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1.
Meat Sci ; 160: 107967, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655244

RESUMO

This study investigates the microbiological conditions before maturation of wild boar meat (Sus scrofa) processed in approved game handling establishments in Italy. Fillets and legquarters of 37 carcasses were tested to assess Aerobic Colony Count (ACC), Enterobacteriaceae Count (EC) and Salmonella presence. Salmonella was never found and mean values of ACC and EC were 4.67 ±â€¯1.78 SD and 2.60 ±â€¯1.58 SD log CFU/cm2, respectively. Both ACC and EC increased with time between evisceration and skinning, were significantly higher in fillets and when meat was processed by untrained operators. ACC also increased with boars' weight and when carcasses were cleaned with running potable water. Based on limits set by EU Regulation No 1441/2007 for pork meat, most legquarters resulted satisfactory or acceptable (59% for ACC and 70% for EC), while most fillets were unsatisfactory (76% ACC, 78% EC). Results show that the wild game meat supply chain can be a safe process when handling practices reported in European and National regulations are met.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Itália , Sus scrofa
2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349685

RESUMO

Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an ornamental plant common in tropical and sub-tropical regions that is becoming increasingly widespread, even in temperate regions. Oleander poisoning may occur in animals and humans. The main active components contained in the plant are cardiac glycosides belonging to the class of cardenolides that are toxic to many species, from human to insects. This work describes a case of oleander poisoning that occurred on a small cattle farm and resulted in the fatality of all six resident animals. Furthermore, the investigation of the poisonous agent is described, with particular focus on the characterization of the oleandrin toxin that was recovered from the forage and rumen contents. The innovation of this study is the first description of the detection and quantification of the oleandrin toxin by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in rumen.

3.
Meat Sci ; 157: 107869, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234028

RESUMO

This study involved ten enterprises producing Italian salami, 20 different samples of fermented sausages underwent challenge tests to assess and record the following parameters: time, temperature, pH, aw, and Salmonella counts. A linear regression model was used to describe the Salmonella spp. decay: at the end of the process the result of total Salmonella reduction was 0.97-5.84 Log10 CFU/g and it was significantly associated with pH at the end of acidification/drying process, aw at the end of seasoning period, the duration of seasoning, and the caliber of salami respectively. High Pressure Processing (HPP) further reduced the Salmonella level by 2.41-5.84 Log10 CFU/g with an efficacy that resulted inversely associated with aw of salami at the end of seasoning; the objective of 5-Log reduction was always reached in all the cases tested by the production process plus HPP. This model could be a useful tool for enterprises and Authorities to evaluate the efficacy of the processes to reduce Salmonella load for exportation to the U.S.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , Dessecação/métodos , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Produtos da Carne/normas , Pressão , Estados Unidos
4.
Pathog Dis ; 77(3)2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247637

RESUMO

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clones other than Clonal Complex (CC)398, as CC1, have been isolated in pigs in some countries, and appeared to be prevalent in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Sequence Type (ST)1, CC1, LA-MRSA clone to colonize and to be transmitted among piglets. Eighteen caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets of 35 days of age were assigned randomly to three groups: four seeder piglets were contaminated with a spa type t127, ST1, SCCmec V, MRSA (Group A), 10 MRSA-negative piglets were exposed to Group A after 2 days post-contamination, dpc (Group B) and 4 piglets were used as control group (Group C). Piglets were evaluated until 44 dpc (Group A) or at 42 days post-exposure, dpe (Group B) and then euthanized and necropsied. All nasal and skin cultures of Group A resulted MRSA-positive throughout the experiment starting from two dpc, while Group C tested always MRSA-negative. At first sampling, all Group B piglets became positive and remained positive throughout the experiment. This is the first colonization/transmission study with a CC1 LA-MRSA in pigs. The results add further knowledge on the ability of CC1 LA-MRSA to colonize pigs, and on colonization/transmission patterns, both suggesting good host adaptation.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(7): e0006595, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an ongoing health problem in southern Europe, where dogs are considered the main reservoirs of the disease. Current data point to a northward spread of VL and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Italy, with new foci in northern regions previously regarded as non-endemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was performed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of L. infantum on 55 samples from infected humans, dogs and sand flies of the E-R region between 2013 and 2017. E-R samples were compared with 10 L. infantum samples from VL cases in other Italian regions (extra E-R) and with 52 strains within the L. donovani complex. Data displayed significant microsatellite polymorphisms with low allelic heterozygosity. Forty-one unique and eight repeated MLMT profiles were recognized among the L. infantum samples from E-R, and ten unique MLMT profiles were assigned to the extra E-R samples. Bayesian analysis assigned E-R samples to two distinct populations, with further sub-structuring within each of them; all CanL samples belonged to one population, genetically related to Mediterranean MON-1 strains, while all but one VL cases as well as the isolate from the sand fly Phlebotomus perfiliewi fell under the second population. Conversely, VL samples from other Italian regions proved to be genetically similar to strains circulating in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A peculiar epidemiological situation was observed in northeastern Italy, with the co-circulation of two distinct populations of L. infantum; one population mainly detected in dogs and the other population detected in humans and in a sand fly. While the classical cycle of CanL in Italy fits well into the data obtained for the first population, the population found in infected humans exhibits a different cycle, probably not involving a canine reservoir. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of L. infantum circulating in northeastern Italy, thus providing useful epidemiologic information for public health authorities.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/classificação , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Psychodidae/parasitologia
6.
Ital J Food Saf ; 7(2): 7223, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046559

RESUMO

Salmonella is the second cause of food-borne infection in humans in the USA and Europe. Pigs represent the second most important reservoir for the pathogen and the consumption of pork meat is a major risk factor for human salmonellosis. Here, we evaluated the virulence patterns of eleven Salmonella isolated from pigs (carcasses and faces) bred in intensive farms in the north of Italy. The two serotypes identified were S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant 1,4,5,12:i:-. None of the isolates was an ESBL producer, as confirmed also by PCR. However, the presence of a multi-drug resistant pattern was evident, with all the isolates being resistant to at least to five antimicrobial agents belonging to various classes. Moreover, six out of eleven isolates showed important resistance profiles, such as resistance against colistin and ciprofloxacin, with nine to twelve recorded resistances. The isolates were negative for the biofilm synthesis test, while four different virulotypes were characterized. All the isolates showed the presence of invA, hilA, stn, ssrA, sipC. One sample also harbored ssaR and spvC genes. One strain was positive for all the virulence genes tested and was resistant to 12 antimicrobial agents. The present study contributes new data to the surveillance program for antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, the presence of eleven highly virulent isolates poses concern for human health in relation to their diffusion in the environment.

7.
Ital J Food Saf ; 7(1): 6980, 2018 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732332

RESUMO

The objective of this report is to describe an outbreak of pustular dermatitis in a flock of about 200 sheep, its clinical evolution and food safety implications. The onset of the symptoms was sudden and the lesions spread very quickly from ewe to ewe, so that in about 3 days almost all of the lactating sheep were stricken. Pustules from 5 different animals, six milk samples, two cheese samples, teat cup samples from the milking machine and farmer's hands were analysed. A pure culture of Staphylococcus aureus, producing staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) C, was isolated from pustules. Milk and cheese showed a contamination by coagulase positive staphylococci <15 and 30 colony forming units respectively and the absence of SE. Farmer's hands and teat cups samples resulted negative for coagulase positive staphylococci. Therapy with daily topical medicaments was prescribed and a prophylactic intervention was suggested by the administration of an autovaccine. The low level of milk and cheese contamination and the absence of SE in cheese supported the decision to not advise the farmer to recall cheese produced with milk from affected animals.

8.
Ital J Food Saf ; 6(2): 6584, 2017 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713792

RESUMO

During the years 2015-2016, 83 faecal samples were collected at slaughter from pigs reared in farms located in Central-Northern Italy. During the years 2014-2016 a total of 562 pork products [465 not-readyto-eat (NRTE) and 97 ready-to-eat (RTE) products] were collected from retail outlets, large retailers and processing plants. The samples were analysed according to ISO TS 13136:2012. Out of 83 swine faecal samples, 77 (92.8%) resulted stx-positive by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 5 stx2+ and 1 stx1+ Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were isolated. Among the 465 NRTE samples, 65 (14.0%) resulted stx-positive by real time PCR and 7 stx2+ STEC strains were isolated. The stx2 gene was detected more frequently than the stx1 gene both in faecal samples (90.4 vs 8.4%) and in NRTE pork products (13.3 vs 1.3%). All the RTE samples included in the analysis resulted stx-negative. Among the samples resulted positive for stx and eae genes, serogroup-associated genes were detected at high frequency: O26 resulted the most frequent in faecal samples (81.3%) and O145 in pork products (88.1%). The O157 serogroup resulted positive in 83.3 and 78.1% of pork products and faecal samples, respectively. Despite the frequent detection by real time PCR of genes indicating the possible presence of STEC strains belonging to the six serogroups, the bacteriological step did not confirm the isolation of any such strains.

9.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 17(6): 409-415, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301296

RESUMO

Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains. Nucleic acid from 31 Leishmania-positive phlebotomine sandfly pools, sampled in 2012-2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, were also evaluated. DNA amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and of a repetitive nuclear region on chromosome 31 were carried out for genotyping. Two size polymorphic targets were also analyzed by PCR, the cpb E/F-gene and the k26-gene. Altogether, the analysis showed the circulation of different Leishmania infantum genotypes in the Emilia-Romagna region: two genotypes found in dogs from public kennels were similar to VL isolates from other Italian regions, whereas a third genotype was detected in VL cases of the Emilia-Romagna region and in all but one of the sandfly pools. The combined molecular tools applied in this study can constitute a helpful support for parasite tracking (e.g., in outbreak investigations) and for a better understanding of the epidemiological evolution of leishmaniasis in northeastern Italy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/classificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Ital J Food Saf ; 5(1): 5291, 2016 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800427

RESUMO

This study investigated aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in dairy cow feed and the risk management of AFB1 content in concentrates undertaken by feed industries in the Parmigiano Reggiano area. Data on aflatoxin contamination risk management applied in 29 feed industries were collected and the AFB1 content of 70 feed samples was analysed. Data were collected within the framework of a quality control programme promoted by the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium in 2013 and 2014. Audit results showed that the control procedures to prevent AFB1 contamination mainly focused on maize and its by-products. AFB1 concentration resulted lower than 5 ppb [legal European Union (EU) limit] in all samples; in one out of 70 samples, AFB1 content was 3.8 ppb and in all the other samples it was lower than 3 ppb. Results showed that AFB1 risk management applied by Italian feed industries effectively monitors AFB1 levels in feed below the EU legal limit.

11.
Ital J Food Saf ; 5(1): 5641, 2016 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800434

RESUMO

Foodstuffs should not contain microorganisms or their toxins or metabolites in quantities suggesting an unacceptable risk for human health. The detection of food hazards in foods is performed by several tests that produce results dependent on the analytical method used: an analytical reference method, defined as standard, is associated with each microbiological criterion laid down in Regulation 2073/2005/EC, but, analytical methods other than the reference ones, in particular more rapid methods, could be used. Combined screening methods performed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are currently validated as alternative methods according to the ISO 16140:2003 and certified by the Association Française de Normalisation. However, the positive results obtained with these alternative methods, the investigated molecular relations that resulted positive have to be confirmed with cultural methods using the same enrichment media in which the molecular screening was performed. Since it is necessary to assess if these testing schemes provide equivalent guarantees of food safety, the aim of this retrospective study is to analyse the data collected, from 2012 to 2014 by Emilia Romagna Region in the field of Piano Regionale Alimenti (Food Regional Plan) during official controls monitoring food samples of animal and other than animal origin. Records performed by combined methods of molecular screening of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and thermophilic Campylobacter and cultural confirmation results were gathered together and the results were compared in order to assess the sensitivity of the methods. A total of 10,604 food samples were considered in this study: the comparison of the data revealed that the RT-PCR method detected Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and thermophilic Campylobacter in 2.18, 3.85 and 3.73% of the samples, respectively, whereas by using cultural method these pathogens were isolated in 0.43, 1.57 and 1.57% of samples, respectively. In spite of the use of the same enrichment broth, the RT-PCR method disclosed a percentage of positive samples that was negative to cultural examination ranging between 20 and 43%, with a PCR/culture ratio between 2.37 to 5.00. In conclusion, the results of this study pose a doubt about the sensitivity of the official cultural methods regarding the isolation of the three investigated foodborne pathogens. Moreover this study may be a useful tool for veterinary authorities to assess appropriate sampling plans to control the risk relating to the consumption of contaminated foods.

12.
Ital J Food Saf ; 5(2): 5564, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800441

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in the industrially manufactured Italian Parma ham. The study focuses on the Parma ham production phase identified as maximum risk to C. botulinum proliferation, i.e. the transition from cold phase (salting and resting) to a phase carried out at temperature between 15 and 23°C (drying). A preliminary in vitro test was carried out in order to verify the capability of 6 C. botulinum strains (1 type A, 4 type B, and 1 type E strains) to grow in conditions of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration comparable to those of the beginning stage of ham drying. Five C. botulinum strains grew at 20°C and pH 6, four strains produced toxin when inoculated at a concentration equal to 103 cfu/mL at NaCl concentration of 4%, while when the inoculum concentration was 10 cfu/mL, NaCl concentration of 3% resulted the toxin-genesis limiting factor. An experimental contamination with a mixture of the 5 C. botulinum strains selected by the preliminary in vitro test was performed on 9 thighs inoculated at the end of the resting phase. The study was designed to evaluate the potential growth and toxin production in extremely favourable conditions for the bacterium. Type B proteolytic C. botulinum toxin was produced after 14 days of incubation at 20°C in 2 thighs characterised by high weight, low number of days of resting and anomalous physiochemical characteristics [one for very low NaCl concentration (1.59%), the other for elevated pH (6.27) and both for high water activity values (>0.970)]. The results of this research confirm that the cold resting step is a critical phase in the production process of Parma ham for the investigated hazard. Based on the present study, the long resting phase adopted in the manufacturing of Parma ham is proven effective to prevent the growth of C. botulinum, an event which could not otherwise be excluded if the hams were processed under less stringent technological conditions.

13.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 52(2): 277-80, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. AIM: In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p < 0.01). RESULTS: The results of the present study show that wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Aves , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Suínos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(6): 4291-4299, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26995124

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are recommended to enhance the shelf life of donkey milk.


Assuntos
Equidae , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Criança , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Pasteurização
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 121(1-2): 151-8, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26142145

RESUMO

A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk consumers or potential raw milk consumers are required to encourage consumers to boil milk to reduce the associated risk of illness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
16.
Ital J Food Saf ; 4(2): 4515, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800387

RESUMO

The present work aims to present the results of the application of a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Italian fermented and dry-cured pork products. The products used in this study were portioned cured ham, portioned bacon and salami, vacuumpackaged and produced by a single processing company. Two studies were conducted on a single batch of the three products by means of an artificial contamination with Listeria innocua as a surrogate of L. monocytogenes. In the first trial a superficial contamination was obtained by immersion for 3 min in the culture broth with a concentration of approximately 9 log cfu/mL. At the end of the inoculum step, the pieces were dred at room temperature and vacuum packaged. In the second trial 50 kg of minced pork meat were contaminated before production of salami. In both cases the inoculum contained 5 strains of L. innocua. Subsequently, in both trials, 10 samples were randomly divided into two groups of 5 pieces each: i) TH group, samples treated with HHP; ii) group C, control samples, not subjected to any treatment. All samples were stored at refrigeration temperature at the end of HHP treatments (if applied), and analyzed for the determination of the surface (1st trial) and deep (2nd trial) quantitative contamination of L. innocua. pH and aW were also determined on 3 pieces of each products belonging to group C. The difference between the medians of the log cfu/cm2 or g established between controls and treated were compared using the non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) with P<0.01. In all products and in both trials the level of contamination detected in treatment groups was always significantly lower than in controls (P<0.01). In particular, in vacuum-packaged ham, bacon and salami viability logarithmic viability reductions equal to -2.29, -2.54 and -2.51 were observed, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate a not-thermal treatment on Italian cured or fermented pork products. The results of this study need to be confirmed in different products and in a greater number of lots, but they appear promising, also because of the considerable literature available for different categories of products (cheese, vegetables and fruit).

17.
Ital J Food Saf ; 4(2): 5174, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800399

RESUMO

Gossypol is a yellow pigment occurring in all parts of cotton plants, with the highest levels found in seeds, and it exhibits a variety of toxic effects. Few data are available on the content of gossypol in the commercial complementary feed and in feed raw materials. The present study was focused on the investigation of the presence of free gossypol in commercial complementary feed not containing cotton. A total of 50 samples of commercial complementary feed for dairy cows were performed in 29 feed mills both using and not using cotton as feed material. The free gossypol contamination resulted under the detection limit of the technique (4 mg/kg) in 12 out of 50 samples analysed and ranged from 4 to 20 mg/kg in 28 samples. In 10 samples the level of free gossypol ranged from 20 to 29.5 mg/kg. Average contamination of samples was 12.2±9.2 SD mg/kg. No significant difference (P=0.571) was shown in free gossypol concentration between feed produced in cotton free plants and in plants where cotton is used as feed material. Free gossypol content detected in the present study allows considering complementary feed for dairy cows not at risk. On the other hand, the detection of free gossypol in cotton free complementary feed, probably attributable to cross contamination of feed materials upstream of the feed mill, should be further investigated.

18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 81(15): 5055-63, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26002896

RESUMO

Even though dairy cows are known carriers of Arcobacter species and raw or minimally processed foods are recognized as the main sources of human Arcobacter infections in industrialized countries, data on Arcobacter excretion patterns in cows and in milk are scant. This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic Arcobacter species in a dairy herd and to investigate the routes of Arcobacter transmission among animals and the potential sources of cattle infection and milk contamination. A strategy of sampling the same 50 dairy animals, feed, water, and milk every month for a 10-month period, as well as the sampling of quarter milk, animal teats, the milking environment, and animals living on the farm (pigeons and cats), was used to evaluate, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the characteristic patterns in animals, their living environment, and the raw milk they produced. Of the 463 samples collected, 105 (22.6%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. by culture examination. All the matrices except quarter milk and pigeon gut samples were positive, with prevalences ranging from 15 to 83% depending on the sample. Only three Arcobacter species, Arcobacter cryaerophilus (54.2%), A. butzleri (34.2%), and A. skirrowii (32.3%), were detected. PFGE analysis of 370 isolates from positive samples provided strong evidence of Arcobacter circulation in the herd: cattle likely acquire the microorganisms by orofecal transmission, either by direct contact or from the environment, or both. Water appears to be a major source of animal infection. Raw milk produced by the farm and collected from a bulk tank was frequently contaminated (80%) by A. butzleri; our PFGE findings excluded primary contamination of milk, whereas teats and milking machine surfaces could be sources of Arcobacter milk contamination.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Arcobacter/isolamento & purificação , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Arcobacter/classificação , Arcobacter/genética , Gatos , Bovinos , Columbidae , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular
19.
Ital J Food Saf ; 4(1): 4511, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800377

RESUMO

In 2012-2013 Emilia-Romagna Region introduced a monitoring plan for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in foodstuff. Six hundred eighty-nine meat samples and 273 fruit and vegetable products were analyzed according to ISOTS13136. Pre-enriched samples were tested by multiplex real time PCR targeting the virulence genes eae, stx1 and stx2. Stx2 positive samples were investigated for the presence of serogroup O104 associated gene. O103, O111, O145, O157, O26 associated genes were tested on samples positive for stx in association with eae gene. Isolation of E. coli strains was attempted from samples positive for serogroup-associated genes. Thirty-four meat products (4.9%) resulted positive for stx1 and/or stx2 genes and 46 (6.7%) for stx1 and/or stx2 genes in association with eae gene. Forty-five (6.5%) samples resulted positive at least at one serogroup. Serogroup O103, O104, O111, O145, O157 and O26 genes were detected respectively in 1.3, 0.3, 0.1, 3.9, 2.9 and 2.5% samples; 0.6% samples resulted positive for STEC isolation (2 E. coli O103 and 2 E. coli O157). It is worth noting that STEC virulence genes were detected at high frequency (19%) in fresh pork meat sausages. Four (1.5%) vegetable samples were positive for stx1 and/or stx2 genes and 1 (0.4%) for stx1 and/or stx2 genes in association with eae gene; none resulted positive for the tested serogroups. Only a low number of samples positive by molecular methods were confirmed by cultural isolation. It is therefore of the uttermost importance for appropriate risk management, to be fully aware of the meaning of the analytical result.

20.
J Food Prot ; 78(3): 579-84, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25719884

RESUMO

Factors affecting the fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in Italian dairy farms were investigated in a 12-month longitudinal study performed on a dairy farm authorized to sell raw milk in Italy. Fifty animals were randomly selected from 140 adult and young animals, and fecal samples were collected six times at 2-month intervals. At each sampling time, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples also were collected for both adult and young animals. Samples were analyzed with real-time PCR assay and culture examination. Overall, 33 samples (9.7%) were positive for thermophilic Campylobacter by real-time PCR: 26 (9.2%) of 280 fecal samples, 6 (16.6%) of 36 water samples, and 1 (4.2%) of 24 feed samples. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 6 of 280 samples; no other Campylobacter species was isolated. A higher (but not significantly) number of positive fecal samples were found in younger animals (11.33 versus 6.92% of adult animals), and a significantly higher number of positive water samples were collected from the water troughs of young animals. A distinct temporal trend was observed during the study period for both cows and calves, with two prevalence peaks between November and December and between May and July. Several factors such as calving, housing practices, herd size, management practices forcing together a higher number of animals, and variations in feed or water sources (previously reported as a cause of temporal variation in different farming conditions) were excluded as the cause of the two seasonal peaks in this study. The factors affecting the seasonality of Campylobacter shedding in the dairy herds remain unclear and warrant further investigation. The results of the present study indicate that special attention should be paid to farm hygiene management on farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk, with increased surveillance by the authorities at certain times of the year.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Pasteurização , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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