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1.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who have undergone liver transplantation (LT) enjoy better health, and possibility of childbearing. However, maternal and graft risks, optimal immunosuppression, and fetal outcome is still to clarify. AIM: Aim of the study was to assess outcomes of pregnancy after LT at national level. METHODS: In 2019, under the auspices of the Permanent Transplant Committee of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, a multicenter survey including 14 Italian LT-centers was conducted aiming at evaluating the outcomes of recipients and newborns, and graft injury/function parameters during pregnancy in LT-recipients. RESULTS: Sixty-two pregnancies occurred in 60 LT-recipients between 1990 and 2018. Median age at the time of pregnancy was 31-years and median time from transplantation to conception was 8-years. During pregnancy, 4 recipients experienced maternal complications with hospital admission. Live-birth-rate was 100%. Prematurity occurred in 25/62 newborns, and 8/62 newborns had low-birth-weight. Cyclosporine was used in 16 and Tacrolimus in 37 pregnancies, with no different maternal or newborn outcomes. Low-birth-weight was correlated to high values of AST, ALT and GGT. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy after LT has good outcome; however, maternal complications and prematurity may occur. Compliance with the immunosuppression is fundamental to ensure the stability of graft function and prevent graft-deterioration.

2.
Liver Int ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and myosteatosis have been associated to a poor prognosis of cirrhosis and to a higher incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The prognostic implications of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity are less known. AIM: To evaluate the modifications of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue after TIPS and to investigate their relationships with the modification of muscle mass and with the incidence of post-TIPS HE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 35 cirrhotic patients submitted to TIPS were retrospectively studied. The modification of skeletal muscle index (SMI), muscle attenuation (myosteatosis), subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI), visceral adipose tissue index (VATI), assessed by CT-scan and plasma ammonia were evaluated before and after a mean follow-up of 19 ± 15 months after TIPS. The number of episodes of overt HE was also recorded. RESULTS: During the follow-up, the mean SMI and muscle attenuation increased significantly; SATI significantly increased while VATI significantly decreased, although not uniformly in all patients. By comparing the patients with or without improvement in their nutritional status after TIPS, MELD remained stable while the number of episodes of overt HE was significantly lower in the patients with improved SMI and in the patients with improved SATI. Finally, inverse correlation was observed between the variation of ammonia and SATI (r = -.40; P < .05). CONCLUSION: In addition to muscle mass, adipose tissue is modified after TIPS. The improvement of subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as of sarcopenia and myosteatosis is associated to the amelioration of cognitive impairment independently of liver function. The correlation between adipose tissue and ammonia modification may suggest an active role of the adipose tissue in the inter-organ ammonia trafficking.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcopenia is considered an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has the potential to increase muscle mass and performance by stimulating protein synthesis and reducing muscle catabolism. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of HMB supplementation on muscle mass and function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Changes in frailty during the study were also estimated, and the safety of HMB supplementation was verified. METHODS: This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Twenty-four patients (14 HMB and 10 placebo) affected by liver cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. Each patient received dedicated counseling, which included nutrition and physical activity recommendations for chronic liver disease patients. Patients were randomized to receive 3 g/day of HMB or placebo (sorbitol powder) for 12 consecutive weeks. A diet interview, anthropometry, electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA), quadriceps ultrasound, physical performance battery, Liver Frailty Index (LFI), and cognitive tests were completed at enrolment (T0), at 12 weeks (T1), and 24 weeks after enrolment (T2). RESULTS: At baseline, the two groups were similar in demography, severity of liver disease, muscle mass, muscle function, and cognitive tests. LFI at baseline was higher in patients in the HMB group vs. those in the placebo group (4.1 ± 0.4 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, p < 0.01). After treatment, a statistically significant increase in muscle function was seen in the HMB group (chair stand test: 14.2 ± 5 s vs. 11.7 ± 2.6 s, p < 0.05; six-minute walk test: 361.8 ± 68 m vs. 409.4 ± 58 m, p < 0.05). Quadriceps muscle mass measured by ultrasound also increased (4.9 ± 1.8 vs. 5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05) after HMB, while LFI decreased (4.1 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.4, p < 0.05). HMB was well tolerated by patients, and no adverse events were documented. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the efficacy of 12-week beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in promoting improvements in muscle performance in compensated cirrhotic patients. LFI was also ameliorated. Further studies with a greater number of patients are required to reinforce this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Valeratos/administração & dosagem , Antropometria , Impedância Elétrica , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/etiologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although the discriminative ability of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is generally considered acceptable, its calibration is still unclear. In a validation study, we assessed the discriminative performance and calibration of 3 versions of the model: original MELD-TIPS, used to predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS); classic MELD-Mayo; and MELD-UNOS, used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). We also explored recalibrating and updating the model. METHODS: In total, 776 patients who underwent elective TIPS (TIPS cohort) and 445 unselected patients (non-TIPS cohort) were included. Three, 6 and 12-month mortality predictions were calculated by the 3 MELD versions: discrimination was assessed by c-statistics and calibration by comparing deciles of predicted and observed risks. Cox and Fine and Grey models were used for recalibration and prognostic analyses. RESULTS: In the TIPS/non-TIPS cohorts, the etiology of liver disease was viral in 402/188, alcoholic in 185/130, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in 65/33; mean follow-up±SD was 25±9/19±21 months; and the number of deaths at 3-6-12 months was 57-102-142/31-47-99, respectively. C-statistics ranged from 0.66 to 0.72 in TIPS and 0.66 to 0.76 in non-TIPS cohorts across prediction times and scores. A post hoc analysis revealed worse c-statistics in non-viral cirrhosis with more pronounced and significant worsening in the non-TIPS cohort. Calibration was acceptable with MELD-TIPS but largely unsatisfactory with MELD-Mayo and -UNOS whose performance improved much after recalibration. A prognostic analysis showed that age, albumin, and TIPS indication might be used to update the MELD. CONCLUSIONS: In this validation study, the performance of the MELD score was largely unsatisfactory, particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. MELD recalibration and candidate variables for an update to the MELD score are proposed. LAY SUMMARY: While the discriminative performance of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is credited to be fair to good, its calibration, the correspondence of observed to predicted mortality, is still unsettled. We found that application of 3 different versions of the MELD in 2 independent cirrhosis cohorts yielded largely imprecise mortality predictions particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. Thus, we propose a recalibration and suggest candidate variables for an update to the model.

5.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is considered a risk factor for falls in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, MHE is prevalent in patients with muscle alterations (sarcopenia and myosteatosis) probably due to the role of muscle in ammonia handling. AIM: To assess the respective role of muscle alterations and MHE on the risk of falls in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Fifty cirrhotics were studied for MHE detection by using Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and Animal Naming Test (ANT). CT scan was used to quantify the skeletal muscle index (SMI) and muscle attenuation, as a measure of myosteatosis. The risk of falls was evaluated by the Timed Up&Go test (TUG). The occurrence of falls during follow up was also detected. RESULTS: 32 patients (64%) had an abnormal TUG (< 14 s). In the group with TUG ≥ 14 s, MHE (72vs31%, p<0.005) and myosteatosis (94vs50%, p = 0.002) were significantly more frequent than in patients with TUG<14 s. At multivariate the variables independently associated to TUG ≥ 14 s were myosteatosis, MHE and chronic beta-blockers use. During a mean follow-up of 25±16.9 months, 12 patients fell; the percentage of falls was significantly higher in patients with TUG ≥ 14 s (50%vs9%, p = 0.001) as well as in patients with myosteatosis (33%vs6%, p = 0.03), but similar in patients with or without MHE (35%vs15%, NS). CONCLUSION: In cirrhotic patients both muscle alterations and cognitive impairment, as well as chronic beta-blockers use, are associated to the risk of falls.

6.
J Hepatol ; 75 Suppl 1: S147-S162, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039486

RESUMO

In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, sarcopenia and frailty are prevalent. Although several definitions exist for these terms, in the field of hepatology, sarcopenia has commonly been defined as loss of muscle mass, and frailty has been broadly defined as the phenotypic manifestation of the loss of muscle function. Prompt recognition and accurate assessment of these conditions are critical as they are both strongly associated with morbidity, mortality, poor quality of life and worse post-liver transplant outcomes in patients with cirrhosis. In this review, we describe the complex pathophysiology that underlies the clinical phenotypes of sarcopenia and frailty, their association with decompensation, and provide an overview of tools to assess these conditions in patients with cirrhosis. When available, we highlight data focusing on patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis, such as inpatients, as this is an area of unmet clinical need. Finally, we discuss management strategies to reverse and/or prevent the development of sarcopenia and frailty, which include adequate nutritional intake of calories and protein, as well as regular exercise of at least moderate intensity, with a mix of aerobic and resistance training. Key knowledge gaps in our understanding of sarcopenia and frailty in decompensated cirrhosis remain, including best methods to measure muscle mass and function in the inpatient setting, racial/ethnic variation in the development and presentation of sarcopenia and frailty, and optimal clinical metrics to assess response to therapeutic interventions that translate into a reduction in adverse outcomes associated with these conditions.

8.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(2): 103-109, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624622

RESUMO

This review explores the latest guidelines on nutrition in patients with chronic liver diseases of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and recent studies on physiopathology, clinical outcomes and possible treatments of malnutrition and sarcopenia in liver cirrhosis. Chronic liver diseases are frequently associated with malnutrition, changes in skeletal muscle and bone quality and quantity. About 20% of patients with compensated liver cirrhosis and 50% of those with decompensated cirrhosis are sarcopenic. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with a higher complication rate (ascites, bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy) and are independent predictors of lower survival in cirrhotic patients. In recent years, concomitant with the decline of post-viral cirrhosis, patients affected by post-metabolic cirrhosis are increasing. These patients are more frequently overweight or obese, but sarcopenia may also coexist. Sarcopenic obesity has been shown to worsen the prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. There is a general consensus about the need of improving the nutritional status and implementing skeletal muscle mass in cirrhotic patients, but this is not always achievable. Osteoporosis is present in about 30% of cirrhotic patients, with a higher prevalence in patients with cholestasis. Treatment with phosphonates, calcium and vitamin D are recommended in association with a periodic follow-up.

9.
Ann Hepatol ; 24: 100309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent innovations in the field of liver transplantation have led to a wealth of new treatment regimes, with potential impact on the onset of de novo malignancies (DNM). The aim of this multicenter cohort study was to provide contemporary figures for the cumulative incidences of solid and hematological DNM after liver transplantation. METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study including patients undergoing LT between 2000 and 2015 in three Italian transplant centers. Cumulative incidence was calculated by Kaplan-Meyer analysis. RESULTS: The study included 789 LT patients with a median follow-up of 81 months (IQR: 38-124). The cumulative incidence of non-cutaneous DNM was 6.2% at 5-years, 11.6% at 10-years and 16.3% at 15-years. Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders (PTLD) were demonstrated to have a cumulative incidence of 1.0% at 5-years, 1.6% at 10-years and 2.2% at 15-years. Solid Organ Tumors (SOT) demonstrated higher cumulative incidences - 5.3% at 5-years, 10.3% at 10-years and 14.4% at 15-years. The most frequently observed classifications of SOT were lung (rate 1.0% at 5-years, 2.5% at 10-years) and head & neck tumors (rate 1.3% at 5-years, 1.9% at 10-years). CONCLUSIONS: Lung tumors and head & neck tumors are the most frequently observed SOT after LT.

10.
J Hepatol ; 74(2): 330-339, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bacterial infections can trigger the development of organ failure(s) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Geographic variations in bacteriology and clinical practice could lead to worldwide differences in ACLF epidemiology, phenotypes and associated outcomes. Herein, we aimed to evaluate regional differences in bacterial infection-related ACLF in patients with cirrhosis admitted to hospital. METHODS: This post hoc analysis included 1,175 patients with decompensated cirrhosis (with bacterial infection on admission or nosocomial infection) from 6 geographic regions worldwide. Clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were collected from the diagnosis of infection. Patients were followed-up for organ failure(s) and ACLF development according to the EASL-CLIF criteria from enrolment to discharge/death. RESULTS: A total of 333 patients (28%) had ACLF at diagnosis of infection, while 230 patients developed ACLF after diagnosis of infection, resulting in an overall rate of bacterial infection related-ACLF of 48%, with rates differing amongst different geographic regions (38% in Southern Europe vs. 75% in the Indian subcontinent). Bacterial infection related-ACLF more frequently developed in younger patients (55 ± 13 vs. 58 ± 14 years), males (73% vs. 62%), patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (59% vs. 45%) and those with a higher baseline MELD score (25 ± 11 vs. 16 ± 5) (all p <0.001). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia or infections caused by extensively drug resistant (XDR) bacteria were more frequently associated with ACLF development. More patients with ACLF had a positive quick sequential organ failure assessment score and septic shock, resulting in a lower infection resolution rate (all p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial infections, especially with XDR organisms, are associated with the highest risk of ACLF development, accounting for almost half of cases globally. Geographic differences result in variable epidemiology and clinical outcomes. LAY SUMMARY: Bacterial infections can trigger a sudden deterioration in an otherwise stable cirrhotic patient, a condition known as acute-on-chronic liver failure or ACLF. This study has found that the development of ACLF following bacterial infection occurs most commonly in the Indian subcontinent and less so in Southern Europe. The common infections that can trigger ACLF include infection of the abdominal fluid, known as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and by bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Patients who develop ACLF following a bacterial infection have high death rates and are frequently unable to clear the infection.

11.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13356, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease usually related to different underlying clinical conditions. The risk of SVT recurrences is high over time in patients with an underlying permanent prothrombotic condition. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) represent the mainstay of treatment for SVT. Data about the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are reported in the literature for the treatment of acute SVT, but less is known about their application for the secondary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of long-term DOACs therapy in patients at high-risk of thrombosis, compared to VKA. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-centre study including 70 patients with SVT on long-term anticoagulant treatment with VKA followed-up at our Units between January 2017 and December 2019. All the patients were at high thrombotic risk defined as the presence of a permanent prothrombotic condition requiring long-term anticoagulation. During follow-up, 28 patients were shifted to DOACs and their clinical outcomes were compared to those of the patients who continued VKA therapy. All the arterial and venous thrombotic events of the splanchnic and extra-splanchnic districts as well as the haemorrhagic adverse events occurring during follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: Of the seventy patients enrolled in the study, 36 patients (51.4%) had a single-segment involvement thrombosis (28.5% of portal vein, 7.1% of superior mesenteric vein, 4.3% of splenic vein, 11.5% of hepatic veins) and 34 patients (48.6%) had multi-segment involvement at the time of diagnosis. 42 patients (60%) continued VKA therapy and 28 (40%) were switched to DOACs. Median follow-up was 6 years (range 2-8) during VKA and 1.9 years (range 1-5.2) during DOACs. The incidence of thrombotic events was similar between patients on VKA and those on DOACs. Patients on VKA developed deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and of the patients on DOACs 1 developed NSTEMI and 1 DVT. No major haemorrhagic events occurred. Minor bleedings occurred in 26% of patients on VKA and in none of the DOACs patients (P: 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight that DOACs could represent an effective and safe alternative to the VKA for secondary prophylaxis in SVT patients at high risk of thrombosis.

12.
J Hepatol ; 74(5): 1097-1108, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis may present without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) (AD-No ACLF), or with ACLF (AD-ACLF), defined by organ failure(s). Herein, we aimed to analyze and characterize the precipitants leading to both of these AD phenotypes. METHODS: The multicenter, prospective, observational PREDICT study (NCT03056612) included 1,273 non-electively hospitalized patients with AD (No ACLF = 1,071; ACLF = 202). Medical history, clinical data and laboratory data were collected at enrolment and during 90-day follow-up, with particular attention given to the following characteristics of precipitants: induction of organ dysfunction or failure, systemic inflammation, chronology, intensity, and relationship to outcome. RESULTS: Among various clinical events, 4 distinct events were precipitants consistently related to AD: proven bacterial infections, severe alcoholic hepatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding with shock and toxic encephalopathy. Among patients with precipitants in the AD-No ACLF cohort and the AD-ACLF cohort (38% and 71%, respectively), almost all (96% and 97%, respectively) showed proven bacterial infection and severe alcoholic hepatitis, either alone or in combination with other events. Survival was similar in patients with proven bacterial infections or severe alcoholic hepatitis in both AD phenotypes. The number of precipitants was associated with significantly increased 90-day mortality and was paralleled by increasing levels of surrogates for systemic inflammation. Importantly, adequate first-line antibiotic treatment of proven bacterial infections was associated with a lower ACLF development rate and lower 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified precipitants that are significantly associated with a distinct clinical course and prognosis in patients with AD. Specific preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting these events may improve outcomes in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. LAY SUMMARY: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis is characterized by a rapid deterioration in patient health. Herein, we aimed to analyze the precipitating events that cause AD in patients with cirrhosis. Proven bacterial infections and severe alcoholic hepatitis, either alone or in combination, accounted for almost all (96-97%) cases of AD and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Whilst the type of precipitant was not associated with mortality, the number of precipitant(s) was. This study identified precipitants that are significantly associated with a distinct clinical course and prognosis of patients with AD. Specific preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting these events may improve patient outcomes.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 39(12): 3533-3562, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Practical guideline is based on the current scientific ESPEN guideline on Clinical Nutrition in Liver Disease. METHODS: It has been shortened and transformed into flow charts for easier use in clinical practice. The guideline is dedicated to all professionals including physicians, dieticians, nutritionists and nurses working with patients with chronic liver disease. RESULTS: A total of 103 statements and recommendations are presented with short commentaries for the nutritional and metabolic management of patients with (i) acute liver failure, (ii) alcoholic steatohepatitis, (iii) non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, (iv) liver cirrhosis, and (v) liver surgery/transplantation. The disease-related recommendations are preceded by general recommendations on the diagnostics of nutritional status in liver patients and on liver complications associated with medical nutrition. CONCLUSION: This practical guideline gives guidance to health care providers involved in the management of liver disease to offer optimal nutritional care.

14.
J Hepatol ; 73(6): 1563-1565, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891430
16.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 842-854, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis is defined as the acute development of ascites, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, infection or any combination thereof, requiring hospitalization. The presence of organ failure(s) in patients with AD defines acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The PREDICT study is a European, prospective, observational study, designed to characterize the clinical course of AD and to identify predictors of ACLF. METHODS: A total of 1,071 patients with AD were enrolled. We collected detailed pre-specified information on the 3-month period prior to enrollment, and clinical and laboratory data at enrollment. Patients were then closely followed up for 3 months. Outcomes (liver transplantation and death) at 1 year were also recorded. RESULTS: Three groups of patients were identified. Pre-ACLF patients (n = 218) developed ACLF and had 3-month and 1-year mortality rates of 53.7% and 67.4%, respectively. Unstable decompensated cirrhosis (UDC) patients (n = 233) required ≥1 readmission but did not develop ACLF and had mortality rates of 21.0% and 35.6%, respectively. Stable decompensated cirrhosis (SDC) patients (n = 620) were not readmitted, did not develop ACLF and had a 1-year mortality rate of only 9.5%. The 3 groups differed significantly regarding the grade and course of systemic inflammation (high-grade at enrollment with aggravation during follow-up in pre-ACLF; low-grade at enrollment with subsequent steady-course in UDC; and low-grade at enrollment with subsequent improvement in SDC) and the prevalence of surrogates of severe portal hypertension throughout the study (high in UDC vs. low in pre-ACLF and SDC). CONCLUSIONS: Acute decompensation without ACLF is a heterogeneous condition with 3 different clinical courses and 2 major pathophysiological mechanisms: systemic inflammation and portal hypertension. Predicting the development of ACLF remains a major future challenge. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV NUMBER: NCT03056612. LAY SUMMARY: Herein, we describe, for the first time, 3 different clinical courses of acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis after hospital admission. The first clinical course includes patients who develop acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and have a high short-term risk of death - termed pre-ACLF. The second clinical course (unstable decompensated cirrhosis) includes patients requiring frequent hospitalizations unrelated to ACLF and is associated with a lower mortality risk than pre-ACLF. Finally, the third clinical course (stable decompensated cirrhosis), includes two-thirds of all patients admitted to hospital with AD - patients in this group rarely require hospital admission and have a much lower 1-year mortality risk.

17.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138194

RESUMO

Cirrhosis of the liver is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality [1].[...].


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(4): 963-973.e14, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a randomized trial to determine whether albumin should be administered to patients with infections unrelated to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). METHODS: We performed a multicenter, open-label trial in which 118 patients with cirrhosis, non-SBP infections, and additional risk factors for poor outcome were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics plus albumin (study group; n = 61) or antibiotics alone (control group; n = 57). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes were effect of albumin on disease course. RESULTS: There were no significant differences at baseline between groups in results from standard laboratory tests, serum markers of inflammation, circulatory dysfunction, or liver severity scores. However, the combined prevalence of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) and kidney dysfunction was significantly higher in the study group (44.3% vs 24.6% in the control group; P = .02), indicating greater baseline overall severity. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between groups (13.1% in the study group vs 10.5% in the control group; P = .66). Circulatory and renal functions improved in only the study group. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the study group had resolution of ACLF (82.3% vs 33.3% in the control group; P = .03). A significantly lower proportion of patients in the study group developed nosocomial infections (6.6% vs 24.6% in the control group; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial of patients with advanced cirrhosis and non-SBP infections, in-hospital mortality was similar between those who received albumin plus antibiotics vs those who received only antibiotics (controls). However, patients given albumin were sicker at baseline and, during the follow-up period, a higher proportion had ACLF resolution and a lower proportion had nosocomial infections. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02034279.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835505

RESUMO

The development of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities represents an important burden in patients after liver transplantation (LT). Our study aimed at evaluating the incidence, time of onset, and risk factors for nutritional and metabolic abnormalities in patients after LT. The study was a single-center retrospective study. Consecutive patients undergoing elective LT from 2000 to 2016 were enrolled. The presence of at least two among arterial hypertension (AH), diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2) was utilized to define patients with the metabolic disorder (MD). Three hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled; the median age was 56 years (68% males). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was the origin of liver disease in 10% of patients. During follow-up, 39% of patients developed AH, 18% DM, and 17% dyslipidemia. Metabolic disorders were observed in 32% of patients. The NASH etiology (OR: 6.2; CI 95% 0.5-3; p = 0.003) and a longer follow-up (OR: 1.2; CI 95% 0.004-0.02; p = 0.002) were associated with de novo MD. In conclusion, nutritional and metabolic disorders are a frequent complication after LT, being present in up to one-third of patients. The NASH etiology and a longer distance from LT are associated with de novo MD after LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/cirurgia , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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