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1.
Diabetes ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636172

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is more frequent among individuals with dysglycemia. Preventive interventions for diabetes can improve cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs), but it is unclear whether the benefits on CRFs are similar for individuals at different genetic risk for CAD. We built a 201-variant polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD and tested for interaction with diabetes prevention strategies on one-year changes in CRFs in 2,658 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We also examined whether separate lifestyle behaviors interact with PRS on changes in CRFs in each intervention group. Participants in both the lifestyle and metformin interventions had greater improvement in the majority of recognized CRFs compared to placebo (P<0.001) irrespective of CAD genetic risk (P int>0.05). We detected nominal significant interactions between PRS and dietary quality and physical activity on one-year change in body mass index, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDLc in individuals randomized to metformin or placebo, but none of them achieved the multiple-testing correction for significance. This study confirms that diabetes preventive interventions improve CRFs regardless of CAD genetic risk, and delivers hypothesis-generating data on the varying benefit of increasing physical activity and improving diet on intermediate cardiovascular risk factors depending on individual CAD genetic risk profile.

2.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 473-484, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of genetic variation to food timing, and breakfast has been determined to exhibit the most heritable meal timing. As breakfast timing and skipping are not routinely measured in large cohort studies, alternative approaches include analyses of correlated traits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate breakfast skipping genetic variants through a proxy-phenotype genome-wide association study (GWAS) for breakfast cereal skipping, a commonly assessed correlated trait. METHODS: We leveraged the statistical power of the UK Biobank (n = 193,860) to identify genetic variants related to breakfast cereal skipping as a proxy-phenotype for breakfast skipping and applied several in silico approaches to investigate mechanistic functions and links to traits/diseases. Next, we attempted validation of our approach in smaller breakfast skipping GWAS from the TwinUK (n = 2,006) and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium (n = 11,963). RESULTS: In the UK Biobank, we identified 6 independent GWAS variants, including those implicated for caffeine (ARID3B/CYP1A1), carbohydrate metabolism (FGF21), schizophrenia (ZNF804A), and encoding enzymes important for N6-methyladenosine RNA transmethylation (METTL4, YWHAB, and YTHDF3), which regulates the pace of the circadian clock. Expression of identified genes was enriched in the cerebellum. Genome-wide correlation analyses indicated positive correlations with anthropometric traits. Through Mendelian randomization (MR), we observed causal links between genetically determined breakfast skipping and higher body mass index, more depressive symptoms, and smoking. In bidirectional MR, we demonstrated a causal link between being an evening person and skipping breakfast, but not vice versa. We observed association of our signals in an independent breakfast skipping GWAS in another British cohort (P = 0.032), TwinUK, but not in a meta-analysis of non-British cohorts from the CHARGE consortium (P = 0.095). CONCLUSIONS: Our proxy-phenotype GWAS identified 6 genetic variants for breakfast skipping, linking clock regulation with food timing and suggesting a possible beneficial role of regular breakfast intake as part of a healthy lifestyle.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1202-1208, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies show that higher hemoglobin A1c (A1C) predicts coronary artery disease (CAD). It remains unclear whether this association is driven entirely by glycemia. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to test whether A1C is causally associated with CAD through glycemic and/or nonglycemic factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To examine the association of A1C with CAD, we selected 50 A1C-associated variants (log10 Bayes factor ≥6) from an A1C genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 159,940) and performed an inverse-variance weighted average of variant-specific causal estimates from CAD GWAS data (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D; 60,801 CAD case subjects/123,504 control subjects). We then replicated results in UK Biobank (18,915 CAD case subjects/455,971 control subjects) and meta-analyzed all results. Next, we conducted analyses using two subsets of variants, 16 variants associated with glycemic measures (fasting or 2-h glucose) and 20 variants associated with erythrocyte indices (e.g., hemoglobin [Hb]) but not glycemic measures. In additional MR analyses, we tested the association of Hb with A1C and CAD. RESULTS: Genetically increased A1C was associated with higher CAD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.61 [95% CI 1.40, 1.84] per %-unit, P = 6.9 × 10-12). Higher A1C was associated with increased CAD risk when using only glycemic variants (OR 2.23 [1.73, 2.89], P = 1.0 × 10-9) and when using only erythrocytic variants (OR 1.30 [1.08, 1.57], P = 0.006). Genetically decreased Hb, with concomitantly decreased mean corpuscular volume, was associated with higher A1C (0.30 [0.27, 0.33] %-unit, P = 2.9 × 10-6) per g/dL and higher CAD risk (OR 1.19 [1.04, 1.37], P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evidence supports a causal link between higher A1C and higher CAD risk. This relationship is driven not only by glycemic but also by erythrocytic, glycemia-independent factors.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

8.
Adv Nutr ; 9(2): 128-135, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659694

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence in polygenic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes, observed over the past few decades is more likely linked to a rapid transition in lifestyle rather than to changes in the sequence of the nuclear genome. In the new era of precision medicine, nutritional genomics holds the promise to be translated into tailored nutritional strategies to prevent and manage polygenic diseases more effectively. Nutritional genomics aims to prevent, treat, and manage polygenic diseases through targeted therapies formulated from individuals' genetic makeup and dietary intake. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) has become commercially available to equip individuals with information on their genetic vulnerability to different diseases. This information may potentially prompt behavioral changes against adverse factors. However, scientific evidence behind the clinical recommendations is a matter of continuous debate, and behavioral modifications after disclosing genetic information remain inconclusive. In this review, we provide an overview of nutritional genomics and related nutritional DTC-GT services and discuss whether available data are sufficient to be translated into clinical recommendations and public health initiatives. Overall, the scientific evidence supporting the dissemination of genomic information for nutrigenomic purposes remains sparse. Therefore, additional knowledge needs to be generated, particularly for polygenic traits.

9.
Diabetologia ; 61(6): 1315-1324, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626220

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Identifying the metabolite profile of individuals with normal fasting glucose (NFG [<5.55 mmol/l]) who progressed to type 2 diabetes may give novel insights into early type 2 diabetes disease interception and detection. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study among 1150 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort participants, age 40-65 years, with NFG. Plasma metabolites were profiled by LC-MS/MS. Penalised regression models were used to select measured metabolites for type 2 diabetes incidence classification (training dataset) and to internally validate the discriminatory capability of selected metabolites beyond conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors (testing dataset). RESULTS: Over a follow-up period of 20 years, 95 individuals with NFG developed type 2 diabetes. Nineteen metabolites were selected repeatedly in the training dataset for type 2 diabetes incidence classification and were found to improve type 2 diabetes risk prediction beyond conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors (AUC was 0.81 for risk factors vs 0.90 for risk factors + metabolites, p = 1.1 × 10-4). Using pathway enrichment analysis, the nitrogen metabolism pathway, which includes three prioritised metabolites (glycine, taurine and phenylalanine), was significantly enriched for association with type 2 diabetes risk at the false discovery rate of 5% (p = 0.047). In adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, the type 2 diabetes risk per 1 SD increase in glycine, taurine and phenylalanine was 0.65 (95% CI 0.54, 0.78), 0.73 (95% CI 0.59, 0.9) and 1.35 (95% CI 1.11, 1.65), respectively. Mendelian randomisation demonstrated a similar relationship for type 2 diabetes risk per 1 SD genetically increased glycine (OR 0.89 [95% CI 0.8, 0.99]) and phenylalanine (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.08, 2.4]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In individuals with NFG, information from a discrete set of 19 metabolites improved prediction of type 2 diabetes beyond conventional risk factors. In addition, the nitrogen metabolism pathway and its components emerged as a potential effector of earliest stages of type 2 diabetes pathophysiology.

10.
J Nutr ; 148(2): 285-297, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490094

RESUMO

Background: Joint data analysis from multiple nutrition studies may improve the ability to answer complex questions regarding the role of nutritional status and diet in health and disease. Objective: The objective was to identify nutritional observational studies from partners participating in the European Nutritional Phenotype Assessment and Data Sharing Initiative (ENPADASI) Consortium, as well as minimal requirements for joint data analysis. Methods: A predefined template containing information on study design, exposure measurements (dietary intake, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, anthropometric measures, and sociodemographic and health status), main health-related outcomes, and laboratory measurements (traditional and omics biomarkers) was developed and circulated to those European research groups participating in the ENPADASI under the strategic research area of "diet-related chronic diseases." Information about raw data disposition and metadata sharing was requested. A set of minimal requirements was abstracted from the gathered information. Results: Studies (12 cohort, 12 cross-sectional, and 2 case-control) were identified. Two studies recruited children only and the rest recruited adults. All studies included dietary intake data. Twenty studies collected blood samples. Data on traditional biomarkers were available for 20 studies, of which 17 measured lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin and 13 measured inflammatory biomarkers. Metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics or transcriptomics data were available in 5, 3, and 12 studies, respectively. Although the study authors were willing to share metadata, most refused, were hesitant, or had legal or ethical issues related to sharing raw data. Forty-one descriptors of minimal requirements for the study data were identified to facilitate data integration. Conclusions: Combining study data sets will enable sufficiently powered, refined investigations to increase the knowledge and understanding of the relation between food, nutrition, and human health. Furthermore, the minimal requirements for study data may encourage more efficient secondary usage of existing data and provide sufficient information for researchers to draft future multicenter research proposals in nutrition.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Genômica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Metabolômica , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
11.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 50: 35-40, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459268

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is widespread, affecting the health of hundreds of millions worldwide. The disease results from the complex interplay of lifestyle factors acting on a backdrop of inherited DNA risk variants. Detecting and understanding biomarkers, whether genotypes or other downstream biological features that dictate a person's phenotypic response to different lifestyle exposures, may have tremendous utility in the prevention of T2D. Here, we explore (i) evidence of how human genetic adaptation to diverse local environments might interact with lifestyle factors in T2D, (ii) the key challenges facing the research area of gene×lifestyle interactions in T2D, and (iii) the solutions that might be pursued in future studies. Overall, many preliminary examples of such interactions exist, but none is sufficient to have a major impact on clinical decision making. Future studies, integrating genetics and other biological markers into regulatory networks, are likely to be necessary to facilitate the integration of genomics into lifestyle medicine in T2D.

12.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1411(1): 140-152, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377200

RESUMO

Metabolic disorders present a public health challenge of staggering proportions. In diabetes, there is an urgent need to better understand disease heterogeneity, clinical trajectories, and related comorbidities. A pressing and timely question is whether we are ready for precision medicine in diabetes. Some biological insights that have emerged during the last decade have already been used to direct clinical decision making, especially in monogenic forms of diabetes. However, much work is necessary to integrate high-dimensional explorations into complex disease architectures, less penetrant biological alterations, and broader phenotypes, such as type 2 diabetes. In addition, for precision medicine to take hold in diabetes, reproducibility, interpretability, and actionability remain key guiding objectives. In this review, we examine how mounting data sets generated during the last decade to understand biological variability are now inspiring new venues to clarify diabetes nosology and ultimately translate findings into more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 41(3): 554-561, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rs7903146 T allele in transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanisms for increased risk remain unclear. We evaluated the physiologic and hormonal effects of TCF7L2 genotype before and after interventions that influence glucose physiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped rs7903146 in 608 individuals without diabetes and recorded biochemical data before and after 1) one dose of glipizide (5 mg) on visit 1 and 2) a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed after administration of metformin 500 mg twice daily over 2 days. Incretin levels were measured in 150 of the 608 participants. RESULTS: TT risk-allele homozygotes had 1.6 mg/dL higher baseline fasting glucose levels and 2.5 pg/mL lower glucagon levels per T allele than carriers of other genotypes at baseline. In a subset of participants, the T allele was associated with higher basal glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels at visit 1 (ß = 1.52, P = 0.02 and ß = 0.96, P = 0.002 for total and active GLP-1, respectively), and across all points of the OGTT after metformin administration. Regarding drug response, the T allele was associated with a shorter time (ß = -7.00, P = 0.03) and a steeper slope (ß = 0.23, P = 0.04) to trough glucose levels after glipizide administration, and lower visit 2 fasting glucose level adjusted for visit 1 fasting glucose level (ß = -1.02, P = 0.04) and a greater decline in glucose level between visits (ß = -1.61, P = 0.047) after metformin administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that common variation at TCF7L2 influences acute responses to both glipizide and metformin in people without diabetes and highlight altered incretin signaling as a potential mechanism by which TCF7L2 variation increases T2D risk.


Assuntos
Glipizida/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Glucagon/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Curr Diab Rep ; 17(12): 135, 2017 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103096

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize and reflect on advances over the past decade in human genetic and metabolomic discovery with particular focus on their contributions to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 10 years, a combination of advances in genotyping efficiency, metabolomic profiling, bioinformatics approaches, and international collaboration have moved T2D genetics and metabolomics from a state of frustration to an abundance of new knowledge. Efforts to control and prevent T2D have failed to stop this global epidemic. New approaches are needed, and although neither genetic nor metabolomic profiling yet have a clear clinical role, the rapid pace of accumulating knowledge offers the possibility for "multi-omic" prediction to improve health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Medição de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 6723931, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883903

RESUMO

Dietary polyphenols come mainly from plant-based foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, coffee, tea, and nuts. Polyphenols may influence glycemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) through different mechanisms, such as promoting the uptake of glucose in tissues, and therefore improving insulin sensitivity. This review aims to summarize the evidence from clinical trials and observational prospective studies linking dietary polyphenols to prediabetes and T2D, with a focus on polyphenol-rich foods characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. We aimed to describe the metabolic biomarkers related to polyphenol intake and genotype-polyphenol interactions modulating the effects on T2D. Intakes of polyphenols, especially flavan-3-ols, and their food sources have demonstrated beneficial effects on insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Several prospective studies have shown inverse associations between polyphenol intake and T2D. The Mediterranean diet and its key components, olive oil, nuts, and red wine, have been inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2D. To some extent, these associations may be attributed to the high amount of polyphenols and bioactive compounds in typical foods conforming this traditional dietary pattern. Few studies have suggested that genetic predisposition can modulate the relationship between polyphenols and T2D risk. In conclusion, the intake of polyphenols may be beneficial for both insulin resistance and T2D risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Mediterrânea , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina
16.
Diabetes Care ; 40(5): 687-693, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28298470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that genetically raised hyperglycemia increases coronary artery disease (CAD) risk separately from the risk conferred by type 2 diabetes as a whole. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using summary-level statistics from the largest published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) (n = 133,010 participants free of diabetes) and CAD (n = 63,746 case subjects and 130,681 control subjects) of predominantly European ancestry. FG-increasing variants associated with type 2 diabetes from the largest GWAS for type 2 diabetes were excluded. Variants with pleiotropic effects on other CAD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, and obesity) were excluded using summary-level data from the largest published GWAS. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to validate the MR instrument and to build an FG genetic risk score (GRS). RESULTS: In an instrumental variable analysis comprising 12 FG-raising variants, a 1 mmol/L increase in FG revealed an effect-size estimate of 1.43 CAD odds (95% CI 1.14-1.79). The association was preserved after excluding variants for heterogeneity and pleiotropic effects on other CAD risk factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.33 [95% CI 1.02-1.73]). The 12 FG-increasing variants did not significantly increase type 2 diabetes risk (OR 1.05 [95% CI 0.91-1.23]), and its prevalence was constant across FG GRS quintiles (P = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support that genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia raises the odds of CAD separately from type 2 diabetes and other CAD risk factors. These findings suggest that modulating glycemia may provide cardiovascular benefit.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hiperglicemia/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(46): e1807, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26579797

RESUMO

Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function.A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained.After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and -0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; -0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and -1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and -0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and -2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters.Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of GABA on BP, preferably using a specific design for noninferiority trials and ambulatory BP monitoring as a measure of BP.This study was registered at Current Controlled Trials as ISRCTN31436822.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Alimentos Fortificados , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Potássio , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pão , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 101(3): 440-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25733627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unknown whether decreasing sodium intake to <2300 mg/d has an effect on CVD or all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether reductions in sodium intake to <2300 mg/d were associated with either an increased or a decreased risk of fatal and nonfatal CVD and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: This observational prospective study of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial included 3982 participants at high CVD risk. Sodium intake was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and categorized as low (<1500 mg/d), intermediate (≥1500 to ≤2300 mg/d), high (>2300 to ≤3400 mg/d), or very high (>3400 mg/d). Subsequently, 1-y and 3-y changes in sodium intake were calculated. Multivariate relative risks were assessed by using Cox proportional hazards ratios. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting were used to test the effect of changes in sodium intake and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). RESULTS: We documented 125 CVD events and 131 deaths after a 4.8-y median follow-up. Sodium intake <2300 mg/d was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality: 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.91; P = 0.02) and 49% (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98; P = 0.04) after 1 and 3 y, respectively. Increasing sodium intake after 1 y was associated with a 72% (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.91; P = 0.04) higher risk of CVD events. The incidence rate of CVD was reduced for those who reduced their sodium intake and were randomly assigned to MedDiet interventions [4.1/10,000 (95% CI: 3.1, 8.0) compared with 4.4/10,000 (95% CI: 2.7, 12.4) person-years; P = 0.002]. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing sodium intake to <2300 mg/d was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, whereas increasing the intake to >2300 mg/d was associated with a higher risk of CVD. Our observational data suggest that sodium intake <2300 mg/d was associated with an enhanced beneficial effect of the MedDiet on CVD. These results should be interpreted with caution, and other confirmatory studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Hipossódica , Promoção da Saúde , Política Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hipossódica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 26(3): 147-158, mayo-jun. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-124898

RESUMO

Las concentraciones plasmáticas elevadas de colesterol LDL (cLDL) son un factor de riesgo para la enfermedad cardiovascular. A pesar de las diversas recomendaciones internacionales sobre el manejo de la hipercolesterolemia, el porcentaje de pacientes con cLDL superior a sus objetivos terapéuticos según su riesgo cardiovascular global es alto, por lo que es necesario utilizar todas las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles. El consumo de alimentos enriquecidos con fitoesteroles (FER) y fitoestanoles (FEN) reduce los niveles de cLDL en torno a un 10%. El uso de FER/FEN se recomienda como parte integral de los cambios dietéticos dirigidos al control y reducción de los lípidos plasmáticos, sin embargo debe recordarse que estos alimentos mantienen su efecto de descenso adicional de los niveles de cLDL cuando se administran junto a tratamientos farmacológicos hipolipidemiantes. En esta revisión, se resumen las últimas evidencias clínicas del consumo de alimentos enriquecidos con FER/FEN con relación a la modificación de las concentraciones de cLDL cuando se administran solos o asociados a fármacos hipolipidemiantes, así como las últimas recomendaciones internacionales sobre su papel en el manejo clínico de la hipercolesterolemia (AU)


Raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) plasma concentration is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite international recommendations on hypercholesterolemia management the percentage of individuals with LDLc plasma concentration above goals according to their global cardiovascular risk remains high, and additional therapeutic strategies should be evaluated. Consumption of functional foods enriched with phytosterols (PSRs) and phytostanols (PSNs) reduces LDLc concentrations by 10% as average. Although recommended as part of any lipid-lowering diet in the first intervention step, PSRs/PSNs maintain their LDL reduction capacity when administered with lipid-lowering drugs; therefore, they can be also considered in some cases as an adjuvant to drug therapy. In this document we summarise the latest evidence regarding the LDL reducing effects of PSR/PSN supplementation, alone or as an add-on to hipolipemic drugs and the international recommendations of its clinical use (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Fatores de Risco , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico
20.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 26(3): 147-58, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24815006

RESUMO

Raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) plasma concentration is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite international recommendations on hypercholesterolemia management the percentage of individuals with LDLc plasma concentration above goals according to their global cardiovascular risk remains high, and additional therapeutic strategies should be evaluated. Consumption of functional foods enriched with phytosterols (PSRs) and phytostanols (PSNs) reduces LDLc concentrations by 10% as average. Although recommended as part of any lipid-lowering diet in the first intervention step, PSRs/PSNs maintain their LDL reduction capacity when administered with lipid-lowering drugs; therefore, they can be also considered in some cases as an adjuvant to drug therapy. In this document we summarise the latest evidence regarding the LDL reducing effects of PSR/PSN supplementation, alone or as an add-on to hipolipemic drugs and the international recommendations of its clinical use.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Cooperação Internacional , Fatores de Risco
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