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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506954

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (phomogeneity = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (ptrend = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (phomogeneity = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.

2.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008399, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527905

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the most important challenges to the treatment of bacterial infections. A critical issue to combat AMR is to restrict its spread. In several instances, bacterial plasmids are involved in the global spread of AMR. Plasmids belonging to the incompatibility group (Inc)HI are widespread in Enterobacteriaceae and most of them express multiple antibiotic resistance determinants. They play a relevant role in the recent spread of colistin resistance. We present in this report novel findings regarding IncHI plasmid conjugation. Conjugative transfer in liquid medium of an IncHI plasmid requires expression of a plasmid-encoded, large-molecular-mass protein that contains an Ig-like domain. The protein, termed RSP, is encoded by a gene (ORF R0009) that maps in the Tra2 region of the IncHI1 R27 plasmid. The RSP protein is exported outside the cell by using the plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system that is also used for its transmission to new cells. Expression of the protein reduces cell motility and enables plasmid conjugation. Flagella are one of the cellular targets of the RSP protein. The RSP protein is required for a high rate of plasmid transfer in both flagellated and nonflagellated Salmonella cells. This effect suggests that RSP interacts with other cellular structures as well as with flagella. These unidentified interactions must facilitate mating pair formation and, hence, facilitate IncHI plasmid conjugation. Due to its location on the outer surfaces of the bacterial cell, targeting the RSP protein could be a means of controlling IncHI plasmid conjugation in natural environments or of combatting infections caused by AMR enterobacteria that harbor IncHI plasmids.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS: Associations between pre-diagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of 7 conjugated bile acid metabolites, i.e. primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1=2.22,95 % confidence interval[CI]=1.52, 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95%CI=1.23, 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.13, 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95%CI=1.11-2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95%CI=1.13, 2.40) as well as the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.12, 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95%CI=1.02, 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that pre-diagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1089-1092, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up. METHODS: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems. IMPACT: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 421-429, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195115

RESUMO

Here we present immunostimulant-loaded nanoliposomes (NLc) as a strategy to protect zebrafish larvae against bacterial infection. The NLc encapsulate crude lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), a synthetic analogue of viral dsRNA. Fluorescently-labeled NLc were ingested by zebrafish larvae 4 days post fertilization, when administrated by bath immersion, and accumulated in the intestine. RT-qPCR analysis showed the expression of innate immune related genes (tnfα, il1ß, nos2a, irf1a and ptgs2a) was significantly upregulated at 48 h post NLc treatment. A zebrafish larvae infection model for Aeromonas hydrophila was set up by bath immersion, achieving bacterial-dose-dependent significant differences in survival at day 5 post infection in both injured and non-injured larvae. Using this model, NLc protected non-injured zebrafish larvae against an A. hydrophila lethal infection. In contrast, neither the empty nanoliposomes nor the mixture of immunostimulants could protect larvae against lethal challenges. Our results demonstrate that nanoliposomes could be further developed as an efficient carrier, widening the scope for delivery of other immunostimulants in aquaculture.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 145(6): 1510-1516, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585640

RESUMO

Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow-up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99-1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63-1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259989

RESUMO

Recently, we identified unique processing patterns of apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Our study provides a first prospective evaluation of an ApoA2 isoform ("ApoA2-ATQ/AT"), alone and in combination with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), as an early detection biomarker for pancreatic cancer. We performed ELISA measurements of CA19-9 and ApoA2-ATQ/AT in 156 patients with pancreatic cancer and 217 matched controls within the European EPIC cohort, using plasma samples collected up to 60 months prior to diagnosis. The detection discrimination statistics were calculated for risk scores by strata of lag-time. For CA19-9, in univariate marker analyses, C-statistics to distinguish future pancreatic cancer patients from cancer-free individuals were 0.80 for plasma taken ≤6 months before diagnosis, and 0.71 for >6-18 months; for ApoA2-ATQ/AT, C-statistics were 0.62, and 0.65, respectively. Joint models based on ApoA2-ATQ/AT plus CA19-9 significantly improved discrimination within >6-18 months (C = 0.74 vs. 0.71 for CA19-9 alone, p = 0.022) and ≤ 18 months (C = 0.75 vs. 0.74, p = 0.022). At 98% specificity, and for lag times of ≤6, >6-18 or ≤ 18 months, sensitivities were 57%, 36% and 43% for CA19-9 combined with ApoA2-ATQ/AT, respectively, vs. 50%, 29% and 36% for CA19-9 alone. Compared to CA19-9 alone, the combination of CA19-9 and ApoA2-ATQ/AT may improve detection of pancreatic cancer up to 18 months prior to diagnosis under usual care, and may provide a useful first measure for pancreatic cancer detection prior to imaging.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191956

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to play a role in tumour development. Previous prospective studies have shown that higher circulating concentrations of IGF-I are associated with a higher risk of cancers at specific sites, including breast and prostate. No prospective study has examined the association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk. A nested case-control study of 1221 melanoma cases and 1221 controls was performed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a prospective cohort of 520,000 participants recruited from 10 European countries. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for incident melanoma in relation to circulating IGF-I concentrations, measured by immunoassay. Analyses were conditioned on the matching factors and further adjusted for age at blood collection, education, height, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, marital status, physical activity, and in women only, use of menopausal hormone therapy. There was no significant association between circulating IGF-I concentration and melanoma risk (OR for highest vs lowest fifth=0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71 to 1.22)). There was no significant heterogeneity in the association between IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk when subdivided by sex, age at blood collection, BMI, height, age at diagnosis, time between blood collection and diagnosis, or by anatomical site or histological subtype of the tumour (Pheterogeneity≥0.078). We found no evidence for an association between circulating concentrations of IGF-I measured in adulthood and the risk of melanoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178496

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) has an exceptionally low survival rate and primary prevention strategies are limited. Folate plays an important role in one-carbon metabolism and has been associated with the risk of several cancers, but not consistently with PC risk. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary folate intake and PC risk, using the standardised folate database across 10 European countries. A total of 477,206 participants were followed up for 11 years, during which 865 incident primary PC cases were recorded. Folate intake was energy-adjusted using the residual method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In multivariable analyses stratified by age, sex, study centre and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, BMI, educational level, diabetes status, supplement use and dietary fibre intake, we found no significant association between folate intake and PC risk: the HR of PC risk for those in the highest quartile of folate intake (≥353 µg/d) compared with the lowest (<241 µg/d) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.38). In current smokers, a positive trend was observed in PC risk across folate quartiles (HR=4.42 (95% CI: 1.05, 18.62) for ≥353 µg/d vs. <241 µg/d, Ptrend = 0.01). Nonetheless, there was no significant interaction between smoking and dietary folate intake (Pinteraction = 0.99). We found no association between dietary folate intake and PC risk in this large European study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 142(3): 449-459, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688112

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Verduras
12.
J Nutr ; 147(7): 1366-1373, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592517

RESUMO

Background: Differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine cancer. Fish can be an important source of iodine and other micronutrients and contaminants that may affect the thyroid gland and TC risk.Objective: We prospectively evaluated the relations between the consumption of total fish and different fish types and shellfish and TC risk in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study.Methods: EPIC is a cohort of >500,000 men and women, mostly aged 35-70 y, who were recruited in 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 14 y, 748 primary differentiated TC cases were diagnosed; 666 were in women and 601 were papillary TC. Data on intakes of lean fish, fatty fish, fish products, and shellfish were collected by using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for many potential confounders, including dietary and nondietary factors.Results: No significant association was observed between total fish consumption and differentiated TC risk for the highest compared with the lowest quartile (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.32; P-trend = 0.67). Likewise, no significant association was observed with the intake of any specific type of fish, fish product, or shellfish. No significant heterogeneity was found by TC subtype (papillary or follicular tumors), by sex, or between countries with low and high TC incidence.Conclusion: This large study shows that the intake of fish and shellfish was not associated with differentiated TC risk in Europe, a region in which iodine deficiency or excess is rare.


Assuntos
Dieta , Peixes , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
13.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(7): 699-707, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575311

RESUMO

Adequate intake of copper and zinc, two essential micronutrients, are important for antioxidant functions. Their imbalance may have implications for development of diseases like colorectal cancer (CRC), where oxidative stress is thought to be etiologically involved. As evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies is lacking, we conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to investigate the association between circulating levels of copper and zinc, and their calculated ratio, with risk of CRC development. Copper and zinc levels were measured by reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in 966 cases and 966 matched controls. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and are presented for the fifth versus first quintile. Higher circulating concentration of copper was associated with a raised CRC risk (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.13; P-trend = 0.02) whereas an inverse association with cancer risk was observed for higher zinc levels (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.97; P-trend = 0.07). Consequently, the ratio of copper/zinc was positively associated with CRC (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.40; P-trend = 0.0005). In subgroup analyses by follow-up time, the associations remained statistically significant only in those diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection. In conclusion, these data suggest that copper or copper levels in relation to zinc (copper to zinc ratio) become imbalanced in the process of CRC development. Mechanistic studies into the underlying mechanisms of regulation and action are required to further examine a possible role for higher copper and copper/zinc ratio levels in CRC development and progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Cobre/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(6)2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561753

RESUMO

The chemical structure and genomics of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core oligosaccharide of pathogenic Edwardsiella tarda strain EIB 202 were studied for the first time. The complete gene assignment for all LPS core biosynthesis gene functions was acquired. The complete structure of core oligosaccharide was investigated by ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry MSn, and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The following structure of the undecasaccharide was established: The heterogeneous appearance of the core oligosaccharide structure was due to the partial lack of ß-d-Galp and the replacement of α-d-GlcpNAcGly by α-d-GlcpNGly. The glycine location was identified by mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Edwardsiella tarda/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273861

RESUMO

Erwinia amylovora (E. amylovora) is the first bacterial plant pathogen described and demonstrated to cause fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of species including a wide variety of Rosaceae. In this study, we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure from E. amylovora strain CFBP1430, the first one for an E. amylovora highly pathogenic strain. The chemical characterization was performed on the mutants waaL (lacking only the O-antigen LPS with a complete LPS-core), wabH and wabG (outer-LPS core mutants). The LPSs were isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, they were subjected to a mild acid hydrolysis and/or a hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by one and two dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ElectroSpray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Erwinia amylovora/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Acetilação , Erwinia amylovora/genética , Hidrólise , Lipopolissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , Mutação , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264491

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are an integral part of the Gram-negative outer membrane, playing important organizational and structural roles and taking part in the bacterial infection process. In Aeromonas hydrophila, piscicola, and salmonicida, three different genomic regions taking part in the LPS core oligosaccharide (Core-OS) assembly have been identified, although the characterization of these clusters in most aeromonad species is still lacking. Here, we analyse the conservation of these LPS biosynthesis gene clusters in the all the 170 currently public Aeromonas genomes, including 30 different species, and characterise the structure of a putative common inner Core-OS in the Aeromonadaceae family. We describe three new genomic organizations for the inner Core-OS genomic regions, which were more evolutionary conserved than the outer Core-OS regions, which presented remarkable variability. We report how the degree of conservation of the genes from the inner and outer Core-OS may be indicative of the taxonomic relationship between Aeromonas species.


Assuntos
Aeromonadaceae/genética , Aeromonadaceae/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Ordem dos Genes , Genes Bacterianos , Genômica/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/química
17.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(1)Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performing high intensity or exhaustive exercise can lead to muscle damage such as injuries, chronic fatigue and overtraining, partly due to the high synthesis of reactive oxygen species. The α-lipoic acid (ALA) and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, act as potent antioxidant and eliminate free radicals. Although this response depends on the type of exercise and supplementation, animal and human studies have shown the benefits of antioxidant supplementation on the recovery of damages caused by exhaustive exercise, either by restoring antioxidant levels or by decreasing the damage. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of ALA supplementation on muscular biomarkers of oxidative stress following exhaustive exercise of trained mice. METHODS: Sixty mice were trained to swim for 6 weeks. On the last week, half of the animals were supplemented daily with 100 mg/kg of oral gavage of ALA in soy oil as a vehicle. The other half received just the vehicle. On the last day 20 animals from each group were submitted to an exhaustion protocol with 10% overweight attached to tail. Animals were euthanized on 3 moments: basal, just after the exhaustive protocol (0 h) and, 4 h after the exhaustive protocol. The gastrocnemius muscle was promptly excised and homogenized. The homogenates were used to estimate oxidative stress biomarkers. RESULTS: There was a simultaneous decrease of non-protein thiols and vitamin E after 4 h of exhaustive exercise in the ALA group (p<0.05) compared to the control group, suggesting the consumption of these compounds in the process of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, there was an increase of nitrate and nitrite in ALA group (p<0.05) and a decrease in the control (p<0.05) compared to basal moment, possibly by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The total antioxidant capacity remained unchanged in the ALA group. CONCLUSION: The supplementation with ALA resulted in a protection against oxidative stress caused by exhaustive exercise.


CONTEXTO: A realização de exercício de alta intensidade ou exaustivo pode levar a danos musculares, como lesões, fadiga crônica e overtraining, em parte devido à alta síntese de espécies reativas de oxigênio. O ácido α-lipóico e sua forma reduzida, o ácido dihidrolipóico, atuam como potentes antioxidantes e eliminam os radicais livres. Apesar de depender do tipo de exercício e suplementação, estudos com animais e humanos mostram benefícios da suplementação com antioxidante na recuperação de danos causados pelo exercício exaustivo, seja restaurando os níveis de antioxidantes ou diminuindo os danos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com ácido α-lipóico sobre biomarcadores musculares de estresse oxidativo após o exercício exaustivo de camundongos treinados. METODOLOGIA: Os camundongos (n = 60) foram treinados em natação por 6 semanas. Na última semana, metade dos animais foram suplementados diariamente com gavagem oral de 100 mg / kg de ácido α-lipóico em óleo de soja como veículo. A outra metade recebeu apenas o veículo. No último dia 20 animais de cada grupo foram submetidos ao protocolo de exaustão com 10% de sobrepeso atado à cauda. Os animais foram eutanasiados em 3 momentos: basal, logo após o protocolo de exaustão (0 h) e 4 h após o protocolo de exaustão. O músculo gastrocnêmio foi imediatamente coletado e homogeneizado. Os homogeneizados foram usados para acessar os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição simultânea de tióis não protéicos e vitamina E após 4 h de exercício exaustivo no grupo ácido α-lipóico (p <0,05) em relação ao grupo controle, sugerindo o consumo destes compostos no processo de peroxidação lipídica. Interessantemente, houve aumento de nitrato e nitrito no grupo ácido α-lipóico (p <0,05) e diminuição no controle (p <0,05) em relação ao momento basal, possivelmente pela ativação da óxido nítrico sintase endotelial. A capacidade antioxidante total permaneceu inalterada no grupo ácido α-lipóico. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com ácido α-lipóico resultou em proteção contra o estresse oxidativo causado pelo exercício exaustivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Tióctico/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise
18.
Int J Cancer ; 140(8): 1836-1844, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006847

RESUMO

Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1574, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27757107

RESUMO

The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1ΔvapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1ΔrmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-1ΔwahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates that zebrafish larvae can be used as a host model to assess the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. This model revealed more differences in pathogenicity than the in vitro models and enabled the detection of slight variations in pathogenesis not observed using intraperitoneal injections of mice or fish.

20.
Genome Announc ; 4(5)2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587828

RESUMO

Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern.

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