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1.
Brain Sci ; 12(11)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The characteristics associated with having family members going out for work among persons with schizophrenia in rural China are unknown. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of families with members going out for work and the risk factors among persons with schizophrenia in a rural area of China. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional dataset from a mental health survey, using the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), conducted among 152,776 people aged 15 years and older in Xinjin District, Chengdu, China, in 2015. RESULTS: A total of 598 persons with schizophrenia were included in this study, and 20.4% (n = 122) of them had at least one family member who went out for work. Compared with those without family going out for work, participants with family going out for work had significantly larger numbers of family members, higher monthly incomes and lower percentages of social low-income insurance. Participants with family going out for work were more likely to be females, married and with higher levels of subjective and instrumental support. The statuses of families with members going out for work were significantly associated with larger numbers of family members and higher levels of instrumental support. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate specific characteristics of families with members going out for work and factors associated with having family going out for work among persons with schizophrenia (number of family members and instrumental support). Culture-specific mental health policies and community-based services should be developed for persons with schizophrenia who have family going out for work in rural China.

2.
Cell ; 185(19): 3617-3636.e19, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070752

RESUMO

Efforts to model the human gut microbiome in mice have led to important insights into the mechanisms of host-microbe interactions. However, the model communities studied to date have been defined or complex, but not both, limiting their utility. Here, we construct and characterize in vitro a defined community of 104 bacterial species composed of the most common taxa from the human gut microbiota (hCom1). We then used an iterative experimental process to fill open niches: germ-free mice were colonized with hCom1 and then challenged with a human fecal sample. We identified new species that engrafted following fecal challenge and added them to hCom1, yielding hCom2. In gnotobiotic mice, hCom2 exhibited increased stability to fecal challenge and robust colonization resistance against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Mice colonized by either hCom2 or a human fecal community are phenotypically similar, suggesting that this consortium will enable a mechanistic interrogation of species and genes on microbiome-associated phenotypes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Camundongos
3.
Science ; 376(6598): 1220-1223, 2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679413

RESUMO

Infant microbiome assembly has been intensely studied in infants from industrialized nations, but little is known about this process in nonindustrialized populations. We deeply sequenced infant stool samples from the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania and analyzed them in a global meta-analysis. Infant microbiomes develop along lifestyle-associated trajectories, with more than 20% of genomes detected in the Hadza infant gut representing novel species. Industrialized infants-even those who are breastfed-have microbiomes characterized by a paucity of Bifidobacterium infantis and gene cassettes involved in human milk utilization. Strains within lifestyle-associated taxonomic groups are shared between mother-infant dyads, consistent with early life inheritance of lifestyle-shaped microbiomes. The population-specific differences in infant microbiome composition and function underscore the importance of studying microbiomes from people outside of wealthy, industrialized nations.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis , Países em Desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estilo de Vida , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis/classificação , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis/genética , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Tanzânia
4.
Mol Pharmacol ; 100(2): 113-118, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074676

RESUMO

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the nervous system. The intracellular C terminus of ASIC1a has many sites involved in regulating its expression and the opening mechanism, but the role of the intracellular N-terminal domain is poorly understood. Here, we explored the correlation of ASIC1a intracellular N terminus with membrane expression and gate opening. We modified the N-terminal structure of ASICs by deletion/truncation/mutation strategies and transfected the recombinant plasmids into CHO cells. Protein expression was analyzed with immunofluorescence, Western blots, and patch-clamp experiments. Deleting the entire N terminus decreased the membrane expression of channel proteins, and ion channel opening was lost. Deleting sections of the N terminus also decreased membrane expression and suggested that all areas were significant, with no single or group of amino acid residues playing a decisive role in regulating ASIC1a membrane expression. In terms of gate opening, five amino acid (AA) residues from AA 16 to AA 20 participated in gate opening, and isoleucine at AA 18 was the most important. The whole N terminus of ASICs participates in the membrane expression of ASIC1a, and five amino acid residues (AA 16-20) are involved in the gate opening mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The whole N terminus of ASICs participates in the membrane expression of ASIC1a, and five amino acid resi-dues (amino acid 16-20) are involved in the gate opening mechanism.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/química , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Mutação , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Domínios Proteicos , Transfecção
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253753, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to the mental health and sleep quality of front-line medical staff (FMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep quality of FMS during the COVID-19 outbreak in China and analyze the relationship between mental health and sleep quality of FMS. METHODS: From February 24, 2020 to March 22, 2020, a cross-sectional study was performed with 543 FMS from a medical center in Western China. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data anonymously. The following tests were used: The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) for symptoms of anxiety, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depressive symptoms, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality assessment. RESULTS: Of the 543 FMS, 216 (39.8%) were classified as subjects with poor sleep quality. Anxiety (P<0.001), depression (P<0.001), and the prevalence of those divorced or widowed (P<0.05) were more common in FMS with poor sleep quality than in participants with good sleep quality. The FMS exhibiting co-occurrence of anxiety and depression were associated with worse scores on sleep quality than those medical staff in the other three groups/categories. The difference in sleep quality between the FMS with only depression and the FMS experiencing co-occurrence of anxiety and depression was statistically significant (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in sleep quality between the FMS experiencing only anxiety and the FMS with co-occurrence of anxiety and depression (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a noteworthy increase in the prevalence of negative emotions and sentiments among the medical staff, along with poor overall sleep quality. We anticipate that this study can stimulate more research into the mental state of FMS during outbreaks and other public health emergencies. In addition, particular attention must be paid to enhance the sleep quality of FMS, along with better planning and support for FMS who are continuously exposed to the existing viral epidemic by virtue of the nature of their profession.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1007, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has been a pandemic around the world, which affirmatively brought mental health problems to medical staff. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety in Chinese medical staff and examine the mediation effects of coping styles on the relationship between social support and anxiety. METHODS: A cross-sectional study via internet survey was conducted from 15 March to 30 March, 2020. The social demographic data, Self-rated Anxiety Scale, Social Support Rate Scale and Trait Coping Style Scale were collected. Pearson correlation and a structural equation model were performed to examine the relationships of these variables. The bootstrap analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediation effects. RESULTS: A total of 453 medical staff participated in this study. The mean score of SAS was 46.1 (SD = 10.4). Up to 40.8% of the participants had anxiety symptoms. The participants lived with family members had lower SAS score (45.1 ± 9.8 vs 49.6 ± 11.8). Social support was negatively associated with anxiety, mediated by positive coping and negative coping partially significantly with an effect size of - 0.183. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese medical staff had a high level of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Coping styles had effects on the association between social support and anxiety. Sufficient social support and training on positive coping skills may reduce anxiety in medical staff.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275591

RESUMO

Multiple description coding (MDC) is an efficient source coding technique for error-prone transmission over multiple channels. In this paper, we focus on the design of a new polyphase down-sampling based MDC (NPDS-MDC) for image signals. The encoding of our proposed NPDS-MDC consists of three steps. First, we perform down-sampling on each N×N image block according to the quincunx down-sampling pattern. Second, we propose a new transform and apply it to the down-sampled pixels to produce the side descriptions. Third, we develop an error compensation algorithm to reduce the compression distortion occurring on the down-sampled pixels. In our scheme, the side decoding is performed posterior to image interpolation with reference to the down-sampled compressed pixels. Moreover, the central decoding is achieved by interlacing the side descriptions. We also propose a compression-constrained central deblocking algorithm to further improve the efficiency of the central decoding. The experimental results indicate that our proposed MDC scheme offers clearly superior performance, especially at high bit rates, as compared to the state-of-the-art methods for various types of images.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the difference in serum uric acid(SUA)levels between subtypes of depression and normal population, and whether SUA can be used to identify bipolar disorder depressive episode and major depressive disorder and predict the length of hospital stay. METHODS: 1543 depression patients and 1515 healthy controls were obtained according to the entry and exclusion criteria from one mental health center of a tertiary hospital in southwestern China. The diagnosis and classification of depression was in accordance with ICD-10. The SUA value was derived from fasting plasma samples analysis. The level of SUA of all the participants was quantified using Roche cobas8000-c702-MSB automatic biochemical analyzer. Data were analyzed by SPSS18.0 statistical software package. RESULTS: Overall, the level of SUA in patients with depression was lower than that in normal control. Specifically, males' SUA levels were in the interval of [240, 323.3) and [323.3, 406.6), and women were in the [160, 233.3] levels. The SUA level of bipolar disorder depressive episode was higher compared to major depressive disorder level. Interestingly, male patients who were hospitalized for two weeks had higher SUA than those who were hospitalized for three weeks or four weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the length of hospital stay may be associated with SUA, and when it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder depressive episode and major depressive disorder, the level of SUA may be considered. The adjustment of SUA as a method for treating depression needs to be carefully assessed.


Assuntos
Depressão/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Depressão/classificação , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(1): 25-39, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atherosclerosis is a narrowing of the arteries caused by plaque buildup. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to investigate miR-205-5p's role in promoting atherosclerotic progression. METHODS: Knock-in (KI) mice with human/murine miR-205-5p within the murine host gene for miR-205 (MIR205HG) were crossed with apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe-/-) mice. This miR-205KI Apoe-/- murine model was employed to study the impact of miR-205-5p in Apoe-/- mice susceptible to atherosclerotic plaque formation. RESULTS: miR-205KI Apoe-/-mice developed larger, more unstable plaques relative to their Apoe-/- counterparts (0.45 vs. 0.26 mm2, P < 0.001). miR-205KI Apoe-/- mice exhibited lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (5.18 vs. 19.31 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and triglycerides (32.79 vs. 156.76 mg/dL, P < 0.001) with system-wide reversal of cholesterol transport. Macrophages derived from miR-205KI Apoe-/- mice exhibited ~ 20% lowered cholesterol efflux capability with enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expression through lipid raft formation. Bone marrow transplantation demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) donor cells with miR-205-5pKI simulated plaque formation independent of the recipients' miR-205-5p status. CONCLUSIONS: miR-205-5p encourages unstable atherogenesis in vivo. miR-205-5p also adversely influences lipid metabolism and promotes a pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. Our findings advocate miR-205-5p as a potential therapeutic target for combating unstable atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Apoptose , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , MicroRNAs/genética , Fenótipo , Ruptura Espontânea , Células THP-1 , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Bioinformatics ; 35(5): 760-768, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816928

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Whole genome shotgun based next-generation transcriptomics and metagenomics studies often generate 100-1000 GB sequence data derived from tens of thousands of different genes or microbial species. Assembly of these data sets requires tradeoffs between scalability and accuracy. Current assembly methods optimized for scalability often sacrifice accuracy and vice versa. An ideal solution would both scale and produce optimal accuracy for individual genes or genomes. RESULTS: Here we describe an Apache Spark-based scalable sequence clustering application, SparkReadClust (SpaRC), that partitions reads based on their molecule of origin to enable downstream assembly optimization. SpaRC produces high clustering performance on transcriptomes and metagenomes from both short and long read sequencing technologies. It achieves near-linear scalability with input data size and number of compute nodes. SpaRC can run on both cloud computing and HPC environments without modification while delivering similar performance. Our results demonstrate that SpaRC provides a scalable solution for clustering billions of reads from next-generation sequencing experiments, and Apache Spark represents a cost-effective solution with rapid development/deployment cycles for similar large-scale sequence data analysis problems. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/jgi-sparc.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Software , Análise por Conglomerados , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(2): 433-441, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443947

RESUMO

AIMS: To collect information about the current status of community nurses in China and explore the roles and activities that they perform in their daily community setting. BACKGROUND: Community health services are central to efforts to improve public health in China. Clarifying who performs which community nursing services can help assess the contributions of community nursing and guide future practices. However, specific information is limited in China. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to November 2014. Information was collected on demographics, work roles, and activities of community nurses. RESULTS: Most community nurses in our survey were young with a low educational level. Their daily routine most frequently involved immunization and basic medical services, while their main roles were caregiver, educator, organiser and manager. CONCLUSION: Although community nurses cover nearly all areas of service that the national government requires, some roles and their associated activities are neglected. The quantity and quality of community nurses may be hindering their ability to fulfill all roles and activities envisioned by the national government. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Further training should be provided to increase the ability of community nurses to perform frequent functions as well as activities that are currently neglected.


Assuntos
Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/psicologia , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(9)2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150511

RESUMO

Depleted uranium has been widely applied in nuclear energy fields. However, its poor corrosion and wear resistance restrict its applications. A titanium/titanium nitride (Ti/TiN) multilayer film was deposited on a uranium surface to improve its fretting wear resistance. Fretting wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc configuration. The fretting behaviors of uranium and the Ti/TiN film were investigated under different normal loads. With the normal load increasing, the mode of fretting wear gradually transformed from slip region (SR) to mixed fretting region (MFR) and then to partial slip region (PSR). It is illustrated that the normal load had an obvious effect on the fretting wear behavior. The friction coefficients of both uranium and Ti/TiN multilayer film decreased with the increase of the normal load. In SR, the main wear mechanisms were delamination and abrasion for uncoated uranium, and delamination and oxidation for uranium coated with the Ti/TiN multilayer film. Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also showed that the Ti/TiN coating was oxidized and formed TiO2 during fretting wear. The wear depth of naked uranium was much greater than that of coated uranium, which demonstrated that the Ti/TiN multilayer film could effectively improve the wear properties of uranium.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(8)2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103416

RESUMO

Depleted uranium (DU) is oxidized readily due to its chemical activities, which limits its applications in nuclear industry. TiN film has been applied widely due to its good mechanical properties and its excellent corrosion resistance. In this work, TiN protection films were deposited on DU by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS), respectively. The surface morphology and microstructures were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The hardness and Young's modulus were determined by nano-Indenter. The wear behavior and adhesion was analyzed by pin-on-disc tests and scratch adhesion tests and the corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical measurements. The results show that the TiN films that were deposited by HPPMS outperformed TiN film deposited by DCMS, with improvements on surface roughness, mechanical properties, wear behavior, adhesion strength, and corrosion resistance, thanks to its much denser columnar grain growth structure and preferred orientation of (111) plane with the lowest strain energy. Besides, the process of Ti interlayer deposition by HPPMS can enhance the film properties to an extent as compared to DCMS, which is attributed to the enhanced ion bombardment during the HPPMS.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(4)2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659484

RESUMO

A fretting wear experiment with uranium has been performed on a linear reciprocating tribometer with ball-on-disk contact. This study focused on the fretting behavior of the uranium under different atmospheres (Ar, Air (21% O2 + 78% N2), and O2) and vacuum conditions (1.05 and 1 × 10−4 Pa). Evolution of friction was assessed by coefficient of friction (COF) and friction-dissipated energy. The oxide of the wear surface was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. The result shows that fretting wear behavior presents strong atmosphere and vacuum condition dependence. With increasing oxygen content, the COF decreases due to abrasive wear and formation of oxide film. The COF in the oxygen condition is at least 0.335, and it has a maximum wear volume of about 1.48 × 107 μm³. However, the COF in a high vacuum condition is maximum about 1.104, and the wear volume is 1.64 × 106 μm³. The COF in the low vacuum condition is very different: it firstly increased and then decreased rapidly to a steady value. It is caused by slight abrasive wear and the formation of tribofilm after thousands of cycles.

15.
Schizophr Res ; 197: 478-483, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the serum creatine kinase (CK) level and aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This retrospective study recruited 2780 Chinese patients with schizophrenia from January 2009 to December 2013 at the psychiatric inpatient units of West China Hospital. The diagnosis was made according to the DSM-IV criteria. The serum level of CK was checked. RESULTS: Aggressive behavior was positively correlated with the serum CK level (r=0.262, p=0.000). The OR value is 8.084 when comparing the high CK group and normal CK group prior to admission. The aggressive behavior rate in the 5 times group (serum level≥1130U/L) after admission (28.2%) is higher than the rate prior to admission (16.5%). CONCLUSION: The aggressive patients with schizophrenia displayed increased serum CK level. It may be useful to include a lab test of CK level in patients with schizophrenia and history of aggression. It would help the staff to take precautions to protect the patients and others.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 27(6): 2635-2649, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533900

RESUMO

Transform-domain downward conversion (TDDC) for image coding is usually implemented by discarding some high-frequency components from each transformed block. As a result, a block of fewer coefficients is formed, and a lower compression cost is achieved due to the coding of only a few low-frequency coefficients. In this paper, we focus on the design of a new TDDC-based coding method by using our proposed interpolation-compression directed filtering (ICDF) and error-compensated scalar quantization (ECSQ), leading to the compression-dependent TDDC (CDTDDC)-based coding. More specifically, ICDF is first used to convert each macro-block into an coefficient block. Then, this coefficient block is compressed with ECSQ, resulting in a smaller compression distortion for those pixels that locate at some specific positions of a macro-block. We select these positions according to the 4:1 uniform sub-sampling lattice and use the pixels locating at them to reconstruct the whole macro-block through an interpolation. The proposed CDTDDC-based coding can be applied to compress both grayscale and color images. More importantly, when it is used in the color image compression, it offers not only a new solution to reduce the data-size of chrominance components but also a higher compression efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that applying our proposed CDTDDC-based coding to compress still images can achieve a significant quality gain over the existing compression methods.

17.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0132628, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26177194

RESUMO

Genes in prokaryotic genomes are often arranged into clusters and co-transcribed into polycistronic RNAs. Isolated examples of polycistronic RNAs were also reported in some higher eukaryotes but their presence was generally considered rare. Here we developed a long-read sequencing strategy to identify polycistronic transcripts in several mushroom forming fungal species including Plicaturopsis crispa, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Gloeophyllum trabeum. We found genome-wide prevalence of polycistronic transcription in these Agaricomycetes, involving up to 8% of the transcribed genes. Unlike polycistronic mRNAs in prokaryotes, these co-transcribed genes are also independently transcribed. We show that polycistronic transcription may interfere with expression of the downstream tandem gene. Further comparative genomic analysis indicates that polycistronic transcription is conserved among a wide range of mushroom forming fungi. In summary, our study revealed, for the first time, the genome prevalence of polycistronic transcription in a phylogenetic range of higher fungi. Furthermore, we systematically show that our long-read sequencing approach and combined bioinformatics pipeline is a generic powerful tool for precise characterization of complex transcriptomes that enables identification of mRNA isoforms not recovered via short-read assembly.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Agaricales/classificação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes Fúngicos , Filogenia , RNA Fúngico/genética
18.
Neurosci Lett ; 593: 45-50, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25778419

RESUMO

We sought to demonstrate the in vivo transduction efficiency and tropism range in astrocytes of a combined-serotype adeno associated virus (AAV2/5/7/8/9). To control expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), a 1740bp glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter was obtained and ligated into vectors of each AAV serotype (2/5/7/8/9). Purified AAVs were then injected into the somatosensory cortex of C57BL/6J mice. Cell-type specific antibodies and subsequent immunofluorescence were used to identify astrocytes (GFAP), neurons (neuronal nuclear antigen, NeuN), microglia (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, Iba1), and oligodendrocytes (myelin basic protein, MBP), whereby, EGFP expression was measured in each cell type at 1-4 weeks post-injection. Our results indicated that the majority of astrocytes expressed EGFP, while only a small number of neurons expressed EGFP. Both microglia and oligodendrocytes lacked EGFP expression after viral injection. Quantitative analyses revealed that the percentage of EGFP-positive astrocytes was about 98% after viral injection, while the EGFP-positive neuronal percentage was less than 2%. Thus, this study shows that using a combined-serotype AAV carrying a 1740bp GFAP promoter results in successful, cell-type specific infection of the central nervous system, with robust gene expression in murine astrocytes.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Córtex Somatossensorial/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/citologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia , Transdução Genética
19.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 20(10): 905-15, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often suffer from comorbid psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, anxiety, or impaired cognitive performance. Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling is a key regulator of synaptic neurotransmission and has been implicated in the mechanisms of epilepsy as well as several mood disorders and cognitive impairments. AIMS: We employed a pilocarpine model of TLE in C57/BJ mice to investigate the role of eCB signaling in epileptogenesis and concomitant psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sought to alter the neuronal levels of a known eCB receptor ligand, 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), through the use of RHC80267 or JZL184. Pilocarpine-treated mice were treated with RHC80267 (1.3 µmol) or JZL184 (20 mg/kg) immediately after the termination of status epilepticus (SE), which was followed by daily treatment for the next 7 days. Our results indicated that RHC80267 treatment significantly reduced the percentage of mice suffering from spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in addition to decreasing the duration of observed seizures when compared to vehicle treatment. Furthermore, RHC80267 attenuated depression and anxiety-related behaviors, improved previously impaired spatial learning and memory, and inhibited seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal loss during the chronic epileptic period. In contrast, JZL184 administration markedly increased the frequency and the duration of observed SRS, enhanced the previously impaired neuropsychological performance, and increased hippocampal damage following SE. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that RHC80267 treatment after the onset of SE could result in an amelioration of the effects found during the chronic epileptic period and yield an overall decrease in epileptic symptoms and comorbid conditions. Thus, alterations to endocannabinoid signaling may serve as a potential mechanism to prevent epileptogenesis and manipulation of this signaling pathway as a possible drug target.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Cicloexanonas/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/complicações , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia
20.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 7(6): 2825-37, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25031702

RESUMO

Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), which is traditionally located on axon terminals, plays an important role in the pathology of epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases by modulating synaptic transmission. Using the pilocarpine model of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures, which mimics the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in humans, we examined the expression of CB1R in hippocampal astrocytes of epileptic rats. Furthermore, we also examined the expression of astrocytic CB1R in the resected hippocampi from patients with medically refractory mesial TLE. Using immunofluorescent double labeling, we found increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in hippocampi of epileptic rats, whereas expression of astrocytic CB1R was not detectable in hippocampi of saline treated animals. Furthermore, CB1R was also found in some astrocytes in sclerotic hippocampi in a subset of patients with intractable mesial TLE. Detection with immune electron microscopy showed that the expression of CB1R was increased in astrocytes of epileptic rats and modest levels of CB1R were also found on the astrocytic membrane of sclerotic hippocampi. These results suggest that increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in sclerotic hippocampi might be involved in the cellular basis of the effects of cannabinoids on epilepsy.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/biossíntese , Adulto , Animais , Convulsivantes/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esclerose/metabolismo , Esclerose/patologia , Convulsões/metabolismo , Convulsões/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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