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1.
J Neurooncol ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies describe sleep-wake disturbances in pediatric craniopharyngioma, but none have determined the prevalence or associated predictors of excessive sleepiness in this group after diagnosis and prior to post-operative observation or adjuvant radiotherapy. In this study, we report sleep-wake disturbances in children and adolescents with craniopharyngioma and associated clinical and treatment variables. METHODS: After surgery and prior to radiotherapy or observation, pediatric patients (n = 110) with craniopharyngioma ≥ 3 years old completed a baseline sleep clinic evaluation by a pediatric sleep specialist, polysomnography (PSG) and next-day multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). MSLT was limited to those ≥ 6 years old. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between patient characteristics and the presence and type of hypersomnia. RESULTS: Amongst patients completing PSG and MSLT, 80% had polygraphic evidence of excessive daytime sleepiness. Hypersomnia due to medical condition was diagnosed in 45% and narcolepsy in 35%. Overweight or obese patients were more likely to be diagnosed with hypersomnia (P = 0.012) or narcolepsy (P = 0.009). Grade 2 hypothalamic involvement (HI) at diagnosis was associated with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the prevalence and associated predictors of hypersomnia for patients with craniopharyngioma after surgical resection. HI was predictive of narcolepsy diagnosis, and a higher body mass index z-score was associated with hypersomnia due to medical condition and narcolepsy. We recommend that sleep assessment and intervention begin after surgical resection, especially in overweight or obese patients and those with extensive tumors.

2.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 57, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326973

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is most commonly diagnosed based on imaging criteria, with biopsy often reserved for pontine tumors with imaging features not typical for DIPG (atypical DIPG, 'aDIPG'). The histopathologic and molecular spectra of the clinical entity aDIPG remain to be studied systematically. In this study, thirty-three patients with newly diagnosed pontine-centered tumors with imaging inconsistent with DIPG for whom a pathologic diagnosis was subsequently obtained were included. Neoplasms were characterized by routine histology, immunohistochemistry, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, Sanger and next-generation DNA/RNA sequencing, and genome-wide DNA methylome profiling. Clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes were analyzed and compared to those of a contemporary cohort with imaging features consistent with DIPG (typical DIPG, 'tDIPG'). Blinded retrospective neuroimaging review assessed the consistency of the initial imaging-based diagnosis and correlation with histopathology. WHO grade II-IV infiltrating gliomas were observed in 54.6% of the cases; the remaining were low-grade gliomas/glioneuronal tumors or CNS embryonal tumors. Histone H3 K27M mutation, identified in 36% of the cases, was the major prognostic determinant. H3 K27M-mutant aDIPG and H3 K27M-mutant tDIPG had similar methylome profiles but clustered separately from diffuse midline gliomas of the diencephalon and spinal cord. In the aDIPG cohort, clinicoradiographic features did not differ by H3 status, yet significant differences in clinical and imaging features were observed between aDIPG without H3 K27M mutation and tDIPG. Neuroimaging review revealed discordance between the classification of aDIPG and tDIPG and did not correlate with the histology of glial/glioneuronal tumors or tumor grade. One patient (3.1%) developed persistent neurologic deficits after surgery; there were no surgery-related deaths. Our study demonstrates that surgical sampling of aDIPG is well-tolerated and provides significant diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications, and that neuroimaging alone is insufficient to distinguish aDIPG from tDIPG. H3 K27M-mutant aDIPG is epigenetically and clinically similar to H3 K27M-mutant tDIPG.

3.
J Neurooncol ; 147(1): 195-203, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the rate and magnitude of neurologic symptom change during radiation therapy (RT) and impact of symptom change on survival outcomes in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). METHODS: From 2006 to 2014, 108 patients with newly diagnosed DIPG were treated with conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) to 54 Gy (median) at our institution. The presence and severity of neurologic symptoms related to cranial neuropathy (CN) and cerebellar (CB) and long-tract (LT) signs was reviewed before and weekly during RT for each patient. The rate and magnitude of change for each symptom category was evaluated according to accumulated RT dose. The impact of clinical factors and radiation dose-volume parameters was determined using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Median dose to first sign of symptomatic improvement was 16.2 Gy (CN), 19.8 Gy (LT) and 21.6 Gy (CB). Most patients showed an improvement by 20 Gy. Larger uninvolved brainstem volume, alone or normalized to total brain (TB) or posterior fossa volume (PF), was associated with shorter time to LT sign improvement (P = 0.044, P = 0.033, and P = 0.05, respectively). Patients with any improvement in CN experienced significantly, yet modestly, prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.002 and P = 0.008, respectively). Tumor volume, with or without normalization to TB or PF, was not significantly associated with PFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS: Low cumulative RT doses resulted in neurologic improvement in most patients with DIPG. The volume of brainstem spared by tumor influenced time to symptomatic improvement. Neurologic improvement during RT was associated with superior survival.

4.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of unresectable pediatric low-grade glioma and glioneuronal tumor (LGG/LGGNT) is controversial. There are no validated prognostic features to guide use of radiation therapy (RT). Our study aimed to identify negative prognostic features in patients treated with RT using clinicopathologic and molecular data and validate these findings in an external dataset. METHODS: Children with non-metastatic, biopsy-proven unresectable LGG/LGGNT treated with RT at a single institution between 1997 and 2017 were identified. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to stratify patients into low- and high-risk prognostic groups based on overall survival (OS). CNS9702 data were used for validation. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients met inclusion criteria. Median follow-up was 11.4 years. RPA yielded low- and high-risk groups with 10-year OS of 95.6% vs. 76.4% (95% CI: 88.7% - 98.4% vs. 59.3% - 87.1%, p=0.003), respectively. These risk groups were validated using CNS9702 dataset (n=48) (4-year OS: low-risk vs. high-risk: 100% vs. 64%, p<0.001). High-risk tumors included diffuse astrocytoma or location within thalamus/midbrain. Low-risk tumors included pilocytic astrocytoma/ganglioglioma located outside of the thalamus/midbrain. In the subgroup with known BRAF status (n=49), risk stratification remained prognostic independent of BRAF alteration (V600E or fusion). Within the high-risk group, delayed RT, defined as RT after at least one line of chemotherapy, was associated with a further decrement in overall survival (p=0.021). CONCLUSION: A high-risk subgroup of patients, defined by diffuse astrocytoma histology or midbrain/thalamus tumor location, have suboptimal long-term survival and might benefit from timely use of RT. These results require validation.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(11): 1175-1185, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an aggressive, early-childhood brain tumor without standard effective treatment. To our knowledge, we conducted the first AT/RT-specific cooperative group trial, ACNS0333, to examine the efficacy and safety of intensive postoperative chemotherapy and focal radiation to treat AT/RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients from birth to 22 years of age with AT/RT were eligible. After surgery, they received 2 courses of multiagent chemotherapy, followed by 3 courses of high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell rescue and involved-field radiation therapy. Timing of radiation was based on patient age and disease location and extent. Central testing of tumor and blood for SMARCB1 status was mandated. Tumor molecular subclassification was performed retrospectively. The primary analysis was event-free survival (EFS) for patients < 36 months of age compared with a cooperative groups' historical cohort. Although accrual was based on the therapeutic question, potential prognostic factors, including age, tumor location, M stage, surgical resection, order of therapy, germline status, and molecular subtype, were explored. RESULTS: Of 65 evaluable patients, 54 were < 36 months of age. ACNS0333 therapy significantly reduced the risk of EFS events in patients < 36 months of age compared with the historical cohort (P < .0005; hazard rate, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.66). Four-year EFS and overall survival for the entire cohort were 37% (95% CI, 25% to 49%) and 43% (95% CI, 31% to 55%), respectively. Timing of radiation did not affect survival, and 91% of relapses occurred by 2 years from enrollment. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The ACNS0333 regimen dramatically improved survival compared with historical therapies for patients with AT/RT. Clinical characteristics and molecular subgrouping suggest prognostic differences. ACNS0333 results lay a foundation on which to build future studies and incorporate testing of new therapeutic agents.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 692, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959839

RESUMO

Cranial radiation therapy is associated with white matter-specific brain injury, cortical volume loss, mineralization, microangiopathy and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis, neurocognitive testing and 3 T brain MRI's were obtained in 101 survivors treated with cranial radiation. Small focal intracerebral hemorrhages only visible on exquisitely sensitive MRI sequences were identified and localized using susceptibility weighted imaging. Modified Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of cranial radiation on cumulative number and location of microbleeds in each brain region, and multiple linear regression was used to evaluate microbleeds on neurocognitive outcomes, adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex. At least one microbleed was present in 85% of survivors, occurring more frequently in frontal lobes. Radiation dose of 24 Gy conveyed a 5-fold greater risk (95% CI 2.57-10.32) of having multiple microbleeds compared to a dose of 18 Gy. No significant difference was found in neurocognitive scores with either the absence or presence of microbleeds or their location. Greater prevalence of microbleeds in our study compared to prior reports is likely related to longer time since treatment, better sensitivity of SWI for detection of microbleeds and the use of a 3 T MRI platform.

7.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(1): 172-180, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess disease outcomes and late toxicities in pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma treated with conformal photon radiation therapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty-eight patients (median age, 6.9 years) were treated with conformal photon RT to the primary site on a prospective clinical trial. Target volumes included a 1-cm expansion encompassing microscopic disease. Prescribed doses were 36 Gy to this target volume and 50.4 Gy to gross residual disease. Chemotherapy consisted of vincristine/dactinomycin (n = 6), vincristine/dactinomycin/cyclophosphamide (n = 37), or vincristine/dactinomycin/cyclophosphamide-based combinations (n = 25). Patients were evaluated with primary-site magnetic resonance imaging, whole-body [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, and chest computed tomography for 5 years after treatment. RESULTS: Five-year disease-free survival was 88% for low-risk (n = 8), 76% for intermediate-risk (n = 37), and 36% for high-risk (n = 23) patients (P ≤ .01 for low risk/intermediate risk vs high risk). The cumulative incidence of local failure (LF) at 5 years for the entire cohort was 10.4%. Tumor size at diagnosis was a significant predictor of LF (P < .01). Patients with head and neck primary tumors (n = 31) had a 35% cumulative incidence of cataracts; the risk correlated with lens dose (P = .0025). Jaw dysfunction was more severe when the pterygoid and masseter muscles received a mean dose of >20 Gy (P = .013). Orbital hypoplasia developed more frequently after a mean bony orbit dose of >30 Gy (P = .041). Late toxicity in patients with genitourinary tumors included microscopic hematuria (9 of 14), bladder-wall thickening (10 of 14), and vaginal stenosis (2 of 5). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term LF rates were low, and higher rates correlated with larger tumors. Treatment-related toxicities resulting in measurable functional deficits were not infrequent, despite the conformal RT approach.

8.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 259-271, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802236

RESUMO

Pineoblastoma is a rare embryonal tumor of childhood that is conventionally treated with high-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Multi-dimensional molecular evaluation of pineoblastoma and associated intertumoral heterogeneity is lacking. Herein, we report outcomes and molecular features of children with pineoblastoma from two multi-center, risk-adapted trials (SJMB03 for patients ≥ 3 years; SJYC07 for patients < 3 years) complemented by a non-protocol institutional cohort. The clinical cohort consisted of 58 patients with histologically diagnosed pineoblastoma (SJMB03 = 30, SJYC07 = 12, non-protocol = 16, including 12 managed with SJMB03-like therapy). The SJMB03 protocol comprised risk-adapted CSI (average-risk = 23.4 Gy, high-risk = 36 Gy) with radiation boost to the primary site and adjuvant chemotherapy. The SJYC07 protocol consisted of induction chemotherapy, consolidation with focal radiation (intermediate-risk) or chemotherapy (high-risk), and metronomic maintenance therapy. The molecular cohort comprised 43 pineal parenchymal tumors profiled by DNA methylation array (n = 43), whole-exome sequencing (n = 26), and RNA-sequencing (n = 16). Respective 5-year progression-free survival rates for patients with average-risk or high-risk disease on SJMB03 or SJMB03-like therapy were 100% and 56.5 ± 10.3% (P = 0.007); respective 2-year progression-free survival rates for those with intermediate-risk or high-risk disease on SJYC07 were 14.3 ± 13.2% and 0% (P = 0.375). Of patients with average-risk disease treated with SJMB03/SJMB03-like therapy, 17/18 survived without progression. DNA-methylation analysis revealed four clinically relevant pineoblastoma subgroups: PB-A, PB-B, PB-B-like, and PB-FOXR2. Pineoblastoma subgroups differed in age at diagnosis, propensity for metastasis, cytogenetics, and clinical outcomes. Alterations in the miRNA-processing pathway genes DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8 were recurrent and mutually exclusive in PB-B and PB-B-like subgroups; PB-FOXR2 samples universally overexpressed the FOXR2 proto-oncogene. Our findings suggest superior outcome amongst older children with average-risk pineoblastoma treated with reduced-dose CSI. The identification of biologically and clinically distinct pineoblastoma subgroups warrants consideration of future molecularly-driven treatment protocols for this rare pediatric brain tumor entity.

9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(4): 838-847, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785339

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optimal radiation therapy (RT) target margins for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are unknown. We sought to define disease progression patterns in a contemporary cohort treated with conformal RT using different clinical target volume (CTV) margins. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed 105 patients with newly diagnosed DIPG treated with conformal conventionally fractionated RT at our institution from 2006 to 2014. CTV margins were classified as standard (1 cm) for 60 patients and extended (2-3 cm) for 45 patients. Survival and cumulative incidence of progression in treatment groups were compared by log-rank and Gray's tests, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models identified predictors of survival. RESULTS: For 97 patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging at progression, the cumulative incidences of isolated local, isolated distant, and synchronous disease progression at 1 year were 62.6%, 12.3%, and 7.2%, respectively, and did not differ significantly according to the CTV margin. Central dosimetric progression (Vprogression95% ≥95%) was observed in 80 of 81 evaluable patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.9-8.2) and 11.3 months (95% confidence interval, 10.0-12.8), respectively, and did not differ significantly according to margin status. DIPG survival prediction risk group (standard vs high, P = .02; intermediate vs high, P = .009) and development of distant metastasis (P = .003) were independent predictors of OS. For the 41 patients (39%) with a pathologic diagnosis, H3.3 K27M mutation was associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; P =.02), whereas H3.1 K27M and ACVR1 mutations were associated with longer OS (HR, 3.56; P =.004 and HR, 2.58; P =.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: All patients who experienced local failure showed progression within the high-dose volume, and there was no apparent survival or tumor-control benefit to extending the CTV margins beyond 1 cm. Given the increasing use of reirradiation, standardizing the CTV margin to 1 cm may improve retreatment tolerance.

11.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 75, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699993

RESUMO

Craniopharyngiomas are rare malformational tumours of low histological malignancy arising along the craniopharyngeal duct. The two histological subtypes, adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP), differ in genesis and age distribution. ACPs are diagnosed with a bimodal peak of incidence (5-15 years and 45-60 years), whereas PCPs are restricted to adults mainly in the fifth and sixth decades of life. ACPs are driven by somatic mutations in CTNNB1 (encoding ß-catenin) that affect ß-catenin stability and are predominantly cystic in appearance. PCPs frequently harbour somatic BRAFV600E mutations and are typically solid tumours. Clinical manifestations due to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment and endocrine deficiencies should prompt imaging investigations, preferentially MRI. Treatment comprises neurosurgery and radiotherapy; intracystic chemotherapy is used in monocystic ACP. Although long-term survival is high, quality of life and neuropsychological function are frequently impaired due to the close anatomical proximity to the optic chiasm, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Indeed, hypothalamic involvement and treatment-related hypothalamic lesions frequently result in hypothalamic obesity, physical fatigue and psychosocial deficits. Given the rarity of these tumours, efforts to optimize infrastructure and international collaboration should be research priorities.

13.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(10): 1487-1493, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596214

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Children with craniopharyngioma are at risk for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Multiple Sleep Latency Testing (MSLT) is the gold standard for objective evaluation of EDS; however, it is time and resource intensive. We compared the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (M-ESS) and MSLT in monitoring EDS in children with craniopharyngioma. METHODS: Seventy patients (ages 6 to 20 years) with craniopharyngioma completed the M-ESS and were evaluated by polysomnography and MSLT. Evaluations were made after surgery, if performed, and before proton therapy. RESULTS: MSLT revealed that 66 participants (81.8%) had EDS, as defined by a mean sleep latency (MSL) < 10 minutes, with only 28.8% reporting EDS on the M-ESS by using a cutoff score of 10. The M-ESS demonstrated adequate internal consistency and specificity (91.7%) but poor sensitivity (33.3%) with the established cutoff score of 10. A cutoff score of 6 improved the sensitivity to 64.8% but decreased the specificity to 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with craniopharyngioma are at high risk for EDS, as documented objectively on the MSLT, but they frequently do not recognize or accurately report their sleepiness. Future sleep studies should investigate whether specific items or alternative self- and parent-reported measures of sleepiness may have greater clinical utility in monitoring sleepiness in this population.

14.
Children (Basel) ; 6(10)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569616

RESUMO

Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for cognitive and social deficits. Previous findings indicate computerized cognitive training can result in an improvement of cognitive skills. The current objective was to investigate whether these cognitive gains generalize to social functioning benefits. Sixty-eight survivors of childhood cancer were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive intervention (mean age 12.21 ± 2.47 years, 4.97 ± 3.02 years off-treatment) or waitlist control group (mean age 11.82 ± 2.42 years, 5.04 ± 2.41 years off-treatment). Conners 3 Parent and Self-Report forms were completed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention and six-months post-intervention. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models indicated no significant differences in Peer Relations between groups at baseline and no difference in change between groups from pre- to immediate post-intervention or post- to six-months post-intervention (ps > 0.40). Baseline Family Relations problems were significantly elevated in the control group relative to the intervention group (p < 0.01), with a significantly greater decline from pre- to immediate post-intervention (p < 0.05) and no difference in change between groups from post- to six-months post-intervention (p > 0.80). The study results suggest cognitive gains from computerized training do not generalize to social functioning. Training focused on skill-based social processing (e.g., affect recognition) may be more efficacious.

15.
J Neurooncol ; 145(3): 519-529, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most pediatric spinal tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Characterization of these tumors has been difficult given their heterogeneity and rare incidence. The objective was to characterize such tumors diagnosed at our institution. METHODS: Spinal tumors diagnosed in our pediatric patients between 1984 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographics, presentation, pathology, imaging, management, and sequelae were examined. RESULTS: Forty patients had spinal LGG tumors, 24 (62%) of which were pilocytic astrocytomas. The most common initial presentations were pain (n = 15), partial extremity paralysis (n = 13), and ataxia (n = 11), with the diagnosis frequently delayed by months (median = 5.9 months, range 4 days-6.2 years). Twenty-nine patients had some tumor resection, and 8 required adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy (n = 4) or radiation (n = 4) post-resection. Ten other patients received only biopsy for histologic diagnosis, who were treated with chemotherapy (n = 4) or radiation (n = 5) post biopsy. Tumor progression was noted in 16 patients (2 after gross-total resection; 10, partial resection; and 4, biopsy). During the evaluation period, 3 patients died secondary to tumor progression. BRAF status could have shortened progression-free survival: patients with BRAFV600E mutations (n = 3) all experienced progression within 10 months. Long-term sequelae of the disease/treatment were mostly residual neurologic deficits (paresthesia, paralysis), chemotherapy-induced hearing loss, and scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal LGG is a rare entity with significant long-term effects. Although surgery is the most common initial treatment option, more in-depth analysis of molecular biomarkers may improve stratification and prognostication.

16.
J Neurooncol ; 144(3): 603-610, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with sporadic optic pathway glioma (OPG) commonly experience a decline in visual acuity (VA). This study aimed to quantify long-term VA outcomes after definitive radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: From 1997 to 2017, 41 patients underwent RT for OPG and had baseline VA testing. All patients underwent serial VA testing every 3-6 months during the first 5 years and annually thereafter. The cumulative incidence of VA decline or improvement (per eye) was estimated using death as a competing risk. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 5 years. Most tumors (93%) involved the postchiasmatic optic tracts and/or hypothalamus. Of the tumors tested for BRAF alterations (n = 15), 67% had a BRAF fusion. Median time to VA decline was 20 months in the eye with worse vision and 22 months in the better eye. For the worse eye, the 5-year cumulative incidences of VA decline and improvement were 17.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-32.8%] and 13.5% (95% CI 4.7-26.7%), respectively. For the better eye, the 5-year cumulative incidences of VA decline and improvement were 11.5% (95% CI 3.5-30.7%) and 10.6% (95% CI 2.6-25.2%), respectively. Visual outcomes did not correlate with radiographic evidence of tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year cumulative incidence of VA decline was low. VA decline is most likely to occur within the first 2 years after RT and is not associated with radiographic progression of disease, highlighting the need for frequent ophthalmologic exams during this period.


Assuntos
Glioma do Nervo Óptico/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Acuidade Visual/efeitos da radiação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6101-6115, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373627

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Data on hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) disorders in systematically evaluated childhood cancer survivors are limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalence, risk factors, and associated adverse health outcomes of deficiencies in GH deficiency (GHD), TSH deficiency (TSHD), LH/FSH deficiency (LH/FSHD), and ACTH deficiency (ACTHD), and central precocious puberty (CPP). DESIGN: Retrospective with cross-sectional health outcomes analysis. SETTING: Established cohort; tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Participants (N = 3141; median age, 31.7 years) were followed for a median 24.1 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for associations among HP disorders, tumor- and treatment-related risk factors, and health outcomes. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence was 40.2% for GHD, 11.1% for TSHD, 10.6% for LH/FSHD, 3.2% for ACTHD, and 0.9% for CPP among participants treated with HP radiotherapy (n = 1089), and 6.2% for GHD, and <1% for other HP disorders without HP radiotherapy. Clinical factors independently associated with HP disorders included HP radiotherapy (at any dose for GHD, TSHD, LH/FSHD, >30 Gy for ACTHD), alkylating agents (GHD, LH/FSHD), intrathecal chemotherapy (GHD), hydrocephalus with shunt placement (GHD, LH/FSHD), seizures (TSHD, ACTHD), and stroke (GHD, TSHD, LH/FSHD, ACTHD). Adverse health outcomes independently associated with HP disorders included short stature (GHD, TSHD), severe bone mineral density deficit (GHD, LH/FSHD), obesity (LH/FSHD), frailty (GHD), impaired physical health-related quality of life (TSHD), sexual dysfunction (LH/FSHD), impaired memory, and processing speed (GHD, TSHD). CONCLUSION: HP radiotherapy, central nervous system injury, and, to a lesser extent, chemotherapy are associated with HP disorders, which are associated with adverse health outcomes.

18.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303059

RESUMO

Objective/Background: Youth with craniopharyngioma are at increased risk for excessive daytime sleepiness and narcolepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosing sleep disorders, but is time-intensive, costly, and does not offer an in vivo measure of typical sleep routine. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of actigraphy compared with PSG in measuring nocturnal sleep in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Participants: Fifty youth with craniopharyngioma (age 3-20 years) were assessed by overnight PSG and concurrent actigraphy after surgical resection and before proton therapy. Methods: PSG and actigraphy data were synchronized utilizing an epoch-by-epoch comparison method. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated using measures of true wake, true sleep, false wake, and false sleep. Bland-Altman plots were conducted to further assess level of agreement. Results: Actigraphy was 93% sensitive (true sleep [TS]) and 87% accurate (ability to detect TS and true wake) in measuring sleep versus wakefulness and was a reliable measure of sleep efficiency (SE) and sleep latency (SL). Specificity (true wake) was poor (55%) and total sleep time (TST) was underestimated by an average of 15.1 min. Wake after sleep onset (WASO) was overestimated by an average of 14.7 min. Conclusions: Actigraphy was highly sensitive and accurate and was a reliable measure of SE and SL. Although there were differences in TST and WASO measurements by actigraphy and PSG, our findings provide the basis for future studies on the use of actigraphy to monitor treatment response to wakefulness-promoting medications in youth with craniopharyngioma who demonstrate excessive daytime sleepiness.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 4998-5007, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173083

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Clinical significance of a decline in free T4 (FT4) concentrations across the reference range in children with brain tumors treated with radiation therapy (RT) is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To study trends in FT4 in children after RT and risk factors and health outcomes associated with plasma FT4 concentrations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal, single-center retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS: Low-grade glioma or ependymoma patients (n = 267; age ≤25 years) who received RT (50.4 to 59.4 Gy) at a single institution (1996 to 2016) and followed with serial FT4 measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A linear mixed-effects model with a random intercept was used to investigate risk factors for longitudinal changes in FT4 concentrations. A two-stage mixed-effects model examined associations between clinical outcomes and plasma FT4 concentrations. RESULTS: FT4 concentrations declined over time after RT (P < 0.001). Females (P < 0.001) and younger patients (P < 0.001) demonstrated greater declines in FT4 concentrations over time. The rate of weight gain, but not of height loss, increased with a higher FT4 decline rate (P < 0.001). At last follow-up, patients with lower baseline FT4 concentrations had increased risk of glucose disorder (OR, 19.73; P = 0.002) or dyslipidemia (OR, 19.40; P = 0.003) but not high fat mass (P = 0.18). Lower baseline FT4 concentrations were not associated with impaired scores for intelligence, attention, memory, or psychosocial functioning. CONCLUSIONS: FT4 concentrations significantly decline in children with brain tumor after RT. Variation and trends in FT4 concentration are associated with physical health outcomes. Future studies should assess whether continuous FT4 concentrations and trends, rather than population-based cut-off values, can distinguish between euthyroid and hypothyroid states.

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