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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197475

RESUMO

Adolescence is a stage when individuals are especially vulnerable to the influence of their peer group, which could lead to the development of problematic behavior, such as drinking alcohol, due to perceived pressure. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of self-esteem, impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity and expectations for use under perceived pressure to drink alcohol among young people. METHODS: The sample was made up of 1287 high school students aged 14 to 18, with a mean age of 15.11. The Bayes factor and mediation models were estimated to evaluate the data. RESULTS: The results showed the existence of a positive relationship of impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity and expectations for use with perceived pressure. However, this relationship was negative with self-esteem and perception of pressure to drink alcohol. Furthermore, the model results showed that self-esteem mediates the relationship between physical, cognitive and social anxiety sensitivity and positive expectations with perceived pressure to drink alcohol in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Given the strong need for affiliation during youth, it is hard to control grouping and peer influence on drinking behavior. However, knowledge of the role of individual variables, such as those described here, in perceived pressure could improve the prevention and intervention of such behaviors.

2.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1447, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729883

RESUMO

In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13-18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

3.
Alzheimer (Barc., Internet) ; (59): 21-28, ene.-abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131936

RESUMO

Fundamento y objetivo: una de las quejas más frecuentes entre la población anciana son los fallos en la memoria cotidiana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar los efectos de un programa de estimulación cognitiva e inteligencia emocional para mayores sobre la memoria cotidiana. Material y método: en un grupo de 28 sujetos, mayores de 55 años, se aplicó el Cuestionario de fallos en la memoria cotidiana (MFE), antes y después de participar en el programa de entrenamiento. Resultados: tras 20 sesiones, se constató una mejora (puntuaciones medias más bajas en fallos de memoria) en cada uno de los factores (recuerdo de actividades, reconocimiento y monitorización de la comunicación), así como en la puntuación global del MFE. Conclusiones: en general, los resultados en quejas subjetivas de memoria son positivos con respecto a las puntuaciones obtenidas antes de las sesiones. No obstante, se espera que con la implementación del resto de sesiones, estas mejoras resulten significativas. Para la segunda fase de implementación del programa, se han incorporado nuevos contenidos y actividades, para seguir trabajando en línea con estos resultados (AU)


Principles and purpose: One of the most frequent complaints by the older population is failure of their day-to-day memory. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of a program for Cognitive Stimulation and Emotional Intelligence for Seniors on day-to-day memory. Materials and method: A group of 28 subjects over 55 years of age were given the Questionnaire on Failure of Day-to-Day Memory, before and after participating in the training program. Results: After 20 sessions, an improvement was shown (lower mean scores in memory failure) in each of the factors (memory of activities, recognition and monitoring of communication), as well as in the overall MFE score. Conclusions: In general, the results in subjective memory complaints are positive with respect to the scores before sessions. However, these improvements are expected to become significant with the implementation of the rest of the sessions. New content and activities have been included in the second stage of program implementation to continue working along the line of these results (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Amnésia Retrógrada/complicações , Amnésia Retrógrada/epidemiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/instrumentação , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/tendências , Cognição/fisiologia , Planos e Programas de Saúde/tendências , Relações Interpessoais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Declaração de Helsinki , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia
4.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 26(4): 524-530, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-128430

RESUMO

Background: In recent years, diverse studies have been carried out revealing many benefits of high levels of Emotional Intelligence (EI) for the older population, affecting their physical and mental health, cognitive capacity, social functioning, and, ultimately, their well-being and quality of life. However, in Spain, there is no reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of EI. Hence, the goal of this work is the adaptation of the Emotional Intelligence Inventory: Young Version to the population of older university students. Method: To achieve this goal, two studies were carried out (the first one of calibration, and the second of validation) with students from two Seniors Citizens’ Universities (Almería and Oviedo). Results: The results indicate that the instrument is reliable and structurally valid, although some doubts emerged about the appropriateness of one of the fi ve factors (stress management) within this structure. Conclusions: The use of the EQ-i-M20 is recommended, although new studies are needed to shed light on the role of the factor stress management within the EI construct (AU)


Antecedentes: en los últimos años se han realizado diversos estudios que revelan la existencia de múltiples beneficios que en la población mayor logran altos niveles de Inteligencia Emocional (IE) sobre la salud física, la salud mental, la capacidad cognitiva, el funcionamiento social y, en definitiva, sobre el bienestar y la calidad de vida. No obstante, no existe en nuestro país un instrumento fiable y válido para la evaluación de la IE. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido la adaptación del Emotional Intelligence Inventory: Young Version a la población de mayores universitarios. Método: para conseguir este objetivo han sido llevados a cabo dos estudios (el primero de calibración y el segundo de validación) con estudiantes de dos Universidades de Mayores (Almería y Oviedo). Resultados: los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es fiable y estructuralmente válido, surgiendo alguna duda respecto de la idoneidad dentro de esta estructura de uno de los cinco factores (manejo del estrés). Conclusiones: se recomienda el uso del EQ-i-M20, aunque son necesarios nuevos estudios que aporten luz sobre el papel del factor manejo del estrés dentro del constructo IE (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Inteligência Emocional , Estresse Psicológico , Análise de Dados , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saúde do Idoso , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Psicothema ; 26(4): 524-30, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25340901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, diverse studies have been carried out revealing many benefits of high levels of Emotional Intelligence (EI) for the older population, affecting their physical and mental health, cognitive capacity, social functioning, and, ultimately, their well-being and quality of life. However, in Spain, there is no reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of EI. Hence, the goal of this work is the adaptation of the Emotional Intelligence Inventory: Young Version to the population of older university students. METHOD: To achieve this goal, two studies were carried out (the first one of calibration, and the second of validation) with students from two Seniors Citizens' Universities (Almería and Oviedo). RESULTS: The results indicate that the instrument is reliable and structurally valid, although some doubts emerged about the appropriateness of one of the five factors (stress management) within this structure. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the EQ-i-M20 is recommended, although new studies are needed to shed light on the role of the factor stress management within the EI construct.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Testes de Inteligência , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Univ. psychol ; 13(3): 995-1004, jul.-set. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-745676

RESUMO

Este trabajo analiza la influencia del Optimismo Disposicional y los Cinco Grandes factores de la personalidad en la percepción de salud de los mayores, así como el análisis que optimistas y pesimistas realizan respecto a su salud. La muestra está formada de 498 personas mayores (M = 63.3 años y DE = 8.55). Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que las personas optimistas muestran mejor percepción de su salud y menores niveles de Disfunción Social y Depresión. El factor Neuroticismo influye en los Síntomas Somáticos, Ansiedad, Disfunción Social y Depresión y es un factor clave en la relación que se establece entre el Optimismo Disposicional y la subescala de Depresión. Por otra parte, el Optimismo, solo influye directamente en la subescala Disfunción Social.


This work studies the influence of Dispositional Optimism and the "Big Five" personality factors on older peoples' self-rated health and it examines optimists' and pessimists' analyses of their own health. The sample is made up of 498 older people (M = 63.3 years and SD = 8.55). The results reveal that optimists have a better perception of their health and lower levels of social dysfunction and depression. The Neuroticism factor affects to the Somatic Symptoms, Anxiety, Social Dysfunction, and Depression; and is a key factor in the relation established between Dispositional Optimism and the subscale of Depression. However, Optimism only directly affects the subscale Social Dysfunction.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Personalidade
7.
An. psicol ; 28(3): 946-953, oct.-dic. 2012. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-102666

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido relacionar el deterioro cognitivo en las personas mayores con la conservación de aquellas actividades de la vida cotidiana que resultan más complejas y que les proporcionan un estado de autonomía avanzado. La muestra ha estado compuesta por 472 pacientes (163 varones y 309 mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 102 años. El diseño se corresponde con un estudio descriptivo correlacional de investigación evaluativa. Resultados. Se analizan los resultados obtenidos a través de la contestación a los instrumentos de evaluación SPMQ (Pfeiffer) y ESENP, contemplando el estado mental de los pacientes y comprobando el manejo de estos en cuanto a la realización de actividades de la vida diaria, así como la relación entre ambos factores teniendo en cuenta además si existen diferencias en función de las edades y el género. Conclusiones. Los datos registrados de este estudio muestran la relación que existe entre el deterioro cognitivo y la autonomía personal en personas mayores lo que permite definir con precisión qué necesidades reales demanda la población futura en cuanto a servicios sociales comunitarios, pudiéndolos utilizar con la intención de optimizar y ampliar dichos servicios (AU)


The aim of this work has been to relate the cognitive impairment in elderly people to the preservation of those daily life activities that turn out to be more complex and that provide them with a state of advanced autonomy. The sample has been composed of 472 patients (163 males and 309 women), at ages understood between 60 and 102 years. The design corresponds to the correlational descriptive study of evaluative investigation. Results. The results obtained have been analyzed though the answers to the instruments of evaluation SPMQ (Pfeiffer) and ESENP, contemplating the mental condition of the patients and verifying their managing of the daily life activities, as well as the relation between both factors taking into account differences depending on the ages and sexes. Conclusions. The information registered in this study shows us the relation that exists between cognitive deterioration and the personal autonomy in elderly people what allows to define accurately the real needs of the future population as for social community services, being able to use them with the intention of optimizing and extending the above mentioned services (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Pacientes Domiciliares/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Cognição/classificação , Autonomia Pessoal , Envelhecimento/fisiologia
8.
An. psicol ; 27(3): 871-876, oct.-dic. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-94328

RESUMO

La consecuencia más inmediata del envejecimiento de la población actual, es el incremento de la dependencia. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo, es dar a conocer la prevalencia del nivel de dependencia para las actividades básicas e instrumentales en la población mayor de 60 años, en función del género, estado civil y la edad, seleccionando una muestra total de 1.222 personas. El nivel de dependencia es mayor entre las mujeres para casi todas las actividades básicas, siendo también las personas viudas las que mayores niveles medios de dependencia presentan y para todas las actividades, tanto básicas como instrumentales. Se observa una correlación positiva entre el aumento de la edad y el aumento de la dependencia, salvo en la actividad básica relacionada con comer. Podemos conocer los grupos y las características de las personas dependientes, lo que permite, no sólo la estimación de los recursos necesarios para su atención, sino también la posibilidad de trabajar en esos grupos con carácter preventivo (AU)


The most immediate consequence of aging is the dependent population growth. For this purpose, the aim of this study is to show the prevalence of dependence on basic and instrumental activities of daily living among the population older than 60 years old, depending on the gender, the marital status and the age, in a total sample of 1.222 people. The dependency level is higher among women, in nearly all basic activities, being the widow people who have shown the highest average dependency rate and for both, basic and instrumental activities. We have observed that there is a positive correlation between the increase of aging and the increase of dependence, except in the basic activity of eating. We can know the groups and features of dependant people, so it leads us, not only to estimate the resources needed to assist them but also the possibility of carrying out preventive work among those groups (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Prevalência , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Hospitais Geriátricos , Idoso/psicologia , Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/economia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos
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