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1.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(4): 15, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440941

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is an assessment of the state of the science on nutrition disparities and their contribution to disparities in cardiovascular health. RECENT FINDINGS: Nutrition disparities remain pervasive by race/ethnicity, sex/gender, socioeconomic status, and geography. They are rooted in differences in social, cultural, and environmental determinants of health, behavioral and lifestyle factors, and the impact of policy interventions. Systematic differences in diet quality, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes contribute to cardiovascular disparities and are mediated by microbiota, and CVD risk factors including high levels of blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and glucose; oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction. Despite the progress made in nutrition research, important gaps persist that signal the need for more effective interventions at multiple levels to reduce cardiovascular disparities. Research opportunities include (1) exploring the gene-nutrient-environment interactions in the context of ancestral diversity; (2) investigating the causal link between diet and gut microbiota and impact of social determinants of health; (3) understanding resilience; (4) testing the effectiveness of multi-level interventions that address social and environmental determinants; and (4) supporting intervention research informed by validated implementation science frameworks.

2.
Am Heart J ; 224: 25-34, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298849

RESUMO

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has played an important role in funding the clinical science that supports many contemporary cardiology practice guidelines and in shaping the conduct of cardiovascular clinical trials. This Perspective outlines contemporary funding options as well as select important NHLBI policies, philosophy, and priorities.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223336

RESUMO

Background: Non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases (NRVDs) are common; however, no studies have estimated their global or national burden. As part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study, mortality, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), and other NRVD were estimated for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Methods: Vital registration data, epidemiological survey data, and administrative hospital data were used to estimate disease burden using the GBD modeling framework, which ensures comparability across locations. Geospatial statistical methods were used to estimates disease for all countries, as data on NRVD are extremely limited for some regions of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Results accounted for estimated level of disease severity as well as the estimated availability of valve repair or replacement procedures. DALYs and other measures of health-related burden were generated for each sex, five-year age group, location, and year from 1990 to 2017. Results: Globally, CAVD and DMVD caused 102,700 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 82,700 to 107,900) and 35,700 (95% UI 30,500 to 42,500) deaths, and had 12.6 million (95% UI 11.4 million to 13.8 million) and 18.1 million (95% UI 17.6 million to 18.6 million) prevalent cases in 2017, respectively. 1.5 million (95% UI 1.4 million to 1.6 million) DALYs were estimated as due to NRVD, globally, representing 0.26% (95% UI 0.22% to 0.27%) of total lost health from all diseases in 2017. The number of DALYs increased for CAVD and DMVD between 1990 and 2017, by 123% (95% UI 101% to 137%) and 64% (95% UI 50% to 75%), respectively. There is significant geographic variation in the prevalence, mortality rate, and overall burden of these diseases, with highest age-standardized DALY rates of CAVD estimated for high-income countries. Conclusion: These global and national estimates demonstrate that CAVD and DMVD are important causes of disease burden among older adults. Efforts to better understand modifiable risk factors and improve access to valve interventions are necessary if progress is to be made toward reducing, and eventually eliminating, the burden of these highly treatable diseases.

4.
Hypertension ; 75(5): 1167-1178, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172619

RESUMO

Hypertension and obesity are the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, but their association is not well characterized in Africa. We investigated regional patterns and association of obesity with hypertension among 30 044 continental Africans. We harmonized data on hypertension (defined as previous diagnosis/use of antihypertensive drugs or blood pressure [BP]≥140/90 mmHg/BP≥130/80 mmHg) and obesity from 30 044 individuals in the Cardiovascular H3Africa Innovation Resource across 13 African countries. We analyzed data from population-based controls and the Entire Harmonized Dataset. Age-adjusted and crude proportions of hypertension were compared regionally, across sex, and between hypertension definitions. Logit generalized estimating equation was used to determine the independent association of obesity with hypertension (P value <5%). Participants were 56% women; with mean age 48.5±12.0 years. Crude proportions of hypertension (at BP≥140/90 mmHg) were 47.9% (95% CI, 47.4-48.5) for Entire Harmonized Dataset and 42.0% (41.1-42.7) for population-based controls and were significantly higher for the 130/80 mm Hg threshold at 59.3% (58.7-59.9) in population-based controls. The age-adjusted proportion of hypertension at BP≥140/90 mmHg was the highest among men (33.8% [32.1-35.6]), in western Africa (34.7% [33.3-36.2]), and in obese individuals (43.6%; 40.3-47.2). Obesity was independently associated with hypertension in population-based controls (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5 [2.3-2.7]) and odds of hypertension in obesity increased with increasing age from 2.0 (1.7-2.3) in younger age to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) in older age. Hypertension is common across multiple countries in Africa with 11.9% to 51.7% having BP≥140/90 mmHg and 39.5% to 69.4% with BP≥130/80 mmHg. Obese Africans were more than twice as likely to be hypertensive and the odds increased with increasing age.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895433

RESUMO

Importance: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an underdiagnosed and undertreated genetic disorder that leads to premature morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia affects 1 in 200 to 250 people around the world of every race and ethnicity. The lack of general awareness of FH among the public and medical community has resulted in only 10% of the FH population being diagnosed and adequately treated. The World Health Organization recognized FH as a public health priority in 1998 during a consultation meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. The World Health Organization report highlighted 11 recommendations to address FH worldwide, from diagnosis and treatment to family screening and education. Research since the 1998 report has increased understanding and awareness of FH, particularly in specialty areas, such as cardiology and lipidology. However, in the past 20 years, there has been little progress in implementing the 11 recommendations to prevent premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in an entire generation of families with FH. Observations: In 2018, the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Foundation and the World Heart Federation convened the international FH community to update the 11 recommendations. Two meetings were held: one at the 2018 FH Foundation Global Summit and the other during the 2018 World Congress of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Health. Each meeting served as a platform for the FH community to examine the original recommendations, assess the gaps, and provide commentary on the revised recommendations. The Global Call to Action on Familial Hypercholesterolemia thus represents individuals with FH, advocacy leaders, scientific experts, policy makers, and the original authors of the 1998 World Health Organization report. Attendees from 40 countries brought perspectives on FH from low-, middle-, and high-income regions. Tables listing country-specific government support for FH care, existing country-specific and international FH scientific statements and guidelines, country-specific and international FH registries, and known FH advocacy organizations around the world were created. Conclusions and Relevance: By adopting the 9 updated public policy recommendations created for this document, covering awareness; advocacy; screening, testing, and diagnosis; treatment; family-based care; registries; research; and cost and value, individual countries have the opportunity to prevent atherosclerotic heart disease in their citizens carrying a gene associated with FH and, likely, all those with severe hypercholesterolemia as well.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e014272, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701795

RESUMO

See Article Cai et al.

9.
Ethn Dis ; 29(4): 545-548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641321
11.
Ethn Dis ; 29(3): 513-516, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367172

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are an emerging precision medicine tool based on multiple gene variants that, taken alone, have weak associations with disease risks, but collectively may enhance disease predictive value in the population. However, the benefit of PRS may not be equal among non-European populations, as they are under-represented in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that serve as the basis for PRS development. In this perspective, we discuss a path forward, which includes: 1) inclusion of underrepresented populations in PRS research; 2) global efforts to build capacity for genomic research; 3) equitable implementation of these tools in clinical practice; and 4) traditional public health approaches to reduce risk of adverse health outcomes as an important component to precision health. As precision medicine is implemented in clinical care, researchers must ensure that advances from PRS research will benefit all.

12.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 511-520, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395439

RESUMO

Advances in technologies for assessing genomic variation and an increasing understanding of the effects of genomic variants on health and disease are driving the transition of genomics from the research laboratory into clinical care. Genomic medicine, or the use of an individual's genomic information as part of their clinical care, is increasingly gaining acceptance in routine practice, including in assessing disease risk in individuals and their families, diagnosing rare and undiagnosed diseases, and improving drug safety and efficacy. We describe the major types and measurement tools of genomic variation that are currently of clinical importance, review approaches to interpreting genomic sequence variants, identify publicly available tools and resources for genomic test interpretation, and discuss several key barriers in using genomic information in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos
13.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 521-532, 2019 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395440

RESUMO

Genomic medicine, which uses DNA variation to individualise and improve human health, is the subject of this Series of papers. The idea that genetic variation can be used to individualise drug therapy-the topic addressed here-is often viewed as within reach for genomic medicine. We have reviewed general mechanisms underlying variability in drug action, the role of genetic variation in mediating beneficial and adverse effects through variable drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and drug actions (pharmacodynamics), available data from clinical trials, and ongoing efforts to implement pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética/métodos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos
14.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 533-540, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395441

RESUMO

One of the primary goals of genomic medicine is to improve diagnosis through identification of genomic conditions, which could improve clinical management, prevent complications, and promote health. We explore how genomic medicine is being used to obtain molecular diagnoses for patients with previously undiagnosed diseases in prenatal, paediatric, and adult clinical settings. We focus on the role of clinical genomic sequencing (exome and genome) in aiding patients with conditions that are undiagnosed even after extensive clinical evaluation and testing. In particular, we explore the impact of combining genomic and phenotypic data and integrating multiple data types to improve diagnoses for patients with undiagnosed diseases, and we discuss how these genomic sequencing diagnoses could change clinical management.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Doenças Raras/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Lancet ; 394(10198): 604-610, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395443

RESUMO

Human genomic sequencing has potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value across a wide breadth of clinical disciplines. One barrier to widespread adoption is the paucity of evidence for improved outcomes in patients who do not already have an indication for more focused testing. In this Series paper, we review clinical outcome studies in genomic medicine and discuss the important features and key challenges to building evidence for next generation sequencing in the context of routine patient care.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Padrão de Cuidado
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1264-1268, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466623
17.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 191-194, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324374

RESUMO

Stakeholder engagement is crucial for turning discovery into health. Although it is a highly effective approach for research in general, it is an essential component in late-stage translation research and implementation science in which the central objective is to accelerate the sustained uptake and integration of proven-effective interventions into routine clinical and public health practice. Where the stakeholder is an entire community, the term community engagement has often been used and has traditionally been defined as "the process of working collaboratively with groups of people who are affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being." More recently, this definition has been expanded to specifically incorporate pre-study needs assessment, shared decision making about study themes and specific aims, data collection and analysis, interpretation and dissemination of research findings, and plans for scale-up and spread of research findings. In this article, the authors explore the scientific foundations of stakeholder engagement in biomedical research and public health practice. They highlight the strategic vision goals and objectives of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the commitment to advance dissemination and implementation research and community-engaged participatory research. The authors conclude with comments on the stakeholder engagement efforts in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded TREIN/Hy-TREC consortium's work published in this issue of Global Heart and their perspectives on the challenges and opportunities as we chart the future together.


Assuntos
Ciência da Implementação , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Participação dos Interessados , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Circ Res ; 125(1): 7-13, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219738

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of mortality and a major contributor to preventable deaths worldwide. The dominant modifiable risk factors and the social and environmental determinants that increase cardiovascular risk are known, and collectively, are as important in racial and ethnic minority populations as they are in majority populations. Their prevention and treatment remain the foundation for cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention. Genetic and epigenetic factors are increasingly recognized as important contributors to cardiovascular risk and provide an opportunity for advancing precision cardiovascular medicine. In this review, we explore emerging concepts at the interface of precision medicine and cardiovascular disease in racial and ethnic minority populations. Important among these are the lack of racial and ethnic diversity in genomics studies and biorepositories; the resulting misclassification of benign variants as pathogenic in minorities; and the importance of ensuring ancestry-matched controls in variant interpretation. We address the relevance of epigenetics, pharmacogenomics, genetic testing and counseling, and their social and cultural implications. We also examine the potential impact of precision medicine on racial and ethnic disparities. The National Institutes of Health's All of Us Research Program and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative are presented as examples of research programs at the forefront of precision medicine and diversity to explore research implications in minorities. We conclude with an overview of implementation research challenges in precision medicine and the ethical implications in minority populations. Successful implementation of precision medicine in cardiovascular disease in minority populations will benefit from strategies that directly address diversity and inclusion in genomics research and go beyond race and ethnicity to explore ancestry-matched controls, as well as geographic, cultural, social, and environmental determinants of health.

20.
Ethn Dis ; 29(Suppl 1): 53-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906149
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