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Nanoscale ; 10(38): 18186-18194, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246850


Current best-practice lithographic techniques are unable to meet the functional requirements needed to enable on-chip plasmonic devices capable of fully exploiting nanostructure properties reliant on a tailored nanostructure size, composition, architecture, crystallinity, and placement. As a consequence, numerous nanofabrication methods have emerged that address various weaknesses, but none have, as of yet, demonstrated a large-area processing route capable of defining organized surfaces of nanostructures with the architectural diversity and complexity that is routinely displayed in colloidal syntheses. Here, a hybrid fabrication strategy is demonstrated in which nanoimprint lithography is combined with templated dewetting and liquid-phase syntheses that is able to realize periodic arrays of complex noble metal nanostructures over square centimeter areas. The process is inexpensive, can be carried out on a benchtop, and requires modest levels of instrumentation. Demonstrated are three fabrication schemes yielding arrays of core-shell, core-void-shell, and core-void-nanoframe structures using liquid-phase syntheses involving heteroepitaxial deposition, galvanic replacement, and dealloying. With the field of nanotechnology being increasingly reliant on the engineering of desirable physicochemical responses through architectural control, the fabrication strategy provides a platform for advancing devices reliant on addressable arrays or the collective response from an ensemble of identical nanostructures.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(40): 34690-34698, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209944


Enhancing thermal energy transport across solid interfaces is of critical importance to a wide variety of applications ranging from energy systems and lighting devices to electronics. Nanoscale surface roughness is usually considered detrimental to interfacial thermal transport because of its role in phonon scattering. In this study, however, we demonstrate significant thermal conductance enhancements across metal-semiconductor interfaces by as much as 90% higher than that of the planar interfaces using engineered nanostructures fabricated by Au nanoparticle (NP)-assisted lithography, where self-assembled Au NPs are used as an efficient etching mask to pattern solid substrates over large surface areas. The enlarged interfacial contact area due to the presence of nanostructures is the main reason for the significantly enhanced thermal transport. It is further demonstrated that the conductance can be systematically tuned over a wide range through the use of the Au NP self-assembly process that is regulated by a sacrificial Sb layer whose thickness determines the size and density of the nanostructures produced. This strategy is tested on two technologically important semiconductors, Si and GaN, and their interfacial thermal conductance with Al being measured using the time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Moreover, the nanostructured interfaces can maintain the enhanced conductance for a temperature range of 30-110 °C-the operating temperatures commonly experienced by energy, lighting, and electronic devices. Our results could provide a wafer-scale and low-cost strategy for improving the thermal management of these devices.

Nanotechnology ; 28(28): 282002, 2017 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590253


One of the foremost challenges in nanofabrication is the establishment of a processing science that integrates wafer-based materials, techniques, and devices with the extraordinary physicochemical properties accessible when materials are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Such a merger would allow for exacting controls on nanostructure positioning, promote cooperative phenomenon between adjacent nanostructures and/or substrate materials, and allow for electrical contact to individual or groups of nanostructures. With neither self-assembly nor top-down lithographic processes being able to adequately meet this challenge, advancements have often relied on a hybrid strategy that utilizes lithographically-defined features to direct the assembly of nanostructures into organized patterns. While these so-called directed assembly techniques have proven viable, much of this effort has focused on the assembly of periodic arrays of spherical or near-spherical nanostructures comprised of a single element. Work directed toward the fabrication of more complex nanostructures, while still at a nascent stage, has nevertheless demonstrated the possibility of forming arrays of nanocubes, nanorods, nanoprisms, nanoshells, nanocages, nanoframes, core-shell structures, Janus structures, and various alloys on the substrate surface. In this topical review, we describe the progress made in the directed assembly of periodic arrays of these complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured substrates. The review is divided into three broad strategies reliant on: (i) the deterministic positioning of colloidal structures, (ii) the reorganization of deposited metal films at elevated temperatures, and (iii) liquid-phase chemistry practiced directly on the substrate surface. These strategies collectively utilize a broad range of techniques including capillary assembly, microcontact printing, chemical surface modulation, templated dewetting, nanoimprint lithography, and dip-pen nanolithography and employ a wide scope of chemical processes including redox reactions, alloying, dealloying, phase separation, galvanic replacement, preferential etching, template-mediated reactions, and facet-selective capping agents. Taken together, they highlight the diverse toolset available when fabricating organized surfaces of substrate-supported nanostructures.

Nano Lett ; 16(12): 7791-7797, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960449


The reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by borohydride is one of the foremost model catalytic reactions because it allows for a straightforward assessment of catalysts using the kinetic parameters extracted from the real-time spectroscopic monitoring of an aqueous solution. Crucial to its standing as a model reaction is a comprehensive mechanistic framework able to explain the entire time evolution of the reaction. While much of this framework is in place, there is still much debate over the cause of the induction period, an initial time interval where no reaction seemingly occurs. Here, we report on the simultaneous monitoring of the spectroscopic signal and the dissolved oxygen content within the aqueous solution. It reveals that the induction period is the time interval required for the level of dissolved oxygen to fall below a critical value that is dependent upon whether Au, Ag, or Pd nanoparticles are used as the catalyst. With this understanding, we are able to exert complete control over the induction period, being able to eliminate it, extend it indefinitely, or even induce multiple induction periods over the course of a single reaction. Moreover, we have determined that the reaction product, 4-aminophenol, in the presence of the same catalyst reacts with dissolved oxygen to form 4-nitrophenolate. The implication of these results is that the induction period relates, not to some activation of the catalyst, but to a time interval where the reaction product is being rapidly transformed back into a reactant by a side reaction.

ACS Nano ; 10(6): 6354-62, 2016 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172588


Galvanic replacement reactions carried out on solid core-shell structures typically yield a noble metal nanorattle geometry in which a mobile core is contained within a hollowed shell. Here, we adapt this colloidal synthesis to substrate-based structures to obtain a fundamentally altered product in which an immobilized core is separated from the shell by a well-defined gap, an architecture unobtainable using colloidal techniques and that offers unique advantages in terms of generating plasmonic near-field effects within the confines of a single structure. In the devised route, Wulff-shaped templates of Au, Pt, or Pd, formed through the dewetting of ultrathin films, are first transformed into core-shell structures through the reduction of Ag(+) ions onto their surface and then further transformed through the galvanic replacement of Ag with Au. Through suitable adjustments to the shell geometry, the epitaxial relationship with the substrate, and the extent to which the shell is replaced, it is possible to generate an entire family of nanostructures in which a Wulff-shaped core is confined within a nanoshell, nanocage, or nanoframe, where, in all cases, bonds formed between the structure and the substrate preclude motion. With the potential to tune the gap width, the geometry of the confining structure, and the composition of the core, shell, and substrate, these structures could find application as catalytic nanoreactors able to drive both single-step and cascade reactions or as plasmon-based sensing elements for biological and chemical detection.