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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(10): 937-948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681390

RESUMO

Rare cancers together constitute one fourth of cancers. As some rare cancers are caused by occupational exposures, a systematic search for further associations might contribute to future prevention. We undertook a European, multi-center case-control study of occupational risks for cancers of small intestine, bone sarcoma, uveal melanoma, mycosis fungoides, thymus, male biliary tract and breast. Incident cases aged 35-69 years and sex-and age-matched population/colon cancer controls were interviewed, including a complete list of jobs. Associations between occupational exposure and cancer were assessed with unconditional logistic regression controlled for sex, age, country, and known confounders, and reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Interviewed were 1053 cases, 2062 population, and 1084 colon cancer controls. Male biliary tract cancer was associated with exposure to oils with polychlorinated biphenyls; OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.9); male breast cancer with exposure to trichloroethylene; OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.3); bone sarcoma with job as a carpenter/joiner; OR 4.3 (95% CI 1.7-10.5); and uveal melanoma with job as a welder/sheet metal worker; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.52); and cook; OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.4-4.3). A confirmatory study of printers enhanced suspicion of 1,2-dichloropropane as a risk for biliary tract cancer. Results contributed to evidence for classification of welding and 1,2-dichloropronane as human carcinogens. However, despite efforts across nine countries, for some cancer sites only about 100 cases were interviewed. The Rare Cancer Study illustrated both the strengths and limitations of explorative studies for identification of etiological leads.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Raras/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-9, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452337

RESUMO

Epigenetic age acceleration (AA) has been associated with adverse environmental exposures and many chronic conditions. We estimated, in the NINFEA birth cohort, infant saliva epigenetic age, and investigated whether parental socio-economic position (SEP) and pregnancy outcomes are associated with infant epigenetic AA. A total of 139 saliva samples collected at on average 10.8 (range 7-17) months were used to estimate Horvath's DNA methylation age. Epigenetic AA was defined as the residual from a linear regression of epigenetic age on chronological age. Linear regression models were used to test the associations of parental SEP and pregnancy outcomes with saliva epigenetic AA. A moderate positive association was found between DNA methylation age and chronological age, with the median absolute difference of 6.8 months (standard deviation [SD] 3.9). The evidence of the association between the indicators of low SEP and epigenetic AA was weak; infants born to unemployed mothers or with low education had on average 1 month higher epigenetic age than infants of mothers with high education and employment (coefficient 0.78 months, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: -0.79 to 2.34 for low/medium education; 0.96, 95% CI: -1.81 to 3.73 for unemployment). There was no evidence for association of gestational age, birthweight or caesarean section with infant epigenetic AA. Using the Horvath's method, DNA methylation age can be fairly accurately predicted from saliva samples already in the first months of life. This study did not reveal clear associations between either pregnancy outcomes or parental socio-economic characteristics and infant saliva epigenetic AA.

4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(6): e28303, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer stage is a determinant of survival of childhood central nervous system (CNS) cancers and could help the interpretation of survival variability among countries. Consensus guidelines to stage childhood malignancies in population cancer registries ("Toronto Childhood Cancer Stage Guidelines") have been recently proposed with the goal of data comparability. Indeed, stage is not systematically recorded in all registries and, when it is, different classification systems are used. We applied the Toronto Childhood Cancer Stage Guidelines to CNS cancer cases of three population-based cancer registries with the aim of evaluating the feasibility of staging this type of cancer and the critical points in the classification of CNS tumors. PROCEDURES: The Toronto Childhood Cancer Stage Guidelines were applied to 175 CNS patients, diagnosed from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2014 in three cancer registries in Italy, and the percentage of cases that could be staged was assessed. RESULTS: One hundred eight of 126 (86%) medulloblastomas and other embryonal CNS cancers and 22 of 49 (45%) ependymomas were staged. Using these guidelines, survival of children with localized tumors could be discriminated from that of children with metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Toronto Childhood Cancer Stage Guidelines is feasible for staging medulloblastoma in Italian population-based cancer registries, whereas it is more difficult for ependymomas. In Italy, cerebrospinal fluid examination, one of the decisive tests to stage CNS tumors, is not routinely performed as a first-line diagnosis procedure in ependymoma pediatric patients. A similar exercise by a larger number of cancer registries in different countries could suggest improvements in the childhood cancer staging system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150940

RESUMO

The assessment of early life socioeconomic position (SEP) is essential to the tackling of social inequalities in health. Although different indicators capture different SEP dimensions, maternal education is often used as the only indicator in birth cohort research, especially in multi-cohort analyses. Household income, as a direct measure of material resources, is one of the most important indicators, but one that is underused because it is difficult to measure through questionnaires. We propose a method to construct a standardized, cross-cohort comparable income indicator, the "Equivalized Household Income Indicator (EHII)", which measures the equivalized disposable household income, using external data from the pan-European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EUSILC) surveys, and data from the cohorts. We apply this method to four studies, Piccolipiù and NINFEA from Italy and ELFE and EDEN from France, comparing the distribution of EHII with other SEP-related variables available in the cohorts, and estimating the association between EHII and child body mass index (BMI). We found that basic parental and household characteristics may be used, with a fairly good performance, to predict the household income. We observed a strong correlation between EHII and both the self-reported income, whenever available, and other individual socioeconomic-related variables, and an inverse association with child BMI. EHII could contribute to improving research on social inequalities in health, in particular in the context of European birth cohort collaborative studies.


Assuntos
Renda , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , França , Humanos , Itália , Padrões de Referência
8.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(8): e12632, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several exposures during pregnancy are associated with offspring body mass index (BMI). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether third trimester antibiotic use and vaginal infections are associated with BMI in preschool children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population included singletons from the NINFEA birth cohort with available anthropometric measurements at the age of 4 (3151 born with vaginal and 1111 born with caesarean delivery). Self-reported use of antibiotics and the presence of vaginal infection in the third trimester were analysed in association with the child's BMI, classified into three categories: thinness, normal and overweight/obesity, using both the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended cut-offs. RESULTS: Maternal vaginal infections in the third trimester of pregnancy were associated with higher relative risk ratios (RRR) for overweight/obesity at age of four in children delivered vaginally: 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37 to 2.70). This association appeared stronger for children born to women with pre-pregnancy BMI >25 kg/m2 (RRR: 4.78; 95% CI 2.45 to 9.35), and was robust when different obesity cut-offs were used. The results regarding third trimester antibiotic use in vaginal deliveries were less conclusive (RRRs for overweight/obesity: 1.43 (0.92 to 2.21) and 1.11 (0.57 to 2.20), for the IOTF and WHO cut-offs, respectively). Third trimester vaginal infections were not associated with BMI in children delivered by caesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal third trimester vaginal infections are associated with an increased overweight/obesity risk in children born by vaginal delivery, and especially in children of mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity.

9.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 9(2): 196-201, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747324

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe how the provision of services for adolescents with cancer has evolved in Italy, the study evaluated access to pediatric oncology centers affiliated to the national cooperative group Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP), and the development of dedicated local projects. Methods: We calculated the observed/expected (O/E) ratio of adolescent patients (15-19 years old) admitted to AIEOP centers during the years 2013-2017. Observed cases were obtained from the AIEOP database (model 1.01). Expected cases were calculated on the incidence rates derived from the population-based registries. In addition, a questionnaire investigated the presence of any formal upper age limits for admitting patients, and to the development of local projects. Results: In the years 2013-2017, 9534 cases of cancer were registered in the AIEOP database, that is, 8031 children (0-14 years) and 1503 adolescents (15-19 years). The overall O/E ratio was 0.81, that is, 1.06 for children, and 0.37 for adolescents, and differed according the different tumor types. Concerning the questionnaire, 26% of centers reported age limits <18 years. Nineteen centers reported to have local projects dedicated to adolescents. Conclusions: The study shows an improvement in the services for adolescents in Italy, with an increase percentage of cases treated at AIEOP centers (from 10% of previous study, to 37%), the decrease of centers with admission age limits <18 years (from 44% 10 years ago, to 26%), and the development of many specific local projects. Effective cooperation with adult oncology societies and government recognition remain goals to be achieved.

10.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(1): 54-61, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612606

RESUMO

In Italy, the first human case of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection was reported in 2008 and, since then, the number of cases has been steadily increasing. In this study, we describe the temporal and spatial pattern of WNV infection risk among humans in Italy, focusing on the human cases of West Nile Neuro-invasive Disease (WNND) observed between 2008 and 2017. Incidence rates are estimated for each year and province under study. The incidence temporal trend is estimated using Poisson regression, and a spatio-temporal cluster detection analysis is performed to detect high-risk areas. In total, 231 WNND cases were notified in Italy between 2008 and 2017. The annual incidence rates increased during the study period (annual percentage change: 11.7%; 95%CI: -0.9%; 26.1%). A geographical spread of the disease was observed during the study period throughout Northern Italy, with an increasing number of affected provinces. Provinces close to the Po River (the main river in the north of Italy) and the Oristano province (in the Sardinia Island) experienced the highest incidence rates during the study period. Our study shows a gradual, but rapid spread of WNND across Northern Italy from east to west and suggests the hypothesis that provinces close to Po River might present ecological and climatic conditions favourable to the virus circulation.

11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6): 364-368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: health literacy may contribute to the strategies to control the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as individuals need to acquire promptly new health information, understand the reasons behind recommendations, and adapt their behaviour accordingly. OBJECTIVES: to investigate sociodemographic and disease-related factors that can influence self-perceived knowledge (poor/medium vs high) about COVID-19 in women of the Italian NINFEA birth cohort. DESIGN: cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a web-based anonymous survey on COVID-19 was sent in April 2020 to women participating in the NINFEA cohort. A total of 3,129 women were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: using multiple weighted logistic regression models, self-perceived knowledge level was analysed in relation with the following variables: age, education level, family size, cumulative incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases until 7 April 2020 by province, presence of COVID-19-like symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: the prevalence of self-perceived poor/medium knowledge was 57%. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) of self-perceived poor/medium COVID-19 knowledge level was increased for low/medium compared with high education level (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.34-1.84), and decreased for SARS-CoV-2 testing (OR 0.25; 95%CI 0.16-0.39) and COVID-19 diagnosis (OR 0.20; 95%CI 0.07-0.60). There was no evidence of association between the other analysed variables and self-perceived knowledge level. CONCLUSIONS: the findings of this study suggest that low educational level is a determinant of low self-perceived knowledge on COVID-19 in middle-aged women.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Letramento em Saúde , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , População Suburbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 1): 136-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: socioeconomic inequalities in reproductive outcomes have been consistently reported in several countries. In a European collaborative study conducted in 2012 whose aim was to investigate the association between socioeconomic position (SEP), measured through maternal education, and preterm delivery inconsistent results were found for the NINFEA birth cohort. However, NINFEA contributed to that study with the first 2,500 pregnancies only, and estimates were not adjusted for any potential confounders assuming that SEP is a distal exposure, that could not be affected by other preterm risk factors. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the relationship between SEP and the reproductive outcomes using the entire NINFEA cohort and compare the results with the population-based Piedmont Birth Registry (PBR), accounting for potential baseline collider bias both in the cohort and in the registry. DESIGN: observational study. SETTING AND PARTICPANTS: 5,323 NINFEA singletons, whose mothers registered into the study before the 36th week of gestation, were analysed. Analyses on maternal education were replicated in the 2011 PBR of 35,318 singletons live births. Factors affecting the likelihood of being a member of the NINFEA study or becoming pregnant in the general population were treated as potential confounders to adjust for baseline collider bias. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the association of maternal education and a recently developed household income indicator with both preterm delivery (<37th weeks of gestation) and low birth weight (<2,500 gr) were analysed. RESULTS: in the NINFEA cohort, low SEP was positively associated with both preterm delivery and low birth weight, with slightly stronger associations for household income, especially on low birth weight. Results were consistent with those obtained in the PBR data, where an inverse relationship between maternal education and the two reproductive outcomes was found. In both populations, there was confounding due to maternal age and parity, showing that independently of the nature of the source population, baseline factors that affect the probability of being a member of such source population have to be accounted for to allow causal inference. CONCLUSIONS: low SEP is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in a contemporary Italian population.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 152, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men often undergo repeat prostate biopsies because of suspicion of missed cancer. We assessed if (i) methylation of selected genes in prostate tissue vary with aging and (ii) methylation alterations in repeat biopsies predict missed prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among men who underwent at least two negative prostate biopsies followed by a sampling either positive (cases n = 111) or negative (controls n = 129) for prostate cancer between 1995 and 2014 at the University Hospital (Turin, Italy). Two pathology wards were included for replication purposes. We analyzed methylation of GSTP1, APC, PITX2, C1orf114, GABRE, and LINE-1 in the first two negative biopsies. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between genes methylation and prostate cancer. RESULTS: Age at biopsy and time interval between the two negative biopsies were not associated with methylation levels of the selected genes in neither cases nor controls. GSTP1 methylation in the first and in the second negative biopsy was associated with prostate cancer detection [OR per 1% increase: 1.14 (95% CI 1.01-1.29) for the second biopsy and 1.21 (95% CI 1.07-1.37) for the highest methylation level (first or second biopsy)]. A threshold > 10% for GSTP1 methylation corresponded to a specificity of 0.98 (positive likelihood ratio 7.87). No clear association was found for the other genes. Results were consistent between wards. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GSTP1 methylation in negative prostate biopsies is stable over time and can predict missed cancer with high specificity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 133-138, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hardly anything is known about the aetiology of thymoma. This paper presents data regarding tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to thymoma from the first case-control study performed on this rare tumour. METHODS: A European multi-centre case-control study including incident cases aged 35-69 years with thymoma between 1995 and 1997, was conducted in seven countries. A set of controls, used in seven parallel case-control studies by the same research group was used, including population-based controls from five countries and hospital controls with colon cancer from two countries. Altogether 103 cases, accepted by a reference pathologist, 712 colon cancer controls, and 2071 population controls were interviewed. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking was moderately related with thymoma (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2), and a tendency to dose-response was shown (p = 0.04), with an increased risk for heavy smokers defined as ≥41 pack-years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9). A high consumption of spirits defined as ≥25 g of alcohol per day was associated with an increased risk of thymoma (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.4), whereas no association was found with beer or wine. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking and a high intake of spirits were indicated as risk factors for thymoma.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Timoma/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(3): 305-314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetics may play a role in wheezing and asthma development. We aimed to examine infant saliva DNA methylation in association with early childhood wheezing. METHODS: A case-control study was nested within the NINFEA birth cohort with 68 cases matched to 68 controls by sex, age (between 6 and 18 months, median: 10.3 months) and season at saliva sampling. Using a bumphunting region-based approach, we examined associations between saliva methylome measured using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450k array and wheezing between 6 and 18 months of age. We tested our main findings in independent publicly available data sets of childhood respiratory allergy and atopic asthma, with DNA methylation measured in different tissues and at different ages. RESULTS: We identified one wheezing-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) spanning ten sequential CpG sites in the promoter-regulatory region of PM20D1 gene (family-wise error rate < 0.05). The observed associations were enhanced in children born to atopic mothers. In the publicly available data sets, hypermethylation in the same region of PM20D1 was consistently found at different ages and in all analysed tissues (cord blood, blood, saliva and nasal epithelia) of children with respiratory allergy/atopic asthma compared with controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that PM20D1 hypermethylation is associated with early childhood wheezing. Directionally consistent epigenetic alteration observed in cord blood and other tissues at older ages in children with respiratory allergy and atopic asthma provides suggestive evidence that a long-term epigenetic modification, likely operating from birth, may be involved in childhood atopic phenotypes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(5): e27616, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several nonbiological factors, including socioeconomic status indicators and other family characteristics, influence survival from childhood cancers. Our study explores the association between parental education and childhood cancer survival. METHODS: The specialized Childhood Cancer Registry of the Piedmont region in Italy provided data on all the cases (aged 0-14) diagnosed with cancer in the period 1976-2011 who resided in the city of Turin (capital of the Piedmont region) at least once since 1971. Information on parental education was extracted from the Turin Longitudinal Study by record linkage. The association between parental educational level and survival was estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: The study included 949 children. We observed a disadvantage in the overall survival for children of less educated mothers. No such effect was observed for paternal education. The effect of maternal education was particularly strong for central nervous system tumors (hazard ratios, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.0). A similar effect, though smaller in magnitude, was observed for leukemia and embryonal tumors, whereas the estimates for lymphoma were imprecise. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an association between maternal educational level and survival in children with central nervous system tumors, a diagnosis that often requires long-lasting treatment and special care. Giving support to the families of affected children to provide them the optimal care has the potential to improve children's cancer treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Mães/educação , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Epidemiology ; 30(1): 145-153, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MOBI-Kids is a 14-country case-control study designed to investigate the potential effects of electromagnetic field exposure from mobile telecommunications devices on brain tumor risk in children and young adults conducted from 2010 to 2016. This work describes differences in cellular telephone use and personal characteristics among interviewed participants and refusers responding to a brief nonrespondent questionnaire. It also assesses the potential impact of nonparticipation selection bias on study findings. METHODS: We compared nonrespondent questionnaires completed by 77 cases and 498 control refusers with responses from 683 interviewed cases and 1501 controls (suspected appendicitis patients) in six countries (France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Spain). We derived selection bias factors and estimated inverse probability of selection weights for use in analysis of MOBI-Kids data. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-regular use was somewhat higher among interviewed participants than nonrespondent questionnaire respondents 10-14 years of age (68% vs. 62% controls, 63% vs. 48% cases); in those 20-24 years, the prevalence was ≥97%. Interviewed controls and cases in the 15- to 19- and 20- to 24-year-old age groups were more likely to have a time since start of use of 5+ years. Selection bias factors generally indicated a small underestimation in cellular telephone odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.96 to 0.97 for ever-regular use and 0.92 to 0.94 for time since start of use (5+ years), but varied in alternative hypothetical scenarios considered. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by small numbers of nonrespondent questionnaire respondents, findings generally indicated a small underestimation in cellular telephone ORs due to selective nonparticipation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Adolescente , Viés , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Israel , Itália , Japão , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 151(2): 319-326, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between altered methylation and histologically confirmed high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (hgCIN). METHODS: Methylation levels in selected host (CADM1, MAL, DAPK1) and HPV (L1_I, L1_II, L2) genes were measured by pyrosequencing in DNA samples obtained from 543 women recruited in Curitiba (Brazil), 249 with hgCIN and 294 without cervical lesions. Association of methylation status with hgCIN was estimated by Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The mean methylation level increased with severity of the lesion in the host and viral genes (p-trend < 0.05), with the exception of L1_II region (p-trend = 0.075). Positive association was found between methylation levels for host genes and CIN2 and CIN3 lesions respectively [CADM1: OR 4.17 (95%CI 2.03-8.56) and OR 9.54 (95%CI 4.80-18.97); MAL: OR 5.98 (95%CI 2.26-15.78) and OR 22.66 (95%CI 9.21-55.76); DAPK1: OR 3.37 (95%CI 0.93-12.13) and OR 6.74 (95%CI 1.92-23.64)]. Stronger risk estimates were found for viral genes [L1_I: OR 10.74 (95%CI 2.66-43.31) and OR 15.00 (95%CI 3.00-74.98); L1_II: OR 73.18 (95%CI 4.07-1315.94) and OR 32.50 (95%CI 3.86-273.65); L2: OR 4.73 (95%CI 1.55-14.44) and OR 10.62 (95%CI 2.60-43.39)]. The cumulative effect of the increasing number of host and viral methylated genes was associated with the risk of CIN2 and CIN3 lesions (p-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, empowered by a wide cervical sample series with a large number of hgCIN, supported the role of methylation as marker of aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Papillomaviridae/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Molécula 1 de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Proteolipídicas Associadas a Linfócitos e Mielina/genética , Gradação de Tumores , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
19.
Environ Res ; 167: 544-549, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in climatic conditions are hypothesized to play a role in the increasing number of West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreaks observed in Europe in recent years. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between WNV infection and climatic parameters recorded in the 8 weeks before the diagnosis in Northern Italy. METHODS: We collected epidemiological data about new infected cases for the period 2010-2015 from the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) and meteorological data from 25 stations throughout the study area. Analyses were performed using a conditional Poisson regression with a time-stratified case-crossover design, specifically modified to account for seasonal variations. Exposures included weekly average of maximum temperatures, weekly average of mean temperatures, weekly average of minimum temperatures and weekly total precipitation. RESULTS: We found an association between incidence of WNV infection and temperatures recorded 5-6 weeks before diagnosis (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) for 1 °C increase in maximum temperatures at lag 6: 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.20). Increased weekly total precipitation, recorded 1-4 weeks before diagnosis, were associated with higher incidence of WNV infection, particularly for precipitation recorded 2 weeks before diagnosis (IRR for 5 mm increase of cumulative precipitation at lag 2: 1.16; 95% CI 1.08-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: Increased precipitation and temperatures might have a lagged direct effect on the incidence of WNV infection. Climatic parameters may be useful for detecting areas and periods of the year potentially characterized by a higher incidence of WNV infection.


Assuntos
Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
20.
Int J Eat Disord ; 51(8): 842-851, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates associations of maternal eating disorders (bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and purging behaviors) with infant wheezing and examines the effects of eating disorders on several wheezing determinants. METHOD: We studied 5,150 singletons from the NINFEA birth cohort. Maternal bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa diagnoses were ascertained from the questionnaires completed in pregnancy and 6 months after delivery, and were analyzed as: ever diagnosis, only before pregnancy, and during pregnancy. Purging behaviors were assessed for 12 months before or during pregnancy. The associations with wheezing between 6 and 18 months of age were assessed in models adjusted for a priori selected confounders. RESULTS: Children born to mothers with lifetime eating disorders were at an increased risk of developing wheezing (adjusted OR 1.68; [95% CI: 1.08, 2.60]), and this risk further increased when the disorders were active during pregnancy (2.52 [1.23, 5.19]). Increased risk of offspring wheezing was observed also for purging behaviors without history of eating disorder diagnosis (1.50 [1.10, 2.04]). The observed associations were not explained by comorbid depression and/or anxiety. Bulimia nervosa and/or anorexia nervosa during pregnancy were also associated with several risk factors for wheezing, including maternal smoking, adverse pregnancy outcomes, shorter breastfeeding duration, and day-care attendance. DISCUSSION: The associations of maternal eating disorders with offspring wheezing suggest long-term adverse respiratory outcomes in children of mothers with eating disorders. A better understanding of mechanisms implicated is necessary to help reduce the respiratory disease burden in these children.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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