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1.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior analyses suggest an association between formula-based plasma volume (PV) estimates and outcomes in heart failure (HF). We assessed the association between estimated PV-status by the Duarte-ePV and Kaplan Hakim (KH-ePVS) formulas, and in-hospital and post-discharge clinical outcomes, in the ASCEND-HF trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: KH-ePVS and Duarte-ePV were calculated on admission. We assessed associations with in-hospital worsening HF, 30-day composite cardiovascular mortality or HF rehospitalization and 180-day all-cause mortality. 6,373 (89.2%), and 6,354 (89.0%), patients had necessary characteristics to calculate KH-ePVS and Duarte-ePV, respectively. There was no association between PV by either formula with in-hospital worsening HF. KH-ePVS showed a weak correlation with NT-proBNP, and with measures of decongestion such as body weight change and urine output (r<0.3 for all). Duarte-ePV was trending towards an association with worse 30-day (adjusted-OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00-1.15, p=0.058), but not 180-day outcomes (adjusted-HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.97-1.09, p=0.289). Continuous KH-ePVS>0 (per 10 unit increase) was associated with improved 30-day outcomes (adjusted-OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.62-0.91, p=0.004). Continuous KH-ePVS was not associated with 180-day outcomes (adjusted-HR 1.05, 95%CI 0.98-1.12, p=0.139). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PV estimates had a weak association with in-hospital measures of decongestion. Duarte-ePV, trended towards an association with early clinical outcomes in decompensated HF, and may improve risk stratification in HF.

2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039449
3.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with acute decompensated heart failure have persistently poor clinical outcomes. Cognitive impairment (CI) may be a contributing factor. However, the prevalence of CI and the relationship of cognition with other patient-centered factors such a physical function and quality of life (QOL) that also may contribute to poor outcomes are incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Older (≥60 years) hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure were assessed for cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]), physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB], 6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), and QOL (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Short Form-12). Among patients (N = 198, 72.1 ± 7.6 years), 78% screened positive for CI (MoCA of <26) despite rare medical record documentation (2%). Participants also had severely diminished physical function (SPPB 6.0 ± 2.5 units, 6MWD 186 ± 100 m) and QOL (scores of <50). MoCA positively related to SPPB (ß = 0.47, P < .001), 6MWD ß = 0.01, P = .006) and inversely related to Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Score (ß = -0.05, P < .002) and Short Form-12 Physical Component Score (ß = -0.09, P = .006). MoCA was a small but significant predictor of the results on the SPPB, 6MWD, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Among older hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, CI is highly prevalent, is underrecognized clinically, and is associated with severe physical dysfunction and poor QOL. Formal screening may reduce adverse events by identifying patients who may require more tailored care.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910930

RESUMO

There is no clear consensus on a lower cutoff value for normal left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and the prognostic implications of low normal EF (LNEF) are poorly understood, particularly in Blacks. Therefore, we investigated the association of LNEF and incident heart failure (HF) in a community-based cohort of Blacks. We studied 3,669 participants (mean age 54 years, 63% women) of the Jackson Heart Study without prevalent HF or coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were divided into three groups: (1) Reduced EF (<50%), (2) LNEF (≥50%, <55%), and (3) Normal EF (≥55%). There were 197 cases of incident HF hospitalizations over a median follow-up of 10 years (interquartile range 9.4 to 10). After adjustment for conventional risk factors and incident CHD, the LNEF group had a higher rate of incident HF hospitalization than the Normal EF group (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.38, p<0.05). Furthermore, this relation remained statistically significant after additionally adjusting for LV mass index but was not significant after adjusting for LV diastolic dysfunction grade. In participants with LNEF with incident HF, 63% developed HF with reduced EF and 37% developed HF with preserved EF. In conclusion, LNEF is associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in comparison with normal EF in a community-based cohort of Blacks. In those with LNEF who went on to develop HF, most cases were HF with reduced EF. These findings suggest that strategies are needed for risk stratification and management to improve outcomes in patients with LNEF.

5.
Am Heart J ; 230: 59-62, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991845

RESUMO

Based on the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the United States, this study sought to evaluate real-world outcomes after bariatric surgery among patients with heart failure.

6.
Am Heart J ; 230: 25-34, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980363

RESUMO

Smoking is associated with incident heart failure (HF), yet limited data are available exploring the association between smoking status and long-term outcomes in HF with reduced vs. preserved ejection fraction (i.e., HFrEF vs. HFpEF). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of HF patients undergoing coronary angiography from 1990-2010. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and HF were stratified by EF (< 50% vs. ≥50%), smoking status (prior/current vs. never smoker), and level of smoking (light/moderate vs. heavy). Time-from-catheterization-to-event was examined using Cox proportional hazard modeling for all-cause mortality (ACM), ACM/myocardial infarction/stroke (MACE), and ACM/HF hospitalization with testing for interaction by HF-type (HFrEF vs. HFpEF). RESULTS: Of 14,406 patients with CAD and HF, 85% (n = 12,326) had HFrEF and 15% (n = 2080) had HFpEF. At catheterization, 61% of HFrEF and 57% of HFpEF patients had a smoking history. After adjustment, there was a significant interaction between HF-type and the association between smoking status and MACE (interaction P = .009). Smoking history was associated with increased risk for MACE in patients with HFrEF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18 [1.12-1.24]), but not HFpEF (HR 1.01 [0.90-1.12]). Active smokers had increased mortality following adjustment compared to former smokers regardless of HF-type (HFrEF HR 1.19 [1.06-1.32], HFpEF HR 1.30 [1.02-1.64], interaction P = .50). Heavy smokers trended towards increased risk of adverse outcomes versus light/moderate smokers; these findings were consistent across HF-type (interaction P > .12). CONCLUSION: Smoking history was independently associated with worse outcomes in HFrEF but not HFpEF. Regardless of HF-type, current smokers had higher risk than former smokers.

7.
Am Heart J ; 230: 35-43, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In PARADIGM-HF, sacubitril/valsartan improved quality of life (QOL) versus enalapril in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), yet limited data are available regarding QOL changes after sacubitril/valsartan initiation in routine practice. METHODS: PROVIDE-HF was a prospective study within a national research network (Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network) of HFrEF outpatients recently initiated on sacubitril/valsartan versus controls with recent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker initiation/dose change. The primary end point was mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) change through 12 weeks. Other end points included responder analyses: ≥5-point and ≥20-point KCCQ increase. Adjusted QOL change was estimated after propensity score weighting. RESULTS: Overall, 270 patients had both baseline and 12-week KCCQ data (151 sacubitril/valsartan; 119 control). The groups had similar demographics and HF details: median EF 28% and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide 1083 pg/mL. Sacubitril/valsartan patients had larger improvements in KCCQ (mean difference +4.76; P = .027) and were more likely to have a ≥5-point and ≥20-point response (all P < .05). Adjusted comparisons demonstrated similar numerical improvements in the change in KCCQ (+4.55; 95% CI -0.89 to 9.99; P = .101) and likelihood of ≥5-point increase (odds ratio 1.55; 95% CI: 0.84-2.86; P = .16); ≥20-point increase remained statistically significant (odds ratio 3.79; 95% CI 1.47-9.73; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective HFrEF study of sacubitril/valsartan initiation compared with recent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker initiation/dose change, the between-group difference in the primary end point, mean KCCQ change at 12 weeks was not statistically significant following adjustment, but sacubitril/valsartan initiation was associated with early improvements in QOL and a higher likelihood of ≥20-point improvement in KCCQ at 12 weeks. These data add additional real-world evidence related to patient-reported outcomes following the initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in routine clinical practice.

8.
Am Heart J ; 229: 1-17, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905873

RESUMO

Machine learning and artificial intelligence are generating significant attention in the scientific community and media. Such algorithms have great potential in medicine for personalizing and improving patient care, including in the diagnosis and management of heart failure. Many physicians are familiar with these terms and the excitement surrounding them, but many are unfamiliar with the basics of these algorithms and how they are applied to medicine. Within heart failure research, current applications of machine learning include creating new approaches to diagnosis, classifying patients into novel phenotypic groups, and improving prediction capabilities. In this paper, we provide an overview of machine learning targeted for the practicing clinician and evaluate current applications of machine learning in the diagnosis, classification, and prediction of heart failure.

9.
Stat Med ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823372

RESUMO

Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) refer to experiments with randomization carried out at the cluster or the group level. While numerous statistical methods have been developed for the design and analysis of CRTs, most of the existing methods focused on testing the overall treatment effect across the population characteristics, with few discussions on the differential treatment effect among subpopulations. In addition, the sample size and power requirements for detecting differential treatment effect in CRTs remain unclear, but are helpful for studies planned with such an objective. In this article, we develop a new sample size formula for detecting treatment effect heterogeneity in two-level CRTs for continuous outcomes, continuous or binary covariates measured at cluster or individual level. We also investigate the roles of two intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs): the adjusted ICC for the outcome of interest and the marginal ICC for the covariate of interest. We further derive a closed-form design effect formula to facilitate the application of the proposed method, and provide extensions to accommodate multiple covariates. Extensive simulations are carried out to validate the proposed formula in finite samples. We find that the empirical power agrees well with the prediction across a range of parameter constellations, when data are analyzed by a linear mixed effects model with a treatment-by-covariate interaction. Finally, we use data from the HF-ACTION study to illustrate the proposed sample size procedure for detecting heterogeneous treatment effects.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803900

RESUMO

The effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are modest or neutral. However, GLP-1RAs may confer clinical benefits in those at high risk of progressive renal function loss. We examined the effects of once-weekly exenatide (EQW) on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) as a function of baseline UACR in 3503 EXSCEL participants (23.7%) with eGFR data available and 2828 participants (19.2%) with UACR change data available. EQW improved eGFR slope assessed via mixed model repeated measures, compared with placebo, in participants with baseline UACR >100 mg/g (0.79 mL/min/1.73 m2 /year [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.24-1.34]) and UACR >200 mg/g (1.32 mL/min/1.73 m2 /year [95% CI 0.57-2.06]), but not at lower UACR thresholds. EQW reduced UACR, compared with placebo, assessed via analysis of covariance, consistently across subgroups with baseline UACR >30 mg/g (28.2% reduction), baseline UACR >100 mg (22.5% reduction) and baseline UACR >200 mg (34.5% reduction). This post hoc EXSCEL analysis suggests that EQW reduces UACR, with improvement in eGFR slope specifically in participants with elevated baseline UACR.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(4): 435-450, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703515

RESUMO

The role of percutaneous coronary interventions in addition to medical therapy for patients with stable coronary artery disease continues to be debated in routine clinical practice, despite more than 2 decades of randomized controlled trials. The residual uncertainty arises from particular challenges facing revascularization trials. Which endpoint do doctors care about, and which do patients care about? Which participants should be enrolled? What background medical therapy should we use? When is placebo control relevant? In this paper, we discuss how these questions can be approached and examine the merits and disadvantages of possible options. Engaging multiple stakeholders, including patients, researchers, regulators, and funders, to ensure the design elements are methodologically valid and clinically meaningful should be an aspirational goal in the development of future trials.

13.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(7): e006840, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660322

RESUMO

Biomarkers have a well-defined role in the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure, but their role in patients with left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplant is uncertain. In this review, we summarize the available literature in this patient population, with a focus on clinical application. Some ubiquitous biomarkers, for example, natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponin, may assist in the diagnosis of left ventricular assist device complications and transplant rejection. Novel biomarkers focused on specific pathological processes, such as left ventricular assist device thrombosis and profiling of leukocyte activation, continue to be developed and show promise in altering the management of the advanced heart failure patient. Few biomarkers at this time have been assessed with sufficient scrutiny to warrant broad, universal application, but encouraging limited data and large potential for impact should prompt ongoing investigation.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619081

RESUMO

The role of obesity in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF), and in particular HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), has drawn significant attention in recent years. The prevalence of both obesity and HFpEF has increased worldwide over the past decades and when present concomitantly suggests an obese-HFpEF phenotype. Anthropometrics, including body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, are associated with incident HFpEF. However, the cardiovascular effects of obesity may actually be driven by the distribution of fat, which can accumulate in the epicardial, visceral, and subcutaneous compartments. Regional fat can be quantified using non-invasive imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Regional variations in fat accumulation are associated with different HFpEF risk profiles, whereby higher epicardial and visceral fat have a much stronger association with HFpEF risk compared with elevated subcutaneous fat. Thus, regional adiposity may serve a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of HFpEF contributing to decreased cardiopulmonary fitness, impaired left ventricular compliance, upregulation of local and systemic inflammation, promotion of neurohormonal dysregulation, and increased intra-abdominal pressure and vascular congestion. Strategies to reduce total and regional adiposity have shown promise, including intensive exercise, dieting, and bariatric surgery programmes, but few studies have focused on HFpEF-related outcomes among obese. Further understanding the role these variable fat depots play in the progression of HFpEF and HFpEF-related hospitalizations may provide therapeutic targets in treating the obese-HFpEF phenotype.

16.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 21: 184-190, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive diseases in pregnancy have been associated with altered cardiac structure and function, yet these associations have not been systematically investigated in larger populations including African Americans. We evaluated the relationships between hypertensive diseases in pregnancy with cardiac structure and function later in life in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. METHODS: We investigated 1013 African American women sibships with echocardiographic measurements from the GENOA study (Phase II, 2000-05; Jackson, MS). Women were classified as self-reported nulliparous (n = 61), a history of normotensive pregnancies (n = 780), a history of a hypertensive pregnancies (n = 152), or a history of preeclampsia (n = 20). We compared adjusted associations among these 4 groups with echocardiographic measurements of cardiac structure and function using generalized estimating equations, accounting for familial clustering. RESULTS: Among 1013 women with echocardiographic data (mean age 62 ± 9.5 years), women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P = 0.043) compared to nulliparous women and higher left atrial systolic dimension (LASD) compared to women with a history of normotensive pregnancies (P = 0.010), After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. There were no statistically significant differences in other echocardiographic parameters among these groups. CONCLUSIONS: A history of hypertension in pregnancy is associated with lower LVEF later in life, compared to nulliparous women and higher LASD compared to women with a history of normotensive pregnancies. However, given the multiple comparisons considered, this finding should be interpreted cautiously and requires further study.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e014990, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517526

RESUMO

Background Blacks are disproportionately affected by stroke compared with whites; however, less is known about the relationship between stroke and cigarette smoking in blacks. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking and all incident stroke in the JHS (Jackson Heart Study). Methods and Results JHS participants without a history of stroke (n=4410) were classified by self-reported baseline smoking status into current, past (smoked at least 400 cigarettes/life), or never smokers at baseline (2000-2004). Current smokers were further classified by smoking intensity (number of cigarettes smoked per day [1-19 and ≥20]) and followed up for incident stroke (through 2015). Hazard ratios (HRs) for incident stroke for current and past smoking compared with never smoking were estimated with adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, the risk for stroke in current smokers was significantly higher compared with never smokers (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.60-3.83) but there was no significant difference between past smokers and never smokers (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.74-1.64). There was a dose-dependent increased risk of stroke with smoking intensity (HR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.38-3.86] and HR, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.47-5.28] for current smokers smoking 1-19 and ≥20 cigarettes/day, respectively). Conclusions In a large cohort of blacks, current cigarette smoking was associated with a dose-dependent higher risk of all stroke. In addition, past smokers did not have a significantly increased risk of all stroke compared with never smokers, which suggests that smoking cessation may have potential benefits in reducing the incidence of stroke in blacks.

18.
Circulation ; 142(3): 230-243, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) have multiple coexisting comorbidities. The temporal trends in the burden of comorbidities and associated risk of mortality among patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are not well established. METHODS: HF-related hospitalizations were sampled by stratified design from 4 US areas in 2005 to 2014 by the community surveillance component of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Acute decompensated HF was classified by standardized physician review and a previously validated algorithm. An ejection fraction <50% was considered HFrEF. A total of 15 comorbidities were abstracted from the medical record. Mortality outcomes were ascertained for up to 1-year postadmission by linking hospital records with death files. RESULTS: A total of 5460 hospitalizations (24 937 weighted hospitalizations) classified as acute decompensated HF had available ejection fraction data (53% female, 68% white, 53% HFrEF, 47% HFpEF). The average number of comorbidities was higher for patients with HFpEF versus HFrEF, both for women (5.53 versus 4.94; P<0.0001) and men (5.20 versus 4.82; P<0.0001). There was a significant temporal increase in the overall burden of comorbidities, both for patients with HFpEF (women: 5.17 in 2005-2009 to 5.87 in 2010-2013; men: 4.94 in 2005-2009 and 5.45 in 2010-2013) and HFrEF (women: 4.78 in 2005-2009 to 5.14 in 2010-2013; men: 4.62 in 2005-2009 and 5.06 in 2010-2013; P-trend<0.0001 for all). Higher comorbidity burden was significantly associated with higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality, with a stronger association noted for HFpEF (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 higher comorbidity, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.25] versus HFrEF (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.14]; P for interaction by HF type=0.02). The associated mortality risk per 1 higher comorbidity also increased significantly over time for patients with HFpEF and HFrEF, as well (P for interaction with time=0.002 and 0.02, respectively) Conclusions: The burden of comorbidities among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated HFpEF and HFrEF has increased over time, as has its associated mortality risk. Higher burden of comorbidities is associated with higher risk of mortality, with a stronger association noted among patients with HFpEF versus HFrEF.

19.
Am Heart J ; 226: 13-23, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502880

RESUMO

Little is known about the impact of accountable care organizations (ACO) on hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients, a high-cost and high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: We linked Medicare fee-for-service claims from 2013 to 2015 with data from American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-HF registry to compare HF care, post-discharge outcomes, and total annual Medicare spending by ACO status at discharge. METHODS: Using adjusted Cox models and accounting for competing risks of death, we compared all-cause mortality and readmission at 1 year by ACO status with reporting of hazard ratios (HR) and 99% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The study included 45,259 HF patients from 300 hospitals, with 21.1% assigned to an ACO. Patient characteristics were similar between the two groups with a few exceptions. The ACO patients lived in geographic areas with higher median income ($54400 [IQR $48600-65900] vs $52300 [$45900-61200], P < .0001). Compliance with four HF-specific quality measures was modestly higher in the ACO group (80% vs 76%, P < .0001). In adjusted analysis, ACO status was associated with similar all-cause readmission (HR: 1.03; 99% CI: 0.99, 1.07) but lower risk of 1-year mortality (HR: 0.85; 99% CI: 0.85, 0.90) compared with non-ACO status. Median Medicare spending in the calendar year of hospitalization was similar (ACO $42,737 [IQR $23,011-72,667] vs non-ACO $42,586 [$22,896-72,518], P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Among Medicare patients hospitalized for HF, participation in an ACO was associated with similar rates of all-cause readmission and no associated cost reductions compared with non-ACO status. There was a lower risk of 1-year mortality associated with ACO participation, which warrants further evaluation.


Assuntos
Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/economia , Medicare , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Am Heart J ; 226: 69-74, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521292

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease has an increased prevalence among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Cardiovascular disease and IPF share similar symptoms with overlapping demographics and risk factors for disease development. Common cellular mediators leading to disease development and progression have been identified in both the cardiovascular and pulmonary organ systems. In this context, discovery of new therapeutic targets and medical therapies could be mutually beneficial across cardiopulmonary diseases. Here we present (1) a clinical review of IPF for the cardiovascular clinician and (2) common cellular mechanisms responsible for fibrosis in the heart and lungs and (3) highlight future research considerations and the potential role of novel therapeutic agents which may be mutually beneficial in cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Algoritmos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico
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