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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
3.
Allergy ; 74(6): 1166-1175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of allergic sensitization has a major influence on the development and course of common childhood conditions such as asthma and rhinitis. The etiology of allergic sensitization is poorly understood, and its underlying biological mechanisms are not well established. Several studies showed that DNA methylation (DNAm) at some CpGs is associated with allergic sensitization. However, no studies have focused on the critical adolescence period. METHODS: We assessed the association of pre- and postadolescence genome-wide DNAm with allergic sensitization against indoor, outdoor and food allergens, using linear mixed models. We hypothesized that DNAm is associated with sensitization in general, and with poly-sensitization status, and these associations are age- and gender-specific. We tested these hypotheses in the IoW cohort (n = 376) and examined the findings in the BAMSE cohort (n = 267). RESULTS: Via linear mixed models, we identified 35 CpGs in IoW associated with allergic sensitization (at false discovery rate of 0.05), of which 33 were available in BAMSE and replicated with respect to the direction of associations with allergic sensitization. At the 35 CpGs except for cg19210306 on C13orf27, a reduction in methylation among atopic subjects was observed, most notably for cg21220721 and cg11699125 (ACOT7). DNAm at cg10159529 was strongly correlated with expression of IL5RA in peripheral blood (P-value = 6.76 × 10-20 ). Three CpGs (cg14121142, cg23842695, and cg26496795) were identified in IoW with age-specific association between DNAm and allergic sensitization. CONCLUSION: In adolescence, the status of allergic sensitization was associated with DNAm differentiation and at some CpGs the association is likely to be age-specific.

4.
Pharmacogenomics ; 19(8): 707-713, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785881

RESUMO

Our hypothesis was that children with mutations in genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GST) have worse asthma outcomes compared with children with active type genotype. Data were collected in five populations. The rs1695 single nucleotide polymorphism (GSTP1) was determined in all cohorts (3692 children) and GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype were determined in three cohorts (2362 children). GSTT1 null (but not other genotypes) was associated with a minor increased risk for asthma attack and there were no significant associations between GST genotypes and asthma severity. Interactions between GST genotypes and SHS exposure or asthma severity with the study outcomes were nonsignificant. We find no convincing evidence that the GST genotypes studied are related to asthma outcomes.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(5): 379-388, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS: 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10-7) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION: Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING: EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15693, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146936

RESUMO

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a growth retardation syndrome in which loss of methylation on chromosome 11p15 (11p15 LOM) and maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 [UPD(7)mat] explain 20-60% and 10% of the syndrome, respectively. To search for a molecular cause for the remaining SRS cases, and to find a possible common epigenetic change, we studied DNA methylation pattern of more than 450 000 CpG sites in 44 SRS patients. Common to all three SRS subgroups, we found a hypomethylated region at the promoter region of HOXA4 in 55% of the patients. We then tested 39 patients with severe growth restriction of unknown etiology, and found hypomethylation of HOXA4 in 44% of the patients. Finally, we found that methylation at multiple CpG sites in the HOXA4 promoter region was associated with height in a cohort of 227 healthy children, suggesting that HOXA4 may play a role in regulating human growth by epigenetic mechanisms.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(6): 067007, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to adverse health effects in children; however, underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of air pollution exposure during different time periods on mRNA expression as well as circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in children. METHODS: We measured a panel of 10 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 670 8-y-old children in the Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) birth cohort. Outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) from road traffic were estimated for residential, daycare, and school addresses using dispersion modeling. Time-weighted average exposures during infancy and at biosampling were linked to serum cytokine levels using linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gene expression data from 16-year-olds in BAMSE (n=238) were used to evaluate links between air pollution exposure and expression of genes coding for the studied inflammatory markers. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 exposure during infancy was associated with a 13.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8; 28.1%) increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, as well as with a 27.8% (95% CI: 4.6, 56.2%) increase in IL-10 levels, the latter limited to children with asthma. However, no clear associations were observed for current exposure. Results were similar using PM10, which showed a high correlation with NO2. The functional analysis identified several differentially expressed genes in response to air pollution exposure during infancy, including IL10, IL13, and TNF;. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate alterations in systemic inflammatory markers in 8-y-old children in relation to early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP460.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Citocinas/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(1): 104-110, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as marker, and epigenome-wide cord blood DNA methylation. METHODS: We meta-analyzed the associations between NO2 exposure at residential addresses during pregnancy and cord blood DNA methylation (Illumina 450K) in four European and North American studies (n = 1,508) with subsequent look-up analyses in children ages 4 (n = 733) and 8 (n = 786) years. Additionally, we applied a literature-based candidate approach for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. To assess influence of exposure at the transcriptomics level, we related mRNA expression in blood cells to NO2 exposure in 4- (n = 111) and 16-year-olds (n = 239). RESULTS: We found epigenome-wide significant associations [false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05] between maternal NO2 exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in newborns for 3 CpG sites in mitochondria-related genes: cg12283362 (LONP1), cg24172570 (3.8 kbp upstream of HIBADH), and cg08973675 (SLC25A28). The associations with cg08973675 methylation were also significant in the older children. Further analysis of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes revealed differentially methylated CpGs in CAT and TPO in newborns (FDR p < 0.05). NO2 exposure at the time of biosampling in childhood had a significant impact on CAT and TPO expression. CONCLUSIONS: NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with differential offspring DNA methylation in mitochondria-related genes. Exposure to NO2 was also linked to differential methylation as well as expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense pathways. Citation: Gruzieva O, Xu CJ, Breton CV, Annesi-Maesano I, Antó JM, Auffray C, Ballereau S, Bellander T, Bousquet J, Bustamante M, Charles MA, de Kluizenaar Y, den Dekker HT, Duijts L, Felix JF, Gehring U, Guxens M, Jaddoe VV, Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104-110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Londres , Gravidez
9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 15: 308, 2014 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25236784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In somatic cancer genomes, delineating genuine driver mutations against a background of multiple passenger events is a challenging task. The difficulty of determining function from sequence data and the low frequency of mutations are increasingly hindering the search for novel, less common cancer drivers. The accumulation of extensive amounts of data on somatic point and copy number alterations necessitates the development of systematic methods for driver mutation analysis. RESULTS: We introduce a framework for detecting driver mutations via functional network analysis, which is applied to individual genomes and does not require pooling multiple samples. It probabilistically evaluates 1) functional network links between different mutations in the same genome and 2) links between individual mutations and known cancer pathways. In addition, it can employ correlations of mutation patterns in pairs of genes. The method was used to analyze genomic alterations in two TCGA datasets, one for glioblastoma multiforme and another for ovarian carcinoma, which were generated using different approaches to mutation profiling. The proportions of drivers among the reported de novo point mutations in these cancers were estimated to be 57.8% and 16.8%, respectively. The both sets also included extended chromosomal regions with synchronous duplications or losses of multiple genes. We identified putative copy number driver events within many such segments. Finally, we summarized seemingly disparate mutations and discovered a functional network of collagen modifications in the glioblastoma. In order to select the most efficient network for use with this method, we used a novel, ROC curve-based procedure for benchmarking different network versions by their ability to recover pathway membership. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our network-based procedure were in good agreement with published gold standard sets of cancer genes and were shown to complement and expand frequency-based driver analyses. On the other hand, three sequence-based methods applied to the same data yielded poor agreement with each other and with our results. We review the difference in driver proportions discovered by different sequencing approaches and discuss the functional roles of novel driver mutations. The software used in this work and the global network of functional couplings are publicly available at http://research.scilifelab.se/andrej_alexeyenko/downloads.html.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Glioblastoma/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Curva ROC , Software
10.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 15(4): 348-54, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25151612

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms, defined as changes in phenotype or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence, have been proposed to constitute a link between genetic and environmental factors that affect complex diseases. Recent studies show that DNA methylation, one of the key epigenetic mechanisms, is altered in children exposed to air pollutants and environmental tobacco smoke early in life. Several candidate gene studies on epigenetics have been published to date, but it is only recently that global methylation analyses have been performed for respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, large-scale studies with adequate power are yet to be presented in children, and implications for clinical use remain to be evaluated. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in epigenetics and respiratory disorders in children, with a main focus on methodological challenges and analyses related to phenotype and exposure using global methylation approaches.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Doenças Respiratórias/genética , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Expressão Gênica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
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