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1.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 20(5): 712-734, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527339

RESUMO

Contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the epidermis and dermis at the site of exposure triggered by external agents. The two main forms are irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, which cause significant health and socioeconomic costs in addition to a marked reduction in quality of life. The anamnesis and the clinical picture are decisive for the necessary diagnostic measures. The most accurate possible diagnostic classification of contact dermatitis by means of allergological testing is important for disease management, since not only classical eczema therapy but also avoidance of the exogenous triggering factors are of great importance here. The choice of therapy should be based on the acuity, clinical severity, morphology of the lesions and localization of the contact dermatitis. A combination of basic therapy, topical, physical, and systemic therapy adapted to the patient's needs is required, whereby not all forms of therapy must be carried out simultaneously but can be used in a varying manner. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies aim at the recognition of the triggering noxae or allergens with subsequent contact avoidance or minimization. The present S1-guideline on contact dermatitis is primarily intended to provide dermatologists, allergologists and physicians working in allergology and occupational dermatology with a decision-making aid for the selection and implementation of suitable and sufficient diagnostics, therapy, and prevention.

3.
Allergol Select ; 6: 11-17, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098017

RESUMO

Most allergic reactions to antibiotics are caused by ß-lactam antibiotics; however non-ß-lactam antibiotics are also capable of causing both immediate allergic reactions as well as late-type reactions to these drugs. This is especially true for fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides. Of these, the combination of sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim (Cotrimoxazol, e.g., Bactrim) is most important. However, there are certain types of reactions to non-ß-lactam antibiotics that are not associated with ß-lactam antibiotics. These include photosensitivity to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones as well as different patterns of drug metabolism and associations with HLA alleles that may influence their prevalence. This review is focused on recent findings regarding the pathogenesis of allergic reactions to non-ß-lactam antibiotics.

4.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(8): e12058, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pollen allergies is mainly based on test allergens for skin prick testing. In the minimum battery of test inhalant allergens recommended by the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network 10 pollen allergens are included. Complementary other pollen allergens may need to be considered; however, respective awareness may not always be granted. Furthermore, at least in Germany, the situation may be even more complicated by the fact that test allergens need regulatory approval. A decline in commercially available test allergens may result in a diagnostic gap regarding patients with non-frequent allergies. How many patients with non-frequent pollen allergies would be affected by this gap? The data presented here partly answer this question. METHODS: The study consisted of a descriptive and an analytical part. In the descriptive part, sensitization to frequent pollen allergens (alder, hazel, birch, sweet grasses; according to the German Therapy Allergen Ordinance) and to respective non-frequent pollen allergens (cypress, Japanese cedar, ash, plane tree, olive, Bermuda grass, wall pellitory, plantain, goosefoot, mugwort, ragweed, and saltwort) was measured in adult patients with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis from two German federal states, namely North-Rhine Westphalia (n = 360) and Bavaria (n = 339), using skin prick testing and/or ISAC technology. Furthermore, respective regional pollen data were assessed. In the analytical part, sensitization data were correlated with each other and with anamnestic data on symptom periods. RESULTS: Sensitization to frequent pollen allergens ranged from 45% (sIgE to Aln g 1/Alder, NRW) to 72% (prick test reactivity to birch, NRW). Sensitization to non-frequent pollen allergens ranged from 0% (sIgE to Amb a 1/ragweed, NRW) to 41% (prick test reactivity to olive, Bavaria). Sensitization data partly correlated with each other and in connection with symptom periods showed a partly similar seasonal pattern as pollen data. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitization to non-frequent pollen allergens have to be considered when examining patients with respective seasonal symptoms, and test (and respective therapy) allergens for non-frequent pollen allergies need to be available. Further prerequisites for adequate patient management would be a nationwide pollen monitoring system giving continuous pollen data and a systematic sensitization monitoring at patient level.

5.
Allergo J Int ; 30(8): 261-269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603938

RESUMO

Peanuts are Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume or pea family, and peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies and the most common cause of fatal food reactions and anaphylaxis. The prevalence of peanut allergy increased 3.5-fold over the past two decades reaching 1.4-2% in Europe and the United States. The reasons for this increase in prevalence are likely multifaceted. Sensitization via the skin appears to be associated with the development of peanut allergy and atopic eczema in infancy is associated with a high risk of developing peanut allergy. Until recently, the only possible management strategy for peanut allergy was strict allergen avoidance and emergency treatment including adrenaline auto-injector in cases of accidental exposure and reaction. This paper discusses the various factors that impact the risks of peanut allergy and the burden of self-management on peanut-allergic children and their caregivers.

6.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 19(9): 1401-1402, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541807
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574641

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known immunotoxic and carcinogenic compounds. Although cutaneous symptoms are the hallmark of exposure to these compounds, exact pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood. We took skin biopsies from moderately high PCB exposed workers (n = 25) after an informed consent and investigated the expression of immunological markers such as CCL-7, CCL-20, CXCL2, IL-1ß and IL-6, as well as the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9, EPGN and NRF2 by RT-qPCR, and compared expression levels with plasma PCB levels. Statistical analyses showed a significant correlation between CCL-20, CXCL2, IL-6, IL-1ß, CCL-7 and MMP-9 and PCB serum levels. EPGN and NRF2 were not correlated to PCB levels in the blood. We found a significant correlation of genes involved in autoimmune, auto-inflammatory and carcinogenesis in skin samples of PCB exposed individuals with elevated plasma PCB levels. Confirmation of these findings needs to be performed in bigger study groups and larger gen-sets, including multiple housekeeping genes. Further study needs to be performed to see whether a chronical exposure to these and similar compounds can cause higher incidence of malignancies and inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Carcinógenos , Quimiocina CCL20 , Quimiocina CCL7 , Quimiocina CXCL2 , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Regulação para Cima
10.
Allergo J Int ; 30(5): 155-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) approved in the European Union represent a decisive step in the fight against the pandemic. The application of these available vaccines to patients with pre-existing immunological conditions leads to a multitude of questions regarding efficacy, side effects and the necessary patient information. RESULTS: This review article provides insight into mechanisms of action of the currently available severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and summarises the current state of science as well as expert recommendations regarding tolerability of the vaccines. In addition, the potential to develop protective immune responses is determined. A special focus is given on patients under immunosuppression or in treatment with immunomodulatory drugs. Special groups of the population such as children, pregnant women and the elderly are also considered. CONCLUSION: Despite the need for a patient-specific risk-benefit assessment, the consensus among experts is that patients with immunological diseases in particular benefit from the induced immune protection after COVID-19 vaccination and do not have an increased risk of side effects.

12.
Allergo J Int ; 30(3): 79-95, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the preventive treatment of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) an unprecedented global research effort studied the safety and efficacy of new vaccine platforms that have not been previously used in humans. Less than one year after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral sequence, these vaccines were approved for use in the European Union (EU) as well as in numerous other countries and mass vaccination efforts began. The so far in the EU approved mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are based on similar lipid-based nanoparticle carrier technologies; however, the lipid components differ. Severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination are very rare adverse events but have drawn attention due to potentially lethal outcomes and have triggered a high degree of uncertainty. METHODS: Current knowledge on anaphylactic reactions to vaccines and specifically the new mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was compiled using a literature search in Medline, PubMed, as well as the national and international study and guideline registries, the Cochrane Library, and the Internet, with special reference to official websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Robert Koch Institute (RKI), and Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). RESULTS: Based on the international literature and previous experience, recommendations for prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of these allergic reactions are given by a panel of experts. CONCLUSION: Allergy testing is not necessary for the vast majority of allergic patients prior to COVID-19 vaccination with currently licensed vaccines. In case of allergic/anaphylactic reactions after vaccination, allergy workup is recommended, as it is for a small potential risk population prior to the first vaccination. Evaluation and approval of diagnostic tests should be done for this purpose.

14.
Allergo J Int ; 30(2): 51-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643776

RESUMO

Two employees of the National Health Service (NHS) in England developed severe allergic reactions following administration of BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The British SmPC for the BNT162b2 vaccine already includes reference to a contraindication for use in individuals who have had an allergic reaction to the vaccine or any of its components. As a precautionary measure, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has issued interim guidance to the NHS not to vaccinate in principle in "patients with severe allergies". Allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare, but vaccine components are known to cause allergic reactions. BNT162b2 is a vaccine based on an mRNA embedded in lipid nanoparticles and blended with other substances to enable its transport into the cells. In the pivotal phase III clinical trial, the BNT162b2 vaccine was generally well tolerated, but this large clinical trial, used to support vaccine approval by the MHRA and US Food and Drug Administration, excluded individuals with a "history of a severe adverse reaction related to the vaccine and/or a severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to a component of the study medication". Vaccines are recognized as one of the most effective public health interventions. This repeated administration of a foreign protein (antigen) necessitates a careful allergological history before each application and diagnostic clarification and a risk-benefit assessment before each injection. Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare but can be life-threatening, and it is prudent to raise awareness of this hazard among vaccination teams and to take adequate precautions while more experience is gained with this new vaccine.

17.
Allergol Select ; 5: 72-76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521511

RESUMO

Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare. Single severe reactions have occurred worldwide after vaccination with the new mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. PEG2000 is discussed as a possible trigger. We provide guidance on risk assessment regarding COVID-19 vaccination in patients with allergic diseases and suggest a standardized, resource-oriented diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Reports of severe allergic reactions in the context of COVID-19 vaccination can be made via www.anaphylaxie.net using an online questionnaire.

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