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1.
Elife ; 92020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258446

RESUMO

Telomere shortening is a presumed tumor suppressor pathway that imposes a proliferative barrier (the Hayflick limit) during tumorigenesis. This model predicts that excessively long somatic telomeres predispose to cancer. Here, we describe cancer-prone families with two unique TINF2 mutations that truncate TIN2, a shelterin subunit that controls telomere length. Patient lymphocyte telomeres were unusually long. We show that the truncated TIN2 proteins do not localize to telomeres, suggesting that the mutations create loss-of-function alleles. Heterozygous knock-in of the mutations or deletion of one copy of TINF2 resulted in excessive telomere elongation in clonal lines, indicating that TINF2 is haploinsufficient for telomere length control. In contrast, telomere protection and genome stability were maintained in all heterozygous clones. The data establish that the TINF2 truncations predispose to a tumor syndrome. We conclude that TINF2 acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that limits telomere length to ensure a timely Hayflick limit.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2150-2158, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510614

RESUMO

Universal mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) testing of colorectal cancer (CRC) is promoted as routine diagnostics to prescreen for Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the yield and experience of age-related molecular investigation for heritable and nonheritable causes of dMMR in CRC below age 70 to identify Lynch Syndrome. In a prospective cohort of 3602 newly diagnosed CRCs below age 70 from 19 hospitals, dMMR, MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, germline MMR gene and somatic MMR gene testing was assessed in daily practice. Yield was evaluated using data from the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA) and two regional genetic centers. Experiences of clinicians were evaluated through questionnaires. Participating clinicians were overwhelmingly positive about the clinical workflow. Pathologists routinely applied dMMR-testing in 84% CRCs and determined 10% was dMMR, largely due to somatic MLH1 hypermethylation (66%). Of those, 69% with dMMR CRC below age 70 without hypermethylation were referred for genetic testing, of which 55% was due to Lynch syndrome (hereditary) and 43% to somatic biallelic pathogenic MMR (nonhereditary). The prevalence of Lynch syndrome was 18% in CRC < 40, 1.7% in CRC age 40-64 and 0.7% in CRC age 65-69. Age 65-69 represents most cases with dMMR, in which dMMR due to somatic causes (13%) is 20 times more prevalent than Lynch syndrome. In conclusion, up to age 65 routine diagnostics of (non-)heritable causes of dMMR CRCs effectively identifies Lynch syndrome and reduces Lynch-like diagnoses. Above age 64, the effort to detect one Lynch syndrome patient in dMMR CRC is high and germline testing rarely needed.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 161-169, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) have a higher chance to benefit from poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) therapy if their tumor has a somatic or hereditary BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant. Current guidelines advise BRCA1/2 genetic predisposition testing for all OC patients, though this does not detect somatic variants. We assessed the feasibility of a workflow for universal tumor DNA BRCA1/2 testing of all newly diagnosed OC patients as a prescreen for PARPi treatment and cancer predisposition testing. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was obtained from OC patients in seven hospitals immediately after diagnosis or primary surgery. DNA was extracted, and universal tumor BRCA1/2 testing was then performed in a single site. Diagnostic yield, uptake, referral rates for genetic predisposition testing, and experiences of patients and gynecologists were evaluated. RESULTS: Tumor BRCA1/2 testing was performed for 315 (77.6%) of the 406 eligible OC samples, of which 305 (96.8%) were successful. In 51 of these patients, pathogenic variants were detected (16.7%). Most patients (88.2%) went on to have a genetic predisposition test. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were shown to be hereditary in 56.8% and somatic in 43.2% of patients. Participating gynecologists and patients were overwhelmingly positive about the workflow. CONCLUSIONS: Universal tumor BRCA1/2 testing in all newly diagnosed OC patients is feasible, effective, and appreciated by patients and gynecologists. Because many variants cannot be detected in DNA from blood, testing tumor DNA as the first step can double the identification rate of patients who stand to benefit most from PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Idoso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382694

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) gene cause the BAP1-tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS, OMIM 614327). BAP1-TPDS is associated with an increased risk of developing uveal melanoma (UM), cutaneous melanoma (CM), malignant mesothelioma (MMe), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), meningioma, cholangiocarcinoma, multiple non-melanoma skin cancers, and BAP1-inactivated nevi. Because of this increased risk, it is important to identify patients with BAP1-TPDS. The associated tumors are treated by different medical disciplines, emphasizing the need for generally applicable guidelines for initiating genetic analysis. In this study, we describe the path to identification of BAP1-TPDS in 21 probands found in the Netherlands and the family history at the time of presentation. We report two cases of de novo BAP1 germline mutations (2/21, 9.5%). Findings of this study combined with previously published literature, led to a proposal of guidelines for genetic referral. We recommend genetic analysis in patients with ≥2 BAP1-TPDS-associated tumors in their medical history and/or family history. We also propose to test germline BAP1 in patients diagnosed with UM <40 years, CM <18 years, MMe <50 years, or RCC <46 years. Furthermore, other candidate susceptibility genes for tumor types associated with BAP1-TPDS are discussed, which can be included in gene panels when testing patients.

6.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 38, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is complex and cumbersome yet important for the clinical management of the disease. Exome sequencing may provide a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients in a single genetic test. METHODS: In May 2013, we implemented exome sequencing in routine diagnostics for patients suffering from PIDs. This study reports the clinical utility and diagnostic yield for a heterogeneous group of 254 consecutively referred PID patients from 249 families. For the majority of patients, the clinical diagnosis was based on clinical criteria including rare and/or unusual severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, sometimes accompanied by autoimmune manifestations. Functional immune defects were interpreted in the context of aberrant immune cell populations, aberrant antibody levels, or combinations of these factors. RESULTS: For 62 patients (24%), exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in well-established PID genes. An exome-wide analysis diagnosed 10 additional patients (4%), providing diagnoses for 72 patients (28%) from 68 families altogether. The genetic diagnosis directly indicated novel treatment options for 25 patients that received a diagnosis (34%). CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/normas
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(2): K15-K19, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481156

RESUMO

Context Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 and can be diagnosed based on clinical, familial and/or genetic criteria. We present a family in which we found both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. Family description In our proband, we diagnosed MEN1. The mutation was not detected in her parents (DNA extracted from leucocytes). When her brother was found to harbor the same MEN1 mutation as our proband and, around the same time, their father was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine carcinoma, this tumor was investigated for the MEN1 mutation as well. In the histologic biopsy of this tumor, the same MEN1 mutation was detected as previously found in his children. Re-analysis of his blood using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) showed a minimal, but consistently decreased signal for the MEN1-specific MLPA probes. The deletion was confirmed in his son by high-resolution array analysis. Based on the array data, we concluded that the deletion was limited to the MEN1 gene and that the father had both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first reported family with combined germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. This study illustrates that germline mosaicism is important to consider in apparently sporadic de novo MEN1 mutations, because of its particular importance for genetic counseling, specifically when evaluating the risk for family members and when considering the possibility of somatic mosaicism in the parent with germline mosaicism.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Mosaicismo , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
8.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1553-1568, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311375

RESUMO

The variant curation guidelines published in 2015 by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) provided the genetics community with a framework to assess variant pathogenicity; however, these rules are not gene specific. Germline pathogenic variants in the CDH1 gene cause hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer, a clinically challenging cancer predisposition syndrome that often requires a multidisciplinary team of experts to be properly managed. Given this challenge, the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Hereditary Cancer Domain prioritized the development of the CDH1 variant curation expert panel (VCEP) to develop and implement rules for CDH1 variant classifications. Here, we describe the CDH1 specifications of the ACMG/AMP guidelines, which were developed and validated after a systematic evaluation of variants obtained from a cohort of clinical laboratory data encompassing ∼827,000 CDH1 sequenced alleles. Comparing previously reported germline variants that were classified using the 2015 ACMG/AMP guidelines to the CDH1 VCEP recommendations resulted in reduced variants of uncertain significance and facilitated resolution of variants with conflicted assertions in ClinVar. The ClinGen CDH1 VCEP recommends the use of these CDH1-specific guidelines for the assessment and classification of variants identified in this clinically actionable gene.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Alelos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(6): 848-857, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483665

RESUMO

This observational study aimed to investigate whether the reported association between family history (FH) of breast cancer (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC) and OC risks in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be explained by mutation position on the gene. In total, 3310 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers participating in a nationwide prospective cohort (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Netherlands) were included. FH was classified according to cancer occurrence in first-degree relatives (BC only, OC only, both, neither) and mutations were classified according to their position on the gene (OC cluster region (OCCR), BC cluster region, neither). The main outcome was OC occurrence. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to investigate the association between FH and OC risks before and after adjusting for mutation position. Of all women included, 202 were diagnosed with OC. A BC-only FH tended to be associated with lower OC risks when compared with a FH without BC/OC (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52-1.17; HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.33-1.07 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively) while an OC-only FH tended to be associated with higher risks (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.90-2.77; HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.70-4.37 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively). After adjusting for mutation position, association between FH and OC risks was slightly smaller in magnitude (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30; HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.34-1.21 for BC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively; HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.80-2.68; HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.44-4.02 for OC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), indicating that mutation position explains only part of the association. Considering the magnitude of the observed trend, we do not believe FH should be used to change counseling regarding OC prevention.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(7): 1594-1603, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351919

RESUMO

Purpose: In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer.Experimental Design: To identify mutations in known and novel cancer-predisposing genes, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing on germline DNA of 40 selected children and their parents. These children were diagnosed with cancer and had at least one of the following features: (1) intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies, (2) multiple malignancies, (3) family history of cancer, or (4) an adult type of cancer. We first analyzed the sequence data for germline mutations in 146 known cancer-predisposing genes. If no causative mutation was found, the analysis was extended to the whole exome.Results: Four patients carried causative mutations in a known cancer-predisposing gene: TP53 and DICER1 (n = 3). In another 4 patients, exome sequencing revealed mutations causing syndromes that might have contributed to the malignancy (EP300-based Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, ARID1A-based Coffin-Siris syndrome, ACTB-based Baraitser-Winter syndrome, and EZH2-based Weaver syndrome). In addition, we identified two genes, KDM3B and TYK2, which are possibly involved in genetic cancer predisposition.Conclusions: In our selected cohort of patients, pathogenic germline mutations causative or likely causative of the cancer phenotype were found in 8 patients, and two possible novel cancer-predisposing genes were identified. Therewith, our study shows the added value of sequencing beyond a cancer gene panel in selected patients, to recognize childhood cancer predisposition. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1594-603. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Exoma/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Genótipo , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517176

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe a snapshot of international genetic testing practices, specifically regarding the use of multigene panels, for hereditary breast/ovarian cancers. We conducted a survey through the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium, covering questions about 16 non-BRCA1/2 genes. Methods: Data were collected via in-person and paper/electronic surveys. ENIGMA members from around the world were invited to participate. Additional information was collected via country networks in the United Kingdom and in Italy. Results: Responses from 61 cancer genetics practices across 20 countries showed that 16 genes were tested by > 50% of the centers, but only six (PALB2, TP53, PTEN, CHEK2, ATM, and BRIP1) were tested regularly. US centers tested the genes most often, whereas United Kingdom and Italian centers with no direct ENIGMA affiliation at the time of the survey were the least likely to regularly test them. Most centers tested the 16 genes through multigene panels; some centers tested TP53, PTEN, and other cancer syndrome-associated genes individually. Most centers reported (likely) pathogenic variants to patients and would test family members for such variants. Gene-specific guidelines for breast and ovarian cancer risk management were limited and differed among countries, especially with regard to starting age and type of imaging and risk-reducing surgery recommendations. Conclusion: Currently, a small number of genes beyond BRCA1/2 are routinely analyzed worldwide, and management guidelines are limited and largely based on expert opinion. To attain clinical implementation of multigene panel testing through evidence-based management practices, it is paramount that clinicians (and patients) participate in international initiatives that share panel testing data, interpret sequence variants, and collect prospective data to underpin risk estimates and evaluate the outcome of risk intervention strategies.

13.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(2): 438-445, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177515

RESUMO

Context: Paraganglioma (PGL) has the highest degree of heritability among human neoplasms. Current clinical understanding of germline SDHA mutation carriers is limited. Objective: To estimate the contribution of SDHA mutations in PGL and to assess clinical manifestations and age-related penetrance. Design: Nationwide retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary referral centers in the Netherlands (multicenter). Patients: Germline SDHA analysis was performed in 393 patients with genetically unexplained PGL. Subsequently, 30 index SDHA mutation carriers and 56 nonindex carriers were studied. Main Outcome Measures: SDHA mutation detection yield, clinical manifestations, and SDHA-related disease penetrance. Results: Pathogenic germline SDHA variants were identified in 30 of the 393 referred patients with PGL (7.6%), who had head and neck PGL (21 of 174 [12%]), pheochromocytoma (4 of 191 [2%]), or sympathetic PGL (5 of 28 [18%]). The median age at diagnosis was 43 years (range, 17 to 81 years) in index SDHA mutation carriers compared with 52 years (range, 7 to 90 years) in nonmutation carriers (P = 0.002). The estimated penetrance of any SDHA-related manifestation was 10% at age 70 years (95% confidence interval, 0% to 21%) in nonindex mutation carriers. Conclusion: Germline SDHA mutations are relatively common (7.6%) in patients with genetically unexplained PGL. Most index patients presented with apparently sporadic PGL. In this SDHA series, the largest assembled so far, we found the lowest penetrance of all major PGL predisposition genes. This suggests that recommendations for genetic counseling of at-risk relatives and stringency of surveillance for SDHA mutation carriers might need to be reassessed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Paraganglioma/epidemiologia , Paraganglioma/patologia , Penetrância , Feocromocitoma/epidemiologia , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 507-515, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147930

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 394-405, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215764

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer patients with germline or somatic pathogenic variants benefit from treatment with poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Tumor BRCA1/2 testing is more challenging than germline testing as the majority of samples are formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE), the tumor genome is complex, and the allelic fraction of somatic variants can be low. We collaborated with 10 laboratories testing BRCA1/2 in tumors to compare different approaches to identify clinically important variants within FFPE tumor DNA samples. This was not a proficiency study but an inter-laboratory comparison to identify common issues. Each laboratory received the same tumor DNA samples ranging in genotype, quantity, quality, and variant allele frequency (VAF). Each laboratory performed their preferred next-generation sequencing method to report on the variants. No false positive results were reported in this small study and the majority of methods detected the low VAF variants. A number of variants were not detected due to the bioinformatics analysis, variant classification, or insufficient DNA. The use of hybridization capture or short amplicon methods are recommended based on a bioinformatic assessment of the data. The study highlights the importance of establishing standards and standardization for tBRCA testing particularly when the test results dictate clinical decisions regarding life extending therapies.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Padrões de Prática Médica , Biologia Computacional , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Éxons/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos
17.
Genet Med ; 19(6): 667-675, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Copy-number variation is a common source of genomic variation and an important genetic cause of disease. Microarray-based analysis of copy-number variants (CNVs) has become a first-tier diagnostic test for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, with a diagnostic yield of 10-20%. However, for most other genetic disorders, the role of CNVs is less clear and most diagnostic genetic studies are generally limited to the study of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and other small variants. With the introduction of exome and genome sequencing, it is now possible to detect both SNVs and CNVs using an exome- or genome-wide approach with a single test. METHODS: We performed exome-based read-depth CNV screening on data from 2,603 patients affected by a range of genetic disorders for which exome sequencing was performed in a diagnostic setting. RESULTS: In total, 123 clinically relevant CNVs ranging in size from 727 bp to 15.3 Mb were detected, which resulted in 51 conclusive diagnoses and an overall increase in diagnostic yield of ~2% (ranging from 0 to -5.8% per disorder). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that CNVs play an important role in a broad range of genetic disorders and that detection via exome-based CNV profiling results in an increase in the diagnostic yield without additional testing, bringing us closer to single-test genomics.Genet Med advance online publication 27 October 2016.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006765, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531214

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer predisposition caused by inactivating mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Mutations in the MSH6 DNA MMR gene account for approximately 18% of LS cases. Many LS-associated sequence variants are nonsense and frameshift mutations that clearly abrogate MMR activity. However, missense mutations whose functional implications are unclear are also frequently seen in suspected-LS patients. To conclusively diagnose LS and enroll patients in appropriate surveillance programs to reduce morbidity as well as mortality, the functional consequences of these variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS) must be defined. We present an oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis screen for the identification of pathogenic MSH6 VUS. In the screen, the MSH6 variant of interest is introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells by site-directed mutagenesis. Subsequent selection for MMR-deficient cells using the DNA damaging agent 6-thioguanine (6TG) allows the identification of MMR abrogating VUS because solely MMR-deficient cells survive 6TG exposure. We demonstrate the efficacy of the genetic screen, investigate the phenotype of 26 MSH6 VUS and compare our screening results to clinical data from suspected-LS patients carrying these variant alleles.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Tioguanina/toxicidade
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(2): 226-235, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27767231

RESUMO

With the recent introduction of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, a promising novel therapy has become available for ovarian carcinoma (OC) patients with inactivating BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in their tumor. To select patients who may benefit from these treatments, assessment of the mutation status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the tumor is required. For reliable evaluation of germline and somatic mutations in these genes in DNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, we have developed a single-molecule molecular inversion probe (smMIP)-based targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Our smMIP-based NGS approach provides analysis of both strands of the open reading frame of BRCA1 and BRCA2, enabling the discrimination between real variants and formalin-induced artefacts. The single molecule tag enables compilation of unique reads leading to a high analytical sensitivity and enabling assessment of the reliability of mutation-negative results. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) were used to detect exon deletions of BRCA1 and methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, respectively. Here, we show that this combined approach allows the rapid and reliable detection of both germline and somatic aberrations affecting BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA derived from FFPE OCs, enabling improved hereditary cancer risk assessment and clinical treatment of ovarian cancer patients.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Aconselhamento Genético , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Fam Cancer ; 16(2): 271-277, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27826806

RESUMO

Since the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands. Uptake for retinoblastoma (Rb) was compared with uptake for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and hereditary breast ovarian cancer (HBOC). A questionnaire was completed by all nine DNA-diagnostic laboratories assessing the number of independent mutation-positive families identified from the start of diagnostic testing until May 2013, and the number of PNDs performed for these syndromes within these families. Of 187 families with a known Rb-gene mutation, 22 had performed PND (11.8%), this was significantly higher than uptake for FAP (1.6%) and HBOC (<0.2%). For VHL (6.5%) and LFS (4.9%) the difference was not statistically significant. PND for Rb started 3 years after introduction of diagnostic DNA testing and remained stable over the years. For the other cancer syndromes PND started 10-15 years after the introduction and uptake for PND showed an increase after 2009. We conclude that uptake of PND for Rb was significantly higher than for FAP and HBOC, but not different from VHL and LFS. Early onset, high penetrance, lack of preventive surgery and perceived burden of disease may explain these differences.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Genes do Retinoblastoma/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Retinoblastoma/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Retinoblastoma/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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