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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2743, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585065

RESUMO

We present the results of a GWAS of food liking conducted on 161,625 participants from the UK-Biobank. Liking was assessed over 139 specific foods using a 9-point scale. Genetic correlations coupled with structural equation modelling identified a multi-level hierarchical map of food-liking with three main dimensions: "Highly-palatable", "Acquired" and "Low-caloric". The Highly-palatable dimension is genetically uncorrelated from the other two, suggesting that independent processes underlie liking high reward foods. This is confirmed by genetic correlations with MRI brain traits which show with distinct associations. Comparison with the corresponding food consumption traits shows a high genetic correlation, while liking exhibits twice the heritability. GWAS analysis identified 1,401 significant food-liking associations which showed substantial agreement in the direction of effects with 11 independent cohorts. In conclusion, we created a comprehensive map of the genetic determinants and associated neurophysiological factors of food-liking.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Emoções , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Humanos , Recompensa
2.
Lancet ; 399(10335): 1618-1624, 2022 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, omicron, appears to be less severe than delta. We aim to quantify the differences in symptom prevalence, risk of hospital admission, and symptom duration among the vaccinated population. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal observational study, we collected data from participants who were self-reporting test results and symptoms in the ZOE COVID app (previously known as the COVID Symptoms Study App). Eligible participants were aged 16-99 years, based in the UK, with a body-mass index between 15 and 55 kg/m2, had received at least two doses of any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, were symptomatic, and logged a positive symptomatic PCR or lateral flow result for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period. The primary outcome was the likelihood of developing a given symptom (of the 32 monitored in the app) or hospital admission within 7 days before or after the positive test in participants infected during omicron prevalence compared with those infected during delta prevalence. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2021, and Jan 17, 2022, we identified 63 002 participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and reported symptoms in the ZOE app. These patients were matched 1:1 for age, sex, and vaccination dose, across two periods (June 1 to Nov 27, 2021, delta prevalent at >70%; n=4990, and Dec 20, 2021, to Jan 17, 2022, omicron prevalent at >70%; n=4990). Loss of smell was less common in participants infected during omicron prevalence than during delta prevalence (16·7% vs 52·7%, odds ratio [OR] 0·17; 95% CI 0·16-0·19, p<0·001). Sore throat was more common during omicron prevalence than during delta prevalence (70·5% vs 60·8%, 1·55; 1·43-1·69, p<0·001). There was a lower rate of hospital admission during omicron prevalence than during delta prevalence (1·9% vs 2·6%, OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·57-0·98, p=0·03). INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of symptoms that characterise an omicron infection differs from those of the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant, apparently with less involvement of the lower respiratory tract and reduced probability of hospital admission. Our data indicate a shorter period of illness and potentially of infectiousness which should impact work-health policies and public health advice. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, ZOE, National Institute for Health Research, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Hospitais , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(7): 1002-1010, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the surge of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, countries have begun offering COVID-19 vaccine booster doses to high-risk groups and, more recently, to the adult population in general. However, uncertainty remains over how long primary vaccination series remain effective, the ideal timing for booster doses, and the safety of heterologous booster regimens. We aimed to investigate COVID-19 primary vaccine series effectiveness and its waning, and the safety and effectiveness of booster doses, in a UK community setting. METHODS: We used SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates in individuals from a longitudinal, prospective, community-based study (ZOE COVID Study), in which data were self-reported through an app, to assess the effectiveness of three COVID-19 vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCov19 [Oxford-AstraZeneca], BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNtech], and mRNA1273 [Moderna]) against infection in the 8 months after completion of primary vaccination series. In individuals receiving boosters, we investigated vaccine effectiveness and reactogenicity, by assessing 16 self-reported systemic and localised side-effects. We used multivariate Poisson regression models adjusting for confounders to estimate vaccine effectiveness. FINDINGS: We included 620 793 participants who received two vaccine doses (204 731 [33·0%] received BNT162b2, 405 239 [65·3%] received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 10 823 [1·7%] received mRNA-1273) and subsequently had a SARS-CoV-2 test result between May 23 (chosen to exclude the period of alpha [B.1.1.7] variant dominance) and Nov 23, 2021. 62 172 (10·0%) vaccinated individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were compared with 40 345 unvaccinated controls (6726 [16·7%] of whom tested positive). Vaccine effectiveness waned after the second dose: at 5 months, BNT162b2 effectiveness was 82·1% (95% CI 81·3-82·9), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 effectiveness was 75·7% (74·9-76·4), and mRNA-1273 effectiveness was 84·3% (81·2-86·9). Vaccine effectiveness decreased more among individuals aged 55 years or older and among those with comorbidities. 135 932 individuals aged 55 years or older received a booster (2123 [1·6%] of whom tested positive). Vaccine effectiveness for booster doses in 0-3 months after BNT162b2 primary vaccination was higher than 92·5%, and effectiveness for heterologous boosters after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was at least 88·8%. For the booster reactogenicity analysis, in 317 011 participants, the most common systemic symptom was fatigue (in 31 881 [10·1%] participants) and the most common local symptom was tenderness (in 187 767 [59·2%]). Systemic side-effects were more common for heterologous schedules (32 632 [17·9%] of 182 374) than for homologous schedules (17 707 [13·2%] of 134 637; odds ratio 1·5, 95% CI 1·5-1·6, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: After 5 months, vaccine effectiveness remained high among individuals younger than 55 years. Booster doses restore vaccine effectiveness. Adverse reactions after booster doses were similar to those after the second dose. Homologous booster schedules had fewer reported systemic side-effects than heterologous boosters. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, ZOE, National Institute for Health Research, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
iScience ; 25(3): 103897, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243255

RESUMO

Gonadal hormones affect immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation, and the more proinflammatory IgG glycome composition might be one of the molecular mechanisms behind the increased proinflammatory phenotype in perimenopause. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, we analyzed IgG glycome composition in 5,080 samples from 1940 pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women. Statistically significant decrease in galactosylation and sialylation was observed in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, during the transition from pre- to postmenopausal period, the rate of increase in agalactosylated structures (0.051/yr; 95%CI = 0.043-0.059, p < 0.001) and decrease in digalactosylated (-0.043/yr; 95%CI = -0.050 to -0.037, p < 0.001) and monosialylated glycans (-0.029/yr; 95%CI = -0.034 to -0.024, p < 0.001) were significantly higher than in either pre- or postmenopausal periods. The conversion to the more proinflammatory IgG glycome and the resulting decrease in the ability of IgG to suppress low-grade chronic inflammation may be an important molecular mechanism mediating the increased health risk in perimenopause and postmenopause.

7.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A lack of physical activity (PA) is one of the most pressing health issues today. Our individual propensity for PA is influenced by genetic factors. Stated liking of different PA types may help capture additional and informative dimensions of PA behavior genetics. METHODS: In over 157,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, we performed genome-wide association studies of five items assessing liking of different PA types, plus an additional derived trait of overall PA-liking. We attempted to replicate significant associations in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and TwinsUK. Additionally, polygenic scores (PGS) were trained in the UK Biobank for each PA-liking item and for self-reported PA behavior, and tested for association with PA in the NTR. RESULTS: We identified a total of 19 unique significant loci across all five PA-liking items and the overall PA-liking trait, which showed strong directional consistency in the replication cohorts. Four of these loci were previously identified for PA behavior, including CADM2 which was associated with 3 PA-liking items. The PA-liking items were genetically correlated with self-reported (rg: 0.38-0.80) and accelerometer (rg: 0.26-0.49) PA measures, and with a wide range of health-related traits. Each PA-liking PGS significantly predicted the same PA-liking item in NTR. The PGS of liking for going to the gym predicted PA behavior in the NTR (r2 = 0.40%) nearly as well as a PGS based on self-reported PA behavior (r2 = 0.42%). Combining the two PGS into a single model increased the r2 to 0.59%, suggesting that PA-liking captures distinct and relevant dimensions of PA behavior. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the first loci associated with PA-liking and extended our understanding of the genetic basis of PA behavior.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 636, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105869

RESUMO

Worldwide, racial and ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 with increased risk of infection, its related complications, and death. In the initial phase of population-based vaccination in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.), vaccine hesitancy may result in differences in uptake. We performed a cohort study among U.S. and U.K. participants who volunteered to take part in the smartphone-based COVID Symptom Study (March 2020-February 2021) and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of vaccine hesitancy and uptake. In the U.S. (n = 87,388), compared to white participants, vaccine hesitancy was greater for Black and Hispanic participants and those reporting more than one or other race. In the U.K. (n = 1,254,294), racial and ethnic minority participants showed similar levels of vaccine hesitancy to the U.S. However, associations between participant race and ethnicity and levels of vaccine uptake were observed to be different in the U.S. and the U.K. studies. Among U.S. participants, vaccine uptake was significantly lower among Black participants, which persisted among participants that self-reported being vaccine-willing. In contrast, statistically significant racial and ethnic disparities in vaccine uptake were not observed in the U.K sample. In this study of self-reported vaccine hesitancy and uptake, lower levels of vaccine uptake in Black participants in the U.S. during the initial vaccine rollout may be attributable to both hesitancy and disparities in access.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , /estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 39, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yoghurt contains live bacteria that could contribute via modulation of the gut microbiota to its reported beneficial effects such as reduced body weight gain and lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. To date, the association between yoghurt consumption and the composition of the gut microbiota is underexplored. Here we used clinical variables, metabolomics, 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing data collected on over 1000 predominantly female UK twins to define the link between the gut microbiota and yoghurt-associated health benefits. RESULTS: According to food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), 73% of subjects consumed yoghurt. Consumers presented a healthier diet pattern (healthy eating index: beta = 2.17 ± 0.34; P = 2.72x10-10) and improved metabolic health characterised by reduced visceral fat (beta = -28.18 ± 11.71 g; P = 0.01). According to 16S rRNA gene analyses and whole shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach consistent taxonomic variations were observed with yoghurt consumption. More specifically, we identified higher abundance of species used as yoghurt starters Streptococcus thermophilus (beta = 0.41 ± 0.051; P = 6.14x10-12) and sometimes added Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (beta = 0.30 ± 0.052; P = 1.49x10-8) in the gut of yoghurt consumers. Replication in 1103 volunteers from the LifeLines-DEEP cohort confirmed the increase of S. thermophilus among yoghurt consumers. Using food records collected the day prior to faecal sampling we showed than an increase in these two yoghurt bacteria could be transient. Metabolomics analysis revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis was associated with 13 faecal metabolites including a 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid, known to be involved in the regulation of gut inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Yoghurt consumption is associated with reduced visceral fat mass and changes in gut microbiome including transient increase of yoghurt-contained species (i.e. S. thermophilus and B. lactis).


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metaboloma , Metagenoma , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Iogurte/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
11.
Metabolites ; 12(1)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050183

RESUMO

Metabolites are small products of metabolism that provide a snapshot of the wellbeing of an organism and the mechanisms that control key physiological processes involved in health and disease. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of 722 circulating metabolite levels in 8809 subjects of European origin, providing both breadth and depth. These analyses identified 202 unique genomic regions whose variations are associated with the circulating levels of 478 different metabolites. Replication with a subset of 208 metabolites that were available in an independent dataset for a cohort of 1768 European subjects confirmed the robust associations, including 74 novel genomic regions not associated with any metabolites in previous works. This study enhances our knowledge of genetic mechanisms controlling human metabolism. Our findings have major potential for identifying novel targets and developing new therapeutic strategies.

12.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 35(1): 214-222, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is beneficial in reducing blood pressure; however, this may be a consequence of concurrent weight reduction. In the present study, we investigated whether body mass index (BMI) mediates the association between the DASH diet and hypertension and investigate common metabolic pathways. METHODS: We included 2424 females from the cross-sectional TwinsUK cohort, with blood pressure, BMI and dietary intake measured within 1.01 (SD = 0.68) years and serum metabolomics profiling (591 metabolites). We constructed a mediation model to test the mediation effects of BMI on the total effect of the DASH diet on hypertension. To identify a metabolite panel associated with the DASH diet and BMI, we built random forest models for each trait, and selected the common metabolic contributors using five-fold cross-validation error. RESULTS: We found that BMI fully mediates the association between the DASH diet and hypertension, explaining 39.1% of the variance in hypertension. We then identified a panel of six common metabolites predicting both the DASH diet and BMI with opposing effects. Interestingly, at the univariate level, the metabolites were also associated with hypertension in the same direction as BMI. The strongest feature, 1-nonadecanoyl-GPC (19:0), was positively associated with the DASH diet (ß [SE] = 0.65 [0.12]) and negatively with BMI (ß [SE] = -1.34 [0.12]) and hypertension (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval = 0.6-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the role of BMI in the mechanisms by which the DASH diet influences hypertension and also highlight common metabolic pathways. Further studies should investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms to increase our understanding of the beneficial ways of treating hypertension.


Assuntos
Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Hipertensão , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos
13.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959931

RESUMO

The optimal dietary pattern to improve metabolic function remains elusive. In a 21-day randomized controlled inpatient crossover feeding trial of 20 insulin-resistant obese women, we assessed the extent to which two isocaloric dietary interventions-Mediterranean (M) and high protein (HP)-improved metabolic parameters. Obese women were assigned to one of the following dietary sequences: M-HP or HP-M. Cardiometabolic parameters, body weight, glucose monitoring and gut microbiome composition were assessed. Sixteen women completed the study. Compared to the M diet, the HP diet was more effective in (i) reducing insulin resistance (insulin: Beta (95% CI) = -6.98 (-12.30, -1.65) µIU/mL, p = 0.01; HOMA-IR: -1.78 (95% CI: -3.03, -0.52), p = 9 × 10-3); and (ii) improving glycemic variability (-3.13 (-4.60, -1.67) mg/dL, p = 4 × 10-4), a risk factor for T2D development. We then identified a panel of 10 microbial genera predictive of the difference in glycemic variability between the two diets. These include the genera Coprococcus and Lachnoclostridium, previously associated with glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. Our results suggest that morbidly obese women with insulin resistance can achieve better control of insulin resistance and glycemic variability on a high HP diet compared to an M diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Índice Glicêmico , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its preceding factors, such as insulin resistance (IR), is of great importance as it may allow delay or prevention of onset of the disease. Plasma protein N-glycome has emerged as a promising predictive biomarker. In a prospective longitudinal study, we included patients with a first diagnosis of impaired glucose metabolism (IR or T2DM) to investigate the N-glycosylation's predictive value years before diabetes development. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma protein N-glycome was profiled by hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography in 534 TwinsUK participants free from disease at baseline. This included 89 participants with incident diagnosis of IR or T2DM during the follow-up period (7.14±3.04 years) whose last sample prior to diagnosis was compared using general linear regression with 445 age-matched unrelated controls. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort. Changes in N-glycome have also been presented in connection with time to diagnosis. RESULTS: Eight groups of plasma N-glycans were different between incident IR or T2DM cases and controls (p<0.05) after adjusting for multiple testing using Benjamini-Hochberg correction. These differences were noticeable up to 10 years prior to diagnosis and are changing continuously as becoming more expressed toward the diagnosis. The prediction model was built using significant glycan traits, displaying a discriminative performance with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to previous studies, we showed the diagnostic potential of plasma N-glycome in the prediction of both IR and T2DM development years before the clinical manifestation and indicated the continuous deterioration of N-glycome toward the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Gut ; 70(11): 2096-2104, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor metabolic health and unhealthy lifestyle factors have been associated with risk and severity of COVID-19, but data for diet are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of diet quality with risk and severity of COVID-19 and its interaction with socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: We used data from 592 571 participants of the smartphone-based COVID-19 Symptom Study. Diet information was collected for the prepandemic period using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a healthful Plant-Based Diet Score, which emphasises healthy plant foods such as fruits or vegetables. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for COVID-19 risk and severity defined using a validated symptom-based algorithm or hospitalisation with oxygen support, respectively. RESULTS: Over 3 886 274 person-months of follow-up, 31 815 COVID-19 cases were documented. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of the diet score, high diet quality was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and severe COVID-19 (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). The joint association of low diet quality and increased deprivation on COVID-19 risk was higher than the sum of the risk associated with each factor alone (Pinteraction=0.005). The corresponding absolute excess rate per 10 000 person/months for lowest vs highest quartile of diet score was 22.5 (95% CI 18.8 to 26.3) among persons living in areas with low deprivation and 40.8 (95% CI 31.7 to 49.8) among persons living in areas with high deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: A diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19. This association may be particularly evident among individuals living in areas with higher socioeconomic deprivation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 711359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by gut bacteria, which has been implicated in cardio-metabolic health. Here we examine the relationships of circulating acetate levels with gut microbiome composition and diversity and with visceral fat in a large population-based cohort. RESULTS: Microbiome alpha-diversity was positively correlated with circulating acetate levels (Shannon, Beta [95%CI] = 0.12 [0.06, 0.18], P = 0.002) after adjustment for covariates. Six serum acetate-associated bacterial genera were also identified, including positive correlations with Coprococcus, Barnesiella, Ruminococcus, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A21 and negative correlations were observed with Lachnoclostridium and Bacteroides. We also identified a correlation between visceral fat and serum acetate levels (Beta [95%CI] = -0.07 [-0.11, -0.04], P = 2.8 × 10-4) and between visceral fat and Lachnoclostridium (Beta [95%CI] = 0.076 [0.042, 0.11], P = 1.44 × 10-5). Formal mediation analysis revealed that acetate mediates ∼10% of the total effect of Lachnoclostridium on visceral fat. The taxonomic diversity showed that Lachnoclostridium and Coprococcus comprise at least 18 and 9 species, respectively, including novel bacterial species. By predicting the functional capabilities, we found that Coprococcus spp. present pathways involved in acetate production and metabolism of vitamins B, whereas we identified pathways related to the biosynthesis of trimethylamine (TMA) and CDP-diacylglycerol in Lachnoclostridium spp. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that gut microbiota composition and diversity may influence circulating acetate levels and that acetate might exert benefits on certain cardio-metabolic disease risk by decreasing visceral fat. Coprococcus may play an important role in host health by its production of vitamins B and SCFAs, whereas Lachnoclostridium might have an opposing effect by influencing negatively the circulating levels of acetate and being involved in the biosynthesis of detrimental lipid compounds.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 691564, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336953

RESUMO

Aims: The current study investigates the role of diet in mediating the gut microbiome-cardiovascular association which has not yet been explored in humans. Methods and Results: Using a two-arm dietary intervention study in healthy participants (N = 70), we assessed the effects of omega-3 and fibre supplementation on gut microbiome composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We then investigated how changes in gut microbiome composition correlated with changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure), cytokines, and novel validated markers such as GlycA and ceramides, previously linked to CVD incidence and mortality. Both interventions resulted in significant drops in blood pressure, cholesterol, proinflammatory cytokines, GlycA and ceramides (all P < 0.05). Decreases in the atherogenic low-density lipoprotein triglyceride fraction, in total serum cholesterol were correlated with increases in butyric acid-production [ß(SE) = -0.58 (0.06), P < 0.001; -0.53 (0.04), P < 0.001] and nominally associated with increases in some butyrogenic bacteria. Drops in GlycA were linked to increases in Bifidobacterium [ß(SE) = -0.32 (0.04), P = 0.02] and other SCFAs including acetic acid [ß(SE) = -0.28 (0.04), P = 0.02] and propionic acid [ß(SE) = -0.3 (0.04), P = 0.02]. Additionally, we report for the first-time reductions in specific ceramide ratios that have been shown to predict CVD mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events such as d18:1/16:0, d18:0/24:0, and d18:1/24:1 which were associated with the reduction in the abundance in Colinsella and increases in Bifidobacteriuim and Coprococcus 3 and SCFAs (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall, these findings support the potential of using simple dietary interventions to alter validated biomarkers linked to cardiovascular risk via the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic functions.

18.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(1): 149-157, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: App-based community survey. SETTING: 445 850 subscribers of an app that was launched to enable self-reported information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection for use in the general population in the UK (n=372 720), the USA (n=45 757) and Sweden (n=27 373). MAIN EXPOSURE: Self-reported regular dietary supplement usage (constant use during previous 3 months) in the first waves of the pandemic up to 31 July 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral RNA reverse transcriptase PCR test or serology test before 31 July 2020. RESULTS: In 372 720 UK participants (175 652 supplement users and 197 068 non-users), those taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins or vitamin D had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 14% (95% CI (8% to 19%)), 12% (95% CI (8% to 16%)), 13% (95% CI (10% to 16%)) and 9% (95% CI (6% to 12%)), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders. No effect was observed for those taking vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements. On stratification by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the protective associations in individuals taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins and vitamin D were observed in females across all ages and BMI groups, but were not seen in men. The same overall pattern of association was observed in both the US and Swedish cohorts. CONCLUSION: In women, we observed a modest but significant association between use of probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid, multivitamin or vitamin D supplements and lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found no clear benefits for men nor any effect of vitamin C, garlic or zinc. Randomised controlled trials are required to confirm these observational findings before any therapeutic recommendations can be made.

19.
J Hypertens ; 39(12): 2527-2533, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an important regulator of the immune system and has been implicated in prevalent hypertension. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the IgG glycome begins to change prior to hypertension diagnosis by analysing the IgG glycome composition in a large population-based female cohort with two independent replication samples. METHODS: We included 989 unrelated cases with incident hypertension and 1628 controls from the TwinsUK cohort (mean follow-up time of 6.3 years) with IgG measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and longitudinal BP measurement available. We replicated our findings in 106 individuals from the 10 001 Dalmatians and 729 from KORA S4. Cox regression mixed models were applied to identify changes in glycan traits preincident hypertension, after adjusting for age, mean arterial pressure, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (FDR < 0.1). Significant IgG-incident hypertension associations were replicated in the two independent cohorts by leveraging Cox regression mixed models in the 10 001 Dalmatians and logistic regression models in the KORA cohort. RESULTS: We identified and replicated four glycan traits, incidence of bisecting GlcNAc, GP4, GP9 and GP21, that are predictive of incident hypertension after adjusting for confoundes and multiple testing [hazard ratio (95% CI) ranging from 0.45 (0.24-0.84) for GP21 to 2.9 (1.5-5.68) for GP4]. We then linearly combined the four replicated glycans and found that the glycan score correlated with incident hypertension, SBP and DBP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the IgG glycome changes prior to the development of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Polissacarídeos
20.
Diabetologia ; 64(8): 1749-1759, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110438

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The gut microbiome is hypothesised to be related to insulin resistance and other metabolic variables. However, data from population-based studies are limited. We investigated associations between serologic measures of metabolic health and the gut microbiome in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) and the TwinsUK cohort. METHODS: Among 506 individuals from the NFBC1966 with available faecal microbiome (16S rRNA gene sequence) data, we estimated associations between gut microbiome diversity metrics and serologic levels of HOMA for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HbA1c and C-reactive protein (CRP) using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, smoking status and BMI. Associations between gut microbiome diversity measures and HOMA-IR and CRP were replicated in 1140 adult participants from TwinsUK, with available faecal microbiome (16S rRNA gene sequence) data. For both cohorts, we used general linear models with a quasi-Poisson distribution and Microbiome Regression-based Kernel Association Test (MiRKAT) to estimate associations of metabolic variables with alpha- and beta diversity metrics, respectively, and generalised additive models for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) fitted with the zero-inflated beta distribution to identify taxa associated with the metabolic markers. RESULTS: In NFBC1966, alpha diversity was lower in individuals with higher HOMA-IR with a mean of 74.4 (95% CI 70.7, 78.3) amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) for the first quartile of HOMA-IR and 66.6 (95% CI 62.9, 70.4) for the fourth quartile of HOMA-IR. Alpha diversity was also lower with higher HbA1c (number of ASVs and Shannon's diversity, p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and higher CRP (number of ASVs, p = 0.025), even after adjustment for BMI and other potential confounders. In TwinsUK, alpha diversity measures were also lower among participants with higher measures of HOMA-IR and CRP. When considering beta diversity measures, we found that microbial community profiles were associated with HOMA-IR in NFBC1966 and TwinsUK, using multivariate MiRKAT models, with binomial deviance dissimilarity p values of <0.001. In GAMLSS models, the relative abundances of individual genera Prevotella and Blautia were associated with HOMA-IR in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Overall, higher levels of HOMA-IR, CRP and HbA1c were associated with lower microbiome diversity in both the NFBC1966 and TwinsUK cohorts, even after adjustment for BMI and other variables. These results from two distinct population-based cohorts provide evidence for an association between metabolic variables and gut microbial diversity. Further experimental and mechanistic insights are now needed to provide understanding of the potential causal mechanisms that may link the gut microbiota with metabolic health.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Reino Unido
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