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Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(10): 835-849, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510809


Introduction: The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is increasing with the aging population. Prognosis and overall survival (OS) remain poor in elderly patients and in those not eligible for intensive treatment. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) have played an important role in this group of patients but their efficacy is limited. Areas covered: This article reviews the mechanism of action, pharmacology, safety profile and clinical efficacy of subcutaneous guadecitabine, a second-generation DNA methylation inhibitor in development for the treatment of AML and MDS. Expert opinion: Although guadecitabine did not yield improved complete remission (CR) rates and OS compared to the control arm in patients with treatment-naïve AML who were ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, subgroup analysis in patients who received ≥4 cycles of therapy demonstrated superior outcomes in favor of guadecitabine. Given its stability, ease of administration, safety profile and prolonged exposure time, guadecitabine would be the more appropriate HMA, replacing azacitidine and decitabine, to be used combination treatment regimens in patients with myeloid malignancies.

Azacitidina/análogos & derivados , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/efeitos adversos , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(6): 1522-1527, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499738


In clinical practice, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are usually classified in low or high-risk groups to take therapeutic decisions, conservative for low-risk, whereas active for high-risk. Nevertheless, in the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) is not well stated which patients are low or high-risk. This study was aimed to ascertain in 364 MDS patients which IPSS-R threshold better dichotomized in low vs. high-risk. The best dichotomization was obtained with an IPSS-R cut-point of 3. Accordingly, 68% patients were classified as low-risk (median OS, 61.3 months) and 32% as high-risk MDS (median OS, 13.9 months) (p < .001). Interestingly, the intermediate IPSS-R risk patients presented an OS more related to the high IPSS-R than to the low IPSS-R risk group. In conclusion, an IPSS-R cut-point of 3 led to a meaningful stratification in low and high-risk that can be helpful for the clinical management of MDS patients.

Ann Hematol ; 97(8): 1349-1356, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572561


The coexistence of autoimmune disorders (AD) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) has been widely recognized, although with distinct results regarding their prevalence and impact on the outcomes of the underlying hematological process. This study was aimed to analyze the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of MDS with AD in a series of 142 patients diagnosed with MDS and CMML. AD was ascertained by both the presence of clinical symptoms or compatible serological tests. In total, 48% patients were diagnosed as having AD, being hypothyroidism the most commonly reported clinical AD (8%) and antinuclear antibodies the most frequent serological parameter identified (23.2%). The presence of AD was associated with female gender, lower hemoglobin levels, and higher IPSS-R. Overall survival for patients with AD was inferior to those with no AD (69 vs. 88% at 30 months; HR 2.75, P = 0.008). Notably, clinical but not isolated immune serological parameters had an impact on the outcomes of patients with AD. Finally, in a multivariate analysis, the presence of AD (HR 2.26) along with disease risk categories (very low and low vs. intermediate, high, and very high IPSS-R; HR 4.62) retained their independent prognostic value (P < 0.001). In conclusion, AD are prevalent in MDS and CMML patients and have prognostic implications, especially in lower-risk MDS patients.

Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
Lancet Haematol ; 2(6): e260-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26688236


BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the ability of recently developed prognostic indices for myelodysplastic syndromes to identify patients with poor prognoses within the lower-risk (low and intermediate-1) categories defined by the International Prognosis Scoring System (IPSS). METHODS: We included patients with de-novo myelodysplastic syndromes diagnosed between Nov 29, 1972, and Dec 15, 2011, who had low or intermediate-1 IPSS scores and were in the Spanish Registry of Myelodysplastic Syndromes. We reclassified these patients with the new prognostic indices (revised IPSS [IPSS-R], revised WHO-based Prognostic Scoring System [WPSS-R], Lower Risk Scoring System [LRSS], and the Grupo Español de Síndromes Mielodisplásicos [Spanish Group of Myelodysplastic Syndromes; GESMD]) and calculated the overall survival of the different risk groups within each prognostic index to identify the groups of patients with overall poor prognoses (defined as an expected overall survival <30 months). We calculated overall survival with the Kaplan-Meier method. FINDINGS: We identified 2373 patients. None of the prognostic indices could be used to identify a population with poor prognoses (median overall survival <30 months) for the patients with low IPSS scores (1290 individuals). In the group with intermediate-1 scores (1083 individuals), between 17% and 47% of patients were identified as having poor prognoses with the new prognostic indices. The LRSS had the best model fit with the lowest value in the Akaike information criteria test, whereas the IPSS-R identified the largest proportion of patients with poor prognoses (47%). Patients with intermediate-1 scores who were classified as having poor prognoses by one or more prognostic index (646 [60%] individuals) had worse median overall survival (33·1 months, 95% CI 28·4-37·9) than did patients who were classified as having low risk by all prognostic indices (63·7 months, 49·5-78·0], HR 1·9, 95% CI 1·6-2·3, p<0·0001) INTERPRETATION: Recently proposed prognostic indices for myelodysplastic syndromes can be used to improve identification of patients with poor prognoses in the group of patients with intermediate-1 IPSS scores, who could potentially benefit from a high-risk treatment approach. FUNDING: None.

Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/classificação , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida