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1.
Science ; 374(6564): 216-224, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618582
2.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387593

RESUMO

Several novel androgen receptor (AR)-inhibitors have been introduced for nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) treatment, with the improvement of survival outcomes which need to be balanced against the risk of adverse events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients, to assess overall survival (OS), incidence and risk of adverse drug events, adverse-events-related death and adverse-events-related treatment discontinuation. We selected three RCTs (SPARTAN, PROSPER and ARAMIS). New hormonal agents administration resulted in better OS, despite the increased risk of several any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events. In the decision-making process, careful evaluation of expected adverse events, patients' comorbidities and maintenance of quality of life are mandatory.

3.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(10): 1237-1243, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407702

RESUMO

Background: With hormonal agents quickly expanding as novel therapeutic options in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), the toxicity profile of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide should be kept in mind.Methods: We performed an updated meta-analysis with the aim to analyze the risk of treatment-related cardiovascular (CV) events, any grade, and grade 3-4 (G3-4) hypertension in nmCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT plus placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results were compared by calculating Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); RRs were combined with Mantel-Haenszel method.Results: Three RCTs involving 4110 patients were available for the meta-analysis. According to our results, the addition of novel hormonal agents was associated with a significantly increased risk of CV events (RR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.29-2.27) and G3-4 hypertension (RR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.19-1.97). In addition, a trend toward a higher risk of any grade hypertension was reported in the experimental arm.Conclusions: The use of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients implies a careful benefit-risk assessment. Real-world, large-cohort studies are warranted to confirm the findings of our meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 135: 159-169, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On February 23rd, the 1st case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was diagnosed at the University Hospital Trust of Verona, Italy. On March 13th, the Oncology Section was converted into a 22-inpatient bed coronavirus disease (COVID) Unit, and we reshaped our organisation to face the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, while maintaining oncological activities. METHODS: We tracked down (i) volumes of oncological activities (January 1st - March 31st, 2020 versus the same period of 2019), (ii) patients' and caregivers' perception and (iii) SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in oncology health professionals and SARS-CoV-2 infection-related hospital admissions of "active"' oncological patients. RESULTS: As compared with the same trimester in 2019, the overall reduction in total numbers of inpatient admissions, chemotherapy administrations and specialist visits in January-March 2020 was 8%, 6% and 3%, respectively; based on the weekly average of daily accesses, reduction in some of the oncological activities became statistically significant from week 11. The overall acceptance of adopted measures, as measured by targeted questionnaires administered to a sample of 241 outpatients, was high (>70%). Overall, 8 of 85 oncology health professionals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (all but one employed in the COVID Unit, no hospital admissions and no treatment required); among 471 patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 7 had an "active"' oncological disease (2 died of infection-related complications). CONCLUSIONS: A slight, but statistically significant reduction in oncology activity was registered during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic peak in Verona, Italy. Organisational and protective measures adopted appear to have contributed to keep infections in both oncological patients and health professionals to a minimum.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Oncologia/organização & administração , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/métodos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Admissão do Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905816

RESUMO

Cabozantinib is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, prognostic factors are still lacking in this context. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in RCC patients treated with second- or third-line cabozantinib. A multicenter retrospective real-world study was conducted, involving 32 worldwide centers. A total of 237 patients with histologically confirmed clear-cell and non-clear-cell RCC who received cabozantinib as second- or third-line therapy for metastatic disease were included. We analyzed overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-strategy failure (TTSF) using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses.The median PFS and OS of cabozantinib were 7.76 months (95% CI 6.51-10.88) and 11.57 months (95% CI 10.90-not reached (NR)) as second-line and 11.38 months (95% CI 5.79-NR) and NR (95% CI 11.51-NR) as third-line therapy. The median TTSF and OS were 11.57 and 15.52 months with the sequence of cabozantinib-nivolumab and 25.64 months and NR with nivolumab-cabozantinib, respectively. The difference between these two sequences was statistically significant only in good-risk patients. In the second-line setting, hemoglobin (Hb) levels (HR= 2.39; 95% CI 1.24-4.60, p = 0.009) and IMDC (International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium) group (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87, p = 0.037) were associated with PFS while ECOG-PS (HR = 2.33; 95%CI, 1.16-4.69, p = 0.018) and Hb levels (HR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.18-8.26, p = 0.023) correlated with OS at multivariate analysis, while in the third-line setting, only Hb levels (HR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.04-7.09, p = 0.042) were associated with OS. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study.This real-world study provides evidence on the presence of prognostic factors in RCC patients receiving cabozantinib.

8.
Breast ; 29: 24-30, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this analysis was to develop and validate a prognostic model for advanced breast cancer (ABC) with luminal subtype based on the combination of clinical, pathological and therapeutic predictors to provide a practical tool to evaluate patients' prognosis. METHODS: Clinical and pathological data were retrospectively correlated to progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS) using a Cox model. Significant treatment variables were adjusted with the propensity score analysis. A continuous score to identify risk classes was derived according to model ratios. The performance of the risk-class model was tested for post-progression survival (PPS) and conditional survival (CS) as well. RESULTS: Data from 335 patients (3 institutions) were gathered (median follow-up 58 months). At multivariate analysis Ki67, Performance Status (PS) and number of metastatic sites were significant predictors for PFS, whereas Ki67, PS, brain metastases, PFS after 1st-line therapy, number of chemotherapy lines, hormonal therapy and maintenance were significant predictors for OS. The hormonal maintenance resulted to be prognostic after adjustment with propensity score analysis. A two-class model significantly differentiated low-risk and high-risk patients for 2-year PFS (31.5% and 11.0%, p < 0.0001), and 3-years OS (57.1% and 4.8%, p < 0.0001). A three-class model separated low risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients for 2-year PFS (40.8%, 24.4%, and 11.0%, p < 0.0001) and 3-year OS (68.1%, 24.8%, and 4.8%, p < 0.0001). Both models equally discriminate the luminal ABC prognosis in terms of PPS and CS. CONCLUSIONS: A risk stratification model including 'easy-to-obtain' clinical, pathological and therapeutic parameters accurately separates luminal ABC patients into different risk classes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 35: 50, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this analysis was to investigate the potential impact of Ki67 assay in a series of patients affected by early stage invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) undergone surgery. METHODS: Clinical-pathological data were correlated with disease-free and overall survival (DFS/OS). The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to the Ki67 continuous variable to estimate appropriate cut-offs. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed to assess the interaction between 'pure' or 'mixed' histology ILC and Ki67. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 67 months, 10-years DFS and OS of 405 patients were 67.8 and 79.8%, respectively. Standardized Log-Rank statistics identified 2 optimal cut-offs (6 and 21%); 10-years DFS and OS were 75.1, 66.5, and 30.2% (p = 0.01) and 84.3, 76.4 and 59% (p = 0.003), for patients with a Ki67 < 6%, between 6 and 21%, and >21%, respectively. Ki67 and lymph-node status were independent predictor for longer DFS and OS at the multivariate analysis, with radiotherapy (for DFS) and age (for OS). Ki67 highly replicated at the internal cross-validation analysis (DFS 85%, OS 100%). The STEPP analysis showed that DFS rate decreases as Ki67 increases and those patients with 'pure' ILC performed worse than 'mixed' histology. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the retrospective and exploratory nature of the study, Ki67 was able to significantly discriminate the prognosis of patients with ILC, and the effect was more pronounced for patients with 'pure' ILC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma Lobular , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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