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2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(1): e25445, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960580

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV testing is an essential prerequisite for accessing treatment with antiretroviral therapy or prevention using pre-exposure prophylaxis. Internet distribution of HIV self-tests is a novel approach, and data on the programmatic cost of this approach are limited. We analyse the costs and cost-effectiveness of a self-testing programme. METHODS: Men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting unknown or negative HIV status were enrolled from March to August 2015 into a 12-month trial of HIV self-testing in the United States. Participants were randomly assigned either to the self-testing arm or the control arm. All participants received information on HIV testing services and locations in their community. Self-testing participants received up to four self-tests each quarter, which they could use themselves or distribute to their social network associates. Quarterly follow-up surveys collected testing outcomes, including number of tests used and new HIV diagnoses. Using trial expenditure data, we estimated the cost of implementing a self-testing programme. Primary outcomes of this analysis included total programme implementation costs, cost per self-test completed, cost per person tested, cost per new HIV diagnosis among those self-tested and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) saved. RESULTS: A total of 2665 men were assigned either to the self-testing arm (n = 1325) or the control arm (n = 1340). HIV testing was reported by 971 self-testing participants who completed a total of 5368 tests. In the control arm, 619 participants completed 1463 HIV tests. The self-testing participants additionally distributed 2864 self-tests to 2152 social network associates. Testing during the trial identified 59 participants and social network associates with newly diagnosed HIV infection in the self-testing arm; 11 control participants were newly diagnosed with HIV. The implementation cost of the HIV self-testing programme was $449,510. The cost per self-test completed, cost per person tested at least once, and incremental cost per new HIV diagnosis was $61, $145 and $9365 respectively. We estimated that self-testing programme potentially averted 3.34 transmissions, saved 14.86 QALYs and nearly $1.6 million lifetime HIV treatment costs. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV self-testing programme identified persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection at low cost, and the programme is cost saving.

3.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738378

RESUMO

Importance: Undiagnosed HIV infection results in delayed access to treatment and increased transmission. Self-tests for HIV may increase awareness of infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). Objective: To evaluate the effect of providing HIV self-tests on frequency of testing, diagnoses of HIV infection, and sexual risk behaviors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 12-month longitudinal, 2-group randomized clinical trial recruited MSM through online banner advertisements from March through August 2015. Those recruited were at least 18 years of age, reported engaging in anal sex with men in the past year, never tested positive for HIV, and were US residents with mailing addresses. Participants completed quarterly online surveys. Telephone call notes and laboratory test results were included in the analysis, which was completed from August 2017 through December 2018. Interventions: All participants had access to online web-based HIV testing resources and telephone counseling on request. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the control group or a self-testing (ST) group, which received 4 HIV self-tests after completing the baseline survey with the option to replenish self-tests after completing quarterly surveys. At study completion, all participants were offered 2 self-tests and 1 dried blood spot collection kit. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were HIV testing frequency (tested ≥3 times during the trial) and number of newly identified HIV infections among participants in both groups and social network members who used the study HIV self-tests. Secondary outcomes included sex behaviors (eg, anal sex, serosorting). Results: Of 2665 participants, the mean (SD) age was 30 (9.6) years, 1540 (57.8%) were white, and 443 (16.6%) had never tested for HIV before enrollment. Retention rates at each time point were more than 54%, and 1991 (74.7%) participants initiated 1 or more follow-up surveys. More ST participants reported testing 3 or more times during the trial than control participants (777 of 1014 [76.6%] vs 215 of 977 [22.0%]; P < .01). The cumulative number of newly identified infections during the trial was twice as high in the ST participants as the control participants (25 of 1325 [1.9%] vs 11 of 1340 [0.8%]; P = .02), with the largest difference in HIV infections identified in the first 3 months (12 of 1325 [0.9%] vs 2 of 1340 [0.1%]; P < .01). The ST participants reported 34 newly identified infections among social network members who used the self-tests. Conclusions and Relevance: Distribution of HIV self-tests provides a worthwhile mechanism to increase awareness of HIV infection and prevent transmission among MSM. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02067039.

4.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 14(6): 464-470, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425180

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent trends in knowledge of HIV status, care and viral suppression, and the status of implementation of relevant contextual requirements for the United States to achieve the 90-90-90 goals. Recently, the US government announced a plan to decrease HIV incidence by over 90% by 2030. Reaching this goal may require higher targets than 90-90-90. RECENT FINDINGS: The United States is on course to reach 90-90-90 goals in the near future, with 86% of persons with HIV aware of their infection, 74% of persons with diagnosed infection in care, and 83% of persons in care with viral suppression in 2016. Some high-burden subnational jurisdictions have already achieved these goals. SUMMARY: The United States is likely to reach 90-90-90 targets in the near future. However, to reduce HIV incidence by at least 90% by 2030, the United States will need to rapidly meet the new 95-95-95 targets and deploy a comprehensive strategy with novel approaches to testing, retaining persons with HIV on treatment, and preventing new infections with preexposure prophylaxis and comprehensive syringe services programs.

5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(6): 357-363, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission. We estimated the proportion of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men attributable to infection with the 2 most common bacterial STIs, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS: We used a stochastic, agent-based model of a sexual network of MSM with cocirculating HIV, NG, and CT infections. Relative risk (RR) multipliers, specific to anatomic site of infection, modified the risk of HIV transmission and acquisition based on STI status. We estimated the effect of NG and CT on HIV incidence overall and on HIV acquisition and HIV transmission separately. Each scenario was simulated for 10 years. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was determined for each combination of RRs by comparing the incidence in the final year of a scenario to a scenario in which the RRs associated with NG and CT were set to 1.0. RESULTS: Overall, 10.2% (interquartile range [IQR], 7.9-12.4) of HIV infections were attributable to NG/CT infection. Then in sensitivity analyses, the PAF for HIV transmission ranged from 3.1% (IQR, 0.5-5.2) to 20.4% (IQR, 17.8-22.5) and the PAF for HIV acquisition ranged from 2.0% (IQR, -0.7 to 4.3) to 13.8% (IQR, 11.7-16.0). CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges in estimating the causal impact of NG/CT on HIV risk, modeling is an alternative approach to quantifying plausible ranges of effects given uncertainty in the biological cofactors. Our estimates represent idealized public health interventions in which STI could be maximally prevented, setting targets for real-world STI interventions that seek to reduce HIV incidence.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of establishing and operating a comprehensive syringe service program (SSP) free to clients in the United States. METHODS: We identified the major cost components of a comprehensive SSP: (one-time start-up cost, and annual costs associated with personnel, operations, and prevention/medical services) and estimated the anticipated total costs (2016 US dollars) based on program size (number of clients served each year) and geographic location of the service (rural, suburban, and urban). RESULTS: The estimated costs ranged from $0.4 million for a small rural SSP (serving 250 clients) to $1.9 million for a large urban SSP (serving 2,500 clients), of which 1.6% and 0.8% is the start-up cost of a small rural and large urban SSP, respectively. Cost per syringe distributed varied from $3 (small urban SSP) to $1 (large rural SSP), and cost per client per year varied from $2000 (small urban SSP) to $700 (large rural SSP). CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of the cost of SSPs in the United States vary by number of clients served and geographic location of service. Accurate costing can be useful for planning programs, developing policy, allocating funds for establishing and supporting SSPs, and providing data for economic evaluation of SSPs.


Assuntos
Seringas/economia , Geografia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2226-2237, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798460

RESUMO

This paper describes the development of a formula to determine which evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) targeting HIV-negative persons would be cost-saving in comparison to the lifetime cost of HIV treatment and the process by which this formula was used to prioritize those with greatest potential impact for continued dissemination. We developed a prevention benefit index (PBI) to rank risk-reduction EBIs for HIV-negative persons based on their estimated cost for achieving the behavior change per one would-be incident infection of HIV. Inputs for calculating the PBI included the mean estimated cost-per-client served, EBI effect size for the behavior change, and the HIV incidence per 100,000 persons in the target population. EBIs for which the PBI was ≤ $402,000, the estimated lifetime cost of HIV care, were considered cost-saving. We were able to calculate a PBI for 35 EBI and target population combinations. Ten EBIs were cost-saving having a PBI below $402,000. One EBI did not move forward for dissemination due to high start-up dissemination costs. DHAP now supports the dissemination of 9 unique EBIs targeting 13 populations of HIV-negative persons. The application of a process, such as the PBI, may assist other health-field policymakers when making decisions about how to select and fund implementation of EBIs.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soronegatividade para HIV , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Terapia Comportamental/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , HIV , Humanos , Incidência , Disseminação de Informação , Desenvolvimento de Programas
9.
Hepatology ; 69(3): 1020-1031, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398671

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most commonly reported bloodborne infection in the United States, causing substantial morbidity and mortality and costing billions of dollars annually. To update the estimated HCV prevalence among all adults aged ≥18 years in the United States, we analyzed 2013-2016 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of HCV in the noninstitutionalized civilian population and used a combination of literature reviews and population size estimation approaches to estimate the HCV prevalence and population sizes for four additional populations: incarcerated people, unsheltered homeless people, active-duty military personnel, and nursing home residents. We estimated that during 2013-2016 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.0%) of all adults in the United States, approximately 4.1 (3.4-4.9) million persons, were HCV antibody-positive (indicating past or current infection) and that 1.0% (95% CI, 0.8-1.1%) of all adults, approximately 2.4 (2.0-2.8) million persons, were HCV RNA-positive (indicating current infection). This includes 3.7 million noninstitutionalized civilian adults in the United States with HCV antibodies and 2.1 million with HCV RNA and an estimated 0.38 million HCV antibody-positive persons and 0.25 million HCV RNA-positive persons not part of the 2013-2016 NHANES sampling frame. Conclusion: Over 2 million people in the United States had current HCV infection during 2013-2016; compared to past estimates based on similar methodology, HCV antibody prevalence may have increased, while RNA prevalence may have decreased, likely reflecting the combination of the opioid crisis, curative treatment for HCV infection, and mortality among the HCV-infected population; efforts on multiple fronts are needed to combat the evolving HCV epidemic, including increasing capacity for and access to HCV testing, linkage to care, and cure.

13.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 15(4): 293-301, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968173

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In light of the current crisis in opioid involved overdose deaths, the federal Department of Health and Human Services operating divisions are working together to implement a data-driven, research-based strategy to reduce opioid misuse and its consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: The strategy has five elements: (1) strengthening public health data collection and reporting; (2) advancing the practice of pain management; (3) improving access to addiction prevention, treatment, and recovery support services; (4) increasing availability of overdose-reversing drugs; and (5) supporting cutting-edge research in treatment of pain, opioid use disorder, and associated conditions. The Department of Health and Human Services has developed a concerted, coordinated evidence-based effort across department divisions to reduce opioid misuse, prevalence of opioid use disorder, and reduce deaths due to opioid use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Programas Governamentais/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(4): 549-556, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420742

RESUMO

Background: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for persons born 1945-1965 and targeted testing for high-risk persons. This strategy targets HCV testing to a prevalent population at high risk for HCV morbidity and mortality, but does not include younger populations with high incidence. To address this gap and improve access to HCV testing, age-based strategies should be considered. Methods: We used a simulation of HCV to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HCV testing strategies: 1) standard of care (SOC) - recommendation for one-time testing for all persons born 1945-1965, 2) recommendation for one-time testing for adults ≥40 years (≥40 strategy), 3) ≥30 years (≥30 strategy), and 4) ≥18 years (≥18 strategy). All strategies assumed targeted testing of high-risk persons. Inputs were derived from national databases, observational cohorts and clinical trials. Outcomes included quality-adjusted life expectancy, costs, and cost-effectiveness. Results: Expanded age-based testing strategies increased US population lifetime case identification and cure rates. Greatest increases were observed in the ≥18 strategy. Compared to the SOC, this strategy resulted in an estimated 256,000 additional infected persons identified and 280,000 additional cures at the lowest cost per QALY gained (ICER = $28,000/QALY). Conclusions: In addition to risk-based testing, one-time HCV testing of persons 18 and older appears to be cost-effective, leads to improved clinical outcomes and identifies more persons with HCV than the current birth cohort recommendations. These findings could be considered for future recommendation revisions.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica/economia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(8): e186371, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646319

RESUMO

Importance: Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and incidence has increased rapidly in recent years, likely owing to increased injection drug use. Current estimates of prevalence at the state level are needed to guide prevention and care efforts but are not available through existing disease surveillance systems. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current HCV infection among adults in each US state and the District of Columbia during the years 2013 to 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used a statistical model to allocate nationally representative HCV prevalence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) according to the spatial demographics and distributions of HCV mortality and narcotic overdose mortality in all National Vital Statistics System death records from 1999 to 2016. Additional literature review and analyses estimated state-level HCV infections among populations not included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sampling frame. Exposures: State, accounting for birth cohort, biological sex, race/ethnicity, federal poverty level, and year. Main Outcomes and Measures: State-level prevalence estimates of current HCV RNA. Results: In this study, the estimated national prevalence of HCV from 2013 to 2016 was 0.84% (95% CI, 0.75%-0.96%) among adults in the noninstitutionalized US population represented in the NHANES sampling frame, corresponding to 2 035 100 (95% CI, 1 803 600-2 318 000) persons with current infection; accounting for populations not included in NHANES, there were 231 600 additional persons with HCV, adjusting prevalence to 0.93%. Nine states contained 51.9% of all persons living with HCV infection (California [318 900], Texas [202 500], Florida [151 000], New York [116 000], Pennsylvania [93 900], Ohio [89 600], Michigan [69 100], Tennessee [69 100], and North Carolina [66 400]); 5 of these states were in Appalachia. Jurisdiction-level median (range) HCV RNA prevalence was 0.88% (0.45%-2.34%). Of 13 states in the western United States, 10 were above this median. Three of 10 states with the highest HCV prevalence were in Appalachia. Conclusions and Relevance: Using extensive national survey and vital statistics data from an 18-year period, this study found higher prevalence of HCV in the West and Appalachian states for 2013 to 2016 compared with other areas. These estimates can guide state prevention and treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(4): e000285, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259820

RESUMO

Background: The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever to occur. In the early phases, little was known about public knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to Ebola virus disease (Ebola). Data were needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to address gaps in knowledge and practice. Methods: In August 2014, we conducted interviews with 1413 randomly selected respondents from 9 out of 14 districts in Sierra Leone using multistage cluster sampling. Where suitable, Ebola-related KAP questions were adapted from other internationally validated questionnaires related to infectious diseases. Results: All respondents were aware of Ebola. When asked unprompted, 60% of respondents could correctly cite fever, diarrhoea and vomiting as signs/symptoms of Ebola. A majority of respondents knew that avoiding infected blood and bodily fluids (87%) and contact with an infected corpse (85%) could prevent Ebola. However, there were also widespread misconceptions such as the belief that Ebola can be prevented by washing with salt and hot water (41%). Almost everyone interviewed (95%) expressed at least one discriminatory attitude towards Ebola survivors. Unprompted, self-reported actions taken to avoid Ebola infection included handwashing with soap (66%) and avoiding physical contact with patients with suspected Ebola (40%). Conclusion: Three months into the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, our findings suggest there was high awareness of the disease but misconceptions and discriminatory attitudes toward survivors remained common. These findings directly informed the development of a national social mobilisation strategy and demonstrated the importance of KAP assessment early in an epidemic.

19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(10): e327-e333, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495525

RESUMO

Since 1989, the USA has been pursuing the goal of tuberculosis elimination. After substantial progress during the past two decades, the rate of tuberculosis cases in the USA each year has now levelled off and remains well above the elimination threshold. Both epidemiological data and modelling underline the necessity of addressing latent tuberculosis infection if further progress is to be made in eliminating the disease. In this Personal View we explore next steps towards elimination. Given the estimated prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection, compared with the limited testing and treatment that currently occur, a major new effort is required. This effort should consist of a surveillance system or registry to monitor progress, scale-up of targeted testing for latent tuberculosis infection in at-risk populations, scale-up of short-course treatment regimens, engagement of affected communities and medical providers who serve those communities, and increased public health staffing for implementation and oversight. Such an effort would benefit greatly from the development of new tools, such as tests that better indicate reactivation risk, and even shorter latent tuberculosis infection treatment regimens than currently exist.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/patologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
AIDS ; 31(10): 1483-1488, 2017 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether state criminal exposure laws are associated with HIV and stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosis rates in the United States. DESIGN: We assessed the relationship between HIV and stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosis data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the presence of a state criminal exposure law as identified through WestlawNext by using generalized estimating equations. METHODS: We limited analysis to persons aged at least 13 years with diagnosed HIV infection or AIDS reported to the National HIV Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The primary outcome measures were rates of diagnosis of HIV (2001-2010 in 33 states) and AIDS (1994-2010 in 50 states) per 100 000 individuals per year. In addition to criminal exposure laws, state-level factors evaluated for inclusion in models included income, unemployment, poverty, education, urbanicity, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: At the end of the study period, 30 states had laws criminalizing HIV exposure. In bivariate models (P < 0.05), unemployment, poverty, education, urbanicity, and race/ethnicity were associated with HIV and AIDS diagnoses. In final models, proportion of adults with less than a high school education and percentage of the population living in urban areas were significantly associated with HIV and AIDS diagnoses over time; criminal exposure laws were not associated with diagnosis rates. CONCLUSION: We found no association between HIV or AIDS diagnosis rates and criminal exposure laws across states over time, suggesting that these laws have had no detectable HIV prevention effect.


Assuntos
Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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