the unit volume of the filter material. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the thickness of the filter layer should be increased to improve ammonia nitrogen removal performance.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Purificação da Água , Amônia , Filtração , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Temperatura
18.
Orthop Surg ; 13(7): 2043-2050, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate three-dimensional distribution of bone-resorptive lesions based on the three-pillar classification and its effect on the disease progression of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). METHODS: A total of 194 femoral head CT images from 117 patients diagnosed with ARCO stage II and III ONFH were retrospectively reviewed from April 2014 to February 2019. Three-dimensional structures of the femoral head and the bone-resorptive lesions were reconstructed. Using the three-pillar classification and coronal plane of the femoral head, we divided each femoral head into six regions to observe the location characteristics of bone-resorption lesions, and explore the destruction of different areas of the femoral head by the bone-resorptive lesions. Then the hips were divided into two groups based on whether they contained bone-resorption lesions and compared the difference of stage II and stage III between the two groups. RESULTS: The regional distribution revealed 39 (27.27%), 55 (38.46%), six (4.20%), 23 (16.08%), 17 (11.89%) and three (2.10%) bone-resorptive lesions in regions I, II, III, IV, V and VI respectively. The lateral pillar, AL (I + IV), contained 44.76% of the lesions, central pillar, C (II + V), 48.95%, and medial pillar, M (III + VI), 6.29%. Moreover, there were 81.82% bone-resorption lesions in anterolateral pillar, AL (I + II + IV), and 18.18% in posteromedial pillar, PM (III + V + VI). In all ONFH hips, the lateral pillar of 81(88.04%) femoral heads were affected, the central pillar of 84 (91.30%) femoral heads were affected, and the medical pillar of 29 (31.52%) femoral heads were affected. The ratio of ARCO stage III in the group with bone-resorption lesions was significantly higher than that of the group without bone-resorption lesions (76.09% vs 30.39%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the bone-resorption lesions are mainly distributed in the lateral and central pillar of the femoral head, and the two pillars of the femoral head are usually involved by bone-resorption lesions. Furthermore, the ratio of ARCO stage III in the group with bone-resorption lesions was significantly higher than that of the group without bone-resorption lesions, suggesting that the bone-resorption lesions might accelerate the progression of ONFH.


Assuntos
Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/classificação , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nanotechnology ; 32(50)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479216

RESUMO

This article introduces an innovative technique for achieving a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) switch with an adjustable sensing field range. A spin-valve (SV) patterned into a strip shape is grown on a specific (110)-cut Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT) substrate. In the process of depositing films, a magnetic easy axis of the free layer in the SV is produced along the [001] direction (thex-axis) of the PMN-PT. This PMN-PT can produce a nonvolatile strain by using a positive voltage pulse. Accordingly, the magnetic moment of the free layer can be modulated to they-axis by the strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling effect produced in the SV/PMN-PT heterostructure. Furthermore, a negative voltage pulse can release the strain and revert the magnetic moment to the initial [001] direction. The effective field along the [1-10] direction produced by the nonvolatile strain can modulate the easy axis of the free layer, changing it from thex-axis to they-axis. Therefore, large and small switching fields are achieved in a bipolar GMR switch. Furthermore, by applying positive and negative voltage pulses at appropriate moments, two asymmetrical switching field ranges are obtained. Thus, a GMR switch with four adjustable switching field ranges can be obtained. The proposed modulating model is flexible and can meet the requirements of specific and different application systems. The proposed design reveals a great potential for the application to the internet of things and the development of low-power and high-efficient magnetoresistive sensors.

20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 430: 115728, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560092

RESUMO

1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) is a pervasive environmental pollutant found in ambient and residential air, as well as ground and drinking water. Overexposure to it results in cortex edema, in both animals and humans. 1,2-DCE induces apoptosis in the cerebellum, liver and testes. This promotes the hypothesis that 1,2-DCE may induce apoptosis in the cortex as brain edema progresses. To validate our hypothesis, 40 NIH male mice were exposed to 0, 100, 350, 700 mg/m3 1,2-DCE by whole-body dynamic inhalation for 28 consecutive days. MicroRNA (miRNA) and mRNA microarray combined with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, flow cytometry, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mtΔΨ) measurement were applied to identify the cortex apoptosis pathways' specific responses to 1,2-DCE, in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that 1,2-DCE caused brain edema and increased apoptosis in the mouse cortexes. We confirmed that 1,2-DCE induced increased apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway, both in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by increased Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Cytochrome c and Bax expression, and decreased Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, mtΔΨ decreased after 1,2-DCE treatment in vitro. 1,2-DCE exposure increased miR-182-5p and decreased phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in the cerebral cortex of mice. MiR-182-5p overexpression and PLD1 inhibition reduced mtΔΨ and increased astrocyte apoptosis, yet miR-182-5p inhibition alleviated the 1,2-DCE-induced PLD1 down-regulation and the increased apoptosis. Finally, PLD1 was confirmed to be a target of miR-182-5p by luciferase assay. Taken together, our findings indicate that 1,2-DCE exposure induces apoptosis in the cortex via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. This pathway is regulated by a miR-182-5p⊣PLD1 axie.

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