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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798642

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ, Rentz, LE, Hornsby, WG, Wagle, JP, Stone, JD, Smith, HT, Galster, SM, Joseph, M, and Hagen, JA. Comparisons of countermovement jump force-time characteristics among NCAA division I american football athletes: use of principal component analysis. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-This study aimed to reduce the dimensionality of countermovement jump (CMJ) force-time characteristics and evaluate differences among positional groups (skills, hybrid, linemen, and specialists) within National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I American football. Eighty-two football athletes performed 2 maximal effort, no arm-swing, CMJs on force plates. The average absolute and relative (e.g., power/body mass) metrics were analyzed using analysis of variance and principal component analysis procedures (p < 0.05). Linemen had the heaviest body mass and produced greater absolute forces than hybrid and skills but had lower propulsive abilities demonstrated by longer propulsive phase durations and greater eccentric to concentric mean force ratios. Skills and hybrid produced the most relative concentric and eccentric forces and power, as well as modified reactive strength indexes (RSIMOD). Skills (46.7 ± 4.6 cm) achieved the highest jump height compared with hybrid (42.8 ± 5.5 cm), specialists (38.7 ± 4.0 cm), and linemen (34.1 ± 5.3 cm). Four principal components explained 89.5% of the variance in force-time metrics. Dimensions were described as the (a) explosive transferability to concentric power (RSIMOD, concentric power, and eccentric to concentric forces) (b) powerful eccentric loading (eccentric power and velocity), (c) countermovement strategy (depth and duration), and (d) jump height and power. The many positional differences in CMJ force-time characteristics may inform strength and conditioning program designs tailored to each position and identify important explanatory metrics to routinely monitor by position. The overwhelming number of force-time metrics to select from may be reduced using principal component analysis methods, although practitioners should still consider the various metric's applicability and reliability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639390

RESUMO

The purpose was to investigate the effect of load and fatigue on landing forces and mechanics. Thirteen Department of State special agents first completed drop jump testing, a maximal treadmill test, and another round of drop jump testing. During drop jump testing, agents performed 3 maximal effort drop jumps from 30 cm with body mass only (unloaded) or a 15 kg weight-vest (loaded). A force plate was used to collect force-time data, while two laptops were placed 3 m from the force plate from frontal and sagittal planes. Two-way analyses of variance were used to analyze the effect of load and fatigue on landing forces and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) with alpha of p < 0.05. Dropping from 30 cm with 15 kg resulted in greater landing impulse, which was driven by increases in contact time. The loaded condition also resulted in lower jump height and reactive strength indexes. After the maximal graded treadmill test there were no further changes in drop jump ground reaction forces or performance. However, relative aerobic capacity was related to impulse changes following the treadmill test in unloaded (R2 = 0.41; p = 0.018) and loaded conditions (R2 = 0.32; p = 0.044). External loads of 15 kg increased impulse and contact time and resultantly decreased drop jump height and reactive strength indexes. It is encouraged that training protocols be aimed to concomitantly improve aerobic capacity and lower body power. Plyometric training with progressive overloading using external loads may be helpful, but further research is warranted.


Assuntos
Exercício Pliométrico , Corrida , Teste de Esforço , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360435

RESUMO

Human performance optimization of tactical personnel requires accurate, meticulous, and effective monitoring of biological adaptations and systemic recovery. Due to an increased understanding of its importance and the commercial availability of assessment tools, the use of heart rate variability (HRV) to address this need is becoming more common in the tactical community. Measuring HRV is a non-invasive, practical method for objectively assessing a performer's readiness, workload, and recovery status; when combined with additional data sources and practitioner input, it provides an affordable and scalable solution for gaining actionable information to support the facilitation and maintenance of operational performance. This narrative review discusses the non-clinical use of HRV for assessing, monitoring, and interpreting autonomic nervous system resource availability, modulation, effectiveness, and efficiency in tactical populations. Broadly, HRV metrics represent a complex series of interactions resulting from internal and external stimuli; therefore, a general overview of HRV applications in tactical personnel is discussed, including the influence of occupational specific demands, interactions between cognitive and physical domains, and recommendations on implementing HRV for training and recovery insights into critical health and performance outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Carga de Trabalho , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132221

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ, O'Toole, KB, Wutzke, CJ, and Jones, MT. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of various drop jump performances in army reserve officer training corps cadets. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purpose was to examine effects of sex, drop height, and external loads on drop jump mechanics in Reserve Officer Training Corps cadets and whether findings were associated with strength. Males (n = 14) and females (n = 12) completed maximal isokinetic concentric (slow-C and fast-C) and eccentric (slow-E and fast-E) knee extensions and flexions at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1. After 72 hours, 3 drop jumps were performed under 3 conditions, (i.e., 30 cm unloaded [30UL], 30 cm loaded 15 kg [30L], and 60 cm unloaded [60UL]). No sex × condition interactions existed for any metric (p > 0.05). The 30L condition resulted in slower eccentric and concentric center of mass (COM) and angular velocities, reduced concentric vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF), and lower jump performances. Although 60UL resulted in greater eccentric COM and angular velocities, peak vGRF, impulse, and rate of force development (p < 0.008), no differences existed in jump performances. Males had faster COM and angular concentric velocities and smaller knee valgus angles, but no different vGRF compared with females. The change in the peak hip angle, because of 60UL, was associated with knee extension eccentric and concentric strength, whereas changes in knee angles were associated with eccentric strength. Likewise, eccentric strength influenced the effects of 30L on landing vGRF more so than concentric strength. Initial strength training is recommended, specifically emphasizing eccentric actions, before performing loaded (15 kg) drop jumps to reduce the increase of landing forces. However, caution may be required when performing drops from 60 cm because of increased forces, although no decline in jump performances were noted.

5.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073418

RESUMO

Laboratory assessments of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are considered the "gold standard" for ascertaining cardiovascular fitness, but they are not always practical for use in team sport settings. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare the criterion assessment of VO2max on a treadmill to the progressive, multistage 20-m shuttle run test (i.e., Beep test), and to determine the predictability of 6 previously established Beep test predictive equations (i.e., Chatterjee, Flouris, Leger, Leger and Gadoury, Ramsbottom, St. Clair-Gibson). Collegiate women field hockey athletes (n = 65, mean±SD: age 19.6 ± 1.2 years; weight 64.7 ± 6.1 kg) completed criterion VO2max (mean ± SD: 46.4 ± 4.6 mL·kg-1·min-1) and Beep tests to volitional fatigue. According to Bland-Altman and Ordinary Least Products Regressions, the Ramsbottom (46.5 ± 4.2 mL·kg-1·min-1) and Flouris (46.3 ± 3.8 mL·kg-1·min-1) equations were considered valid predictions of criterion measured VO2max (46.4 ± 4.6). The Chatterjee, Leger, Leger and Gadoury, and St. Clair-Gibson equations overestimated VO2max, and are not recommended for use with women collegiate field hockey athletes. The Ramsbottom and Flouris estimates of VO2max from 20-m shuttle performances may be used in this population. For accurate estimates of VO2max, the clientele's age, fitness level, and training history should be considered when selecting equations.

6.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925494

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on bench press velocities across a spectrum of concentric and eccentric loads. Ten strength trained men (bench press one-repetition maximum (1-RM): 124.3 ± 19.4 kg; relative strength ratio: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg∙body mass-1) participated. Subjects completed bench press repetitions using concentric loads from 30% to 80% 1-RM in 10% increments in each experimental session. The AEL protocols were implemented using 100% (AEL100) and 110% 1-RM (AEL110) loads during the eccentric action, while the eccentric load remained the same as the concentric for traditional loading (TRAD). Multilevel models analyzed the effects of each AEL protocol on concentric velocities across concentric loads (p < 0.05). Faster concentric velocities were observed at 30% 1-RM and 80% 1-RM with AEL100 compared to TRAD (p ≤ 0.05) but this effect was reduced for individuals moving the barbell through a greater displacement. Additionally, AEL110 presented a greater change in velocity from 30% to 80% 1-RM than TRAD (p ≤ 0.05). The AEL100 protocol resulted in faster concentric velocities throughout concentric loads of 30-80% 1-RM, but AEL110 may have been too great to elicit consistent performance enhancements. Thus, the efficacy of AEL at various concentric loads is dependent on the eccentric loading and barbell displacement.

7.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670086

RESUMO

Low-income Latino children are at high risk for obesity and associated comorbidities. Considering the health benefits of proper sleep habits and physical activity, understanding the patterns, or the relationship between these modifiable factors may help guide intervention strategies to improve overall health in this population. Thus, the purpose was to investigate bidirectional associations between physical activity and sleep among Latino children who are overweight/obese. Twenty-three children (boys, 70%; overweight, 17%; obese, 83%) (age 7.9 ± 1.4 years) wore activity monitors on their wrist for 6 consecutive days (comprising 138 total observations). Hierarchical linear modeling evaluated temporal associations between physical activity (light physical activity, LPA; moderate to vigorous activity, MVPA) and sleep (duration and efficiency). Although there was no association between MVPA and sleep (p > 0.05), daytime LPA was negatively associated with sleep duration that night (estimate ± SE = -10.77 ± 5.26; p = 0.04), and nighttime sleep efficiency was positively associated with LPA the next day (estimate ± SE = 13.29 ± 6.16; p = 0.03). In conclusion, increased LPA may decrease sleep duration that night, but increasing sleep efficiency may increase LPA the following day. Although further investigation is required, these results suggest that improving sleep efficiency may increase the level of physical activity reached among Latino children who are overweight/obese.

8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(Suppl 1): S107-S113, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666595

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ and Jones, MT. Acute inflammatory, cortisol, and soreness responses to supramaximal accentuated eccentric loading. J Strength Cond Res 35(2S): S107-S113, 2021-The purpose was to determine differences in time under tension, cortisol, inflammation, and perceived soreness between accentuated eccentric (AEL) and traditional loading (TRA) resistance exercise protocols. Resistance-trained men (n = 21) completed the AEL and TRA protocols in a random order, separated by 48 hours (sets × reps at eccentric/concentric) as follows: AEL65, 3 × 5 at 120/65% 1 repetition maximum (RM); AEL80, 3 × 3 at 120/80% 1RM; TRA65, 3 × 5 at 65/65% 1RM; and TRA80, 3 × 3 at 80/80% 1RM. Four linear position transducers measured eccentric time under tension (ETUT) and total time under tension (TTUT). Ultrasonography measured vastus lateralis muscle thickness and echo intensity at baseline and immediately post-exercise. Salivary cortisol was assessed at baseline, 0-, 15-, 30-, and 60-minute post-exercise. Perceived soreness was assessed at baseline, 24-, and 48-hours post-exercise. During rep 1, AEL65 and AEL80 had longer ETUT and TTUT than TRA65 (p ≤ 0.002) and TRA80 (p ≤ 0.008), respectively. However, AEL65 had shorter ETUT (reps 3-5) and TTUT (reps 3-5) than TRA65 (p ≤ 0.043). Similarly, ETUT (reps 2-3) and TTUT (rep 3) was shorter in AEL80 than TRA80 (p ≤ 0.045). However, there was no protocol effect for ETUT and TTUT (p > 0.05). Muscle thickness changes were trivial after each protocol (AEL80, d = 0.19; TRA80, d = 0.15; AEL65, d = 0.24; TRA65, d = 0.23), but changes in echo intensity were moderate (AEL80, d = 0.61; TRA80, d = 0.61; AEL65, d = 0.61; TRA65, d = 0.76). Salivary cortisol decreased below baseline at 30- and 60-minute post-exercise (p ≤ 0.006). Perceived soreness elevated from baseline to 24 hours for AEL80 (p = 0.006). The inflammatory, cortisol, and soreness responses after AEL were either low or similar to TRA, indicating similar recovery patterns between protocols.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Força Muscular , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Músculo Quadríceps
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1208-1216, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651736

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ, Tufano, JJ, and Jones, MT. Potentiating effects of accentuated eccentric loading are dependent upon relative strength. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1208-1216, 2021-The purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on bench press velocity and subsequent perceived effort (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) and soreness. Resistance-trained men (n = 8) and women (n = 2) completed 4 sets of 5 bench press repetitions with AEL and traditional loading (TL) using concentric loads of 50% (AEL50, TL50) and 65% (AEL65, TL65) 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Throughout each TL set, the eccentric load remained identical to the concentric. Variable resistance during the first repetition of AEL equaled 120% 1RM. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to evaluate differences between AEL and TL (p < 0.05). For the first repetition, AEL50 and AEL65 resulted in slower eccentric and concentric velocities. The increasing slope of eccentric and concentric velocity across repetitions was greater during AEL50 and AEL65 compared with TL50 and TL65, respectively (p < 0.05). As an individual's strength increased, AEL50 resulted in slower eccentric velocity and faster concentric velocity than TL50. The AEL65 resulted in faster concentric velocity than TL65 (p < 0.05). Mean protocol comparisons revealed trivial to small effects between AEL and TL. There were no differences in RPE or soreness between protocols with soreness ratings remaining unchanged from baseline (1.80 ± 0.20 AU; p < 0.05). Overall, AEL was not effective for increasing concentric velocity during the bench press with current loading protocols. Yet, stronger individuals may exhibit increases in concentric velocity from AEL, which may be a result of different pacing strategies employed during the eccentric phase. Furthermore, when using the current AEL protocols, eccentric intensities were increased with no greater RPE or soreness.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Dor
10.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(3): 325-328, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed our working environment and divided workers into essential or nonessential statuses. Employment status is a major factor determining the amount of physical activity performed. Our purpose was to understand how employment status affects physical activity and sitting time. METHODS: Between April 13 and May 4, 2020, 735 full-time employed individuals responded to a survey investigating daily life and overall health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants reported how much physical activity they had performed in the last 7 days. Multiple linear regressions were performed for physical activity and sitting time. RESULTS: Physical activity was not associated with employment status. An interaction effect between hours worked and employment status was found for sitting time. CONCLUSIONS: Employment status was not related to physical activity; however, it did affect the amount of time spent sitting, with nonessential employees sitting more and working more hours than essential employees. Because greater amounts of daily total sitting time have been associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, it is important that increased sitting time be attenuated by greater physical activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura Sentada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(1)2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462166

RESUMO

The purpose of this longitudinal, descriptive study was to observe changes in maximal strength measured via isometric clean grip mid-thigh pull and home runs (total and home runs per game) across three years of training and three competitive seasons for four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 baseball players. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, revealing significant univariate effects of time for peak force (PF) (p = 0.003) and peak force allometrically scaled (PFa) (p = 0.002). Increases in PF were noted from season 1 to season 2 (p = 0.031) and season 3 (p = 0.004), but season 2 was not significantly different than season 3 (p = 0.232). Additionally, increases in PFa were noted from season 1 to season 2 (p = 0.010) and season 3 (p < 0.001), but season 2 was not significantly different than season 3 (p = 0.052). Home runs per game rose from the 2009 (0.32) to 2010 season (1.35) and dropped during the 2011 season (1.07). A unique aspect of the study involves 2010 being the season in which ball-bat coefficient of restitution (BBCOR) bats were introduced to the NCAA competition.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297554

RESUMO

A necessarily high standard for physical readiness in tactical environments is often accompanied by high incidences of injury due to overaccumulations of neuromuscular fatigue (NMF). To account for instances of overtraining stimulated by NMF, close monitoring of neuromuscular performance is warranted. Previously validated tests, such as the countermovement jump, are useful means for monitoring performance adaptations, resiliency to fatigue, and risk for injury. Performing such tests on force plates provides an understanding of the movement strategy used to obtain the resulting outcome (e.g., jump height). Further, force plates afford numerous objective tests that are valid and reliable for monitoring upper and lower extremity muscular strength and power (thus sensitive to NMF) with less fatiguing and safer methods than traditional one-repetition maximum assessments. Force plates provide numerous software and testing application options that can be applied to military's training but, to be effective, requires the practitioners to have sufficient knowledge of their functions. Therefore, this review aims to explain the functions of force plate testing as well as current best practices for utilizing force plates in military settings and disseminate protocols for valid and reliable testing to collect key variables that translate to physical performance capacities.


Assuntos
Militares , Força Muscular , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Movimento
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337700

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ and Martin, JR. Is the OUTPUT sports unit reliable and valid when estimating back squat and bench press concentric velocity? J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the OUTPUT sports inertial unit to measure concentric velocity of free-weight back squat and bench press exercises. Eleven men and women performed back squat and bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing. One week later, subjects performed 3 repetitions of each exercise with 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85% 1RM (18 total repetitions). The OUTPUT and 4 cable extension transducers (criterion) simultaneously recorded the mean and peak velocity. The OUTPUT had acceptable reliability for all loads except 85% 1RM for back squat and bench press (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.72-0.96, coefficient of variation = 0.03-0.12). High systematic biases existed for the mean and peak velocity for the back squat and bench press, according to Bland-Altman plot's wide limits of agreement and ordinary least products regressions. According to Bland-Altman plots, OUTPUT tended to overestimate bench press velocity and overestimate back squat velocity at slower velocities. Least products regression analyses determined proportional bias existed for the mean and peak velocity of the back squat and peak velocity of the bench press. In conclusion, researchers and practitioners are advised not to compare velocity estimates of the OUTPUT unit with criterion devices because these methods cannot be used interchangeably. However, because of the demonstrated reliability when estimating the mean and peak velocity, strength and conditioning practitioners may find the OUTPUT unit valuable for monitoring performance of the back squat and bench press exercises. Yet, caution should be taken when evaluating loads ≥85% 1RM.

14.
J Hum Kinet ; 74: 205-214, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312288

RESUMO

Redistributing long inter-set rest intervals into shorter but more frequent rest intervals generally maintains concentric performance, possibly due to improved energy store maintenance. However, eccentric actions require less energy than concentric actions, meaning that shorter but more frequent sets may not affect eccentric actions to the same degree as concentric actions. Considering the increased popularity of eccentric exercise, the current study evaluated the effects of redistributing long inter-set rest periods into shorter but more frequent rest periods during eccentric only knee extensions. Eleven resistance-trained men performed 40 isokinetic unilateral knee extensions at 60°·s-1 with 285 s of total rest using traditional sets (TS; 4 sets of 10 with 95 s inter-set rest) and rest-redistribution (RR; 20 sets of 2 with 15 s inter-set rest). Before and during exercise, muscle oxygenation was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after every 10th repetition. There were no differences between protocols for peak torque (RR, 241.58±47.20 N; TS, 231.64±48.87 N; p=0.396) or total work (RR, 215.26±41.47 J; TS, 209.71±36.02 J; p=0.601), but moderate to large effect sizes existed in later repetitions (6,8,10) with greater peak torque during RR (d=0.66-1.19). For the entire session, RR had moderate effects on RPE (RR, 5.73±1.42; TS, 6.09±1.30; p=0.307; d=0.53) and large effects on oxygen saturation (RR, 5857.4±310.0; TS, 6495.8±273.8; p=0.002, d=2.13). Therefore, RR may maintain peak torque or total work during eccentric exercise, improve oxygen utilization at the muscle, and reduce the perceived effort.

15.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 16(1): 66-72, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify acute effects of a single accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) repetition on subsequent back-squat kinetics and kinematics with different concentric loads. METHODS: Resistance-trained men (N = 21) participated in a counterbalanced crossover design and completed 4 protocols (sets × repetitions at eccentric/concentric) as follows: AEL65, 3 × 5 at 120%/65% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM); AEL80, 3 × 3 at 120%/80% 1-RM; TRA65, 3 × 5 at 65%/65% 1-RM; and TRA80, 3 × 3 at 80%/80% 1-RM. During AEL, weight releasers disengaged from the barbell after the eccentric phase of the first repetition and remained off for the remaining repetitions. All repetitions were performed on a force plate with linear position transducers attached to the barbell, from which eccentric and concentric peak and mean velocity, force, and power were derived. RESULTS: Eccentric peak velocity (-0.076 [0.124] m·s-1; P = .01), concentric peak force (187.8 [284.4] N; P = .01), eccentric mean power (-145.2 [62.0] W; P = .03), and eccentric peak power (-328.6 [93.7] W; P < .01) during AEL65 were significantly greater than TRA65. When collapsed across repetitions, AEL65 resulted in slower eccentric velocity and power during repetition 1 but faster eccentric and concentric velocity and power in subsequent repetitions (P ≤ .04). When comparing AEL80 with TRA80, concentric peak force (133.8 [56.9] N; P = .03), eccentric mean power (-83.57 [38.0] W; P = .04), and eccentric peak power (-242.84 [67.3] W; P < .01) were enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Including a single supramaximal eccentric phase of 120% 1-RM increased subsequent velocity and power with concentric loads of 65% 1-RM, but not 80% 1-RM. Therefore, AEL is sensitive to the magnitude of concentric loads, which requires a large relative difference to the eccentric load, and weight releasers may not need to be reloaded to induce performance enhancement.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Postura
16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021579

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Jones, MT, Malecek, J, Padecky, J, Omcirk, D, Xu, N, Peñailillo, L, and Tufano, JJ. Comparison of traditional and rest-redistribution sets on indirect markers of muscle damage following eccentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose was to investigate the effect of rest-redistribution (RR) on muscle damage after eccentric knee extensions. After 2 weeks of eccentric familiarization, 11 resistance-trained men performed 2 work-matched isokinetic unilateral eccentric knee extension protocols at 60°·s using a crossover design, separated by 7 days. Subjects performed 40 repetitions with 285 seconds of rest using traditional sets (TS; 4 sets of 10 with 95 seconds of interset rest) and RR (RR; 20 sets of 2 with 15 seconds of interset rest). Muscle morphology, tensiomyography, range of motion, perceived soreness, and strength were measured before and 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour after RR and TS. There were no protocol × time interactions (p < 0.05). When collapsed across protocol and compared to baseline, echo intensity of the proximal vastus lateralis was 7 ± 9% greater at 0 hour (p = 0.042), echo intensity of the distal vastus lateralis was 6 ± 7% and 9 ± 7% greater at 0 hour (p = 0.048) and 24 hour (p < 0.001), respectively, and passive ROM was 2 ± 1% lower at 48 hour (p = 0.043) after exercise. No other differences existed over time for any other variable. Thus, contrary to concentric performance where RR likely plays a large role in maintaining performance, RR during eccentric isokinetic resistance training does not strongly influence exercise performance and indications of subsequent muscle damage.

17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(9): 2407-2411, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865941

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Dabbs, NC, and Jones, MT. Isometric mid-thigh pull kinetics: Sex differences and response to whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2407-2411, 2020-The purpose was to investigate whether whole-body vibration's (WBV's) effect on force-time characteristics is dependent on time and sex. Subjects (men, n = 18; women, n = 18) performed a static quarter squat with WBV (frequency: 30 Hz; amplitude: 2-4 mm) and without for 5 × 30 seconds repetitions (1:1, WBV:rest). Next, they performed 2 sets of 3 repetitions of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) with 3 minutes of intraset rest and 5 minutes of interset rest. Peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD) from 0 to 50, 0 to 150, and 0 to 250 milliseconds (RFD50, RFD150, and RFD250) were analyzed (p < 0.05). A significant effect of condition existed for PF (p = 0.019) and RFD from 0 to 250 seconds (p = 0.031). In women, RFD was moderately affected immediately post-WBV (p = 0.070; d = 0.49). Yet in men, the effect of WBV on RFD existed 15 minutes after exposure (p = 0.017; d = 0.36). In absolute terms men produced more PF than women (1,008.6 ± 289.7 N; p < 0.001). All RFD bands were greater in men than those of women (RFD50, 5,519.3 ± 2,927.2 N·s; RFD150, 3,361.4 ± 1,385.3 N·s; RFD250, 2,505.7 ± 867.1 N·s; p < 0.05). However, relative to fat-free mass, PF in men (40.1 ± 7.2 N·kg) was not different from women (37.7 ± 6.4 N·kg; p = 0.284). The same was true for RFD150 (21.1 ± 24.1 N·kg·s; p = 0.084) and RFD250 (10.9 ± 14.1 N·kg·s; p = 0.128). Yet, RFD50 remained greater in men (139.1 ± 33.6 N·kg·s) than that of women (86.8 ± 34.5 N·kg·s; p = 0.034). Current WBV protocols resulted in trivial to moderate effects on IMTP forces, which may be dependent on sex and time. Finally, it is recommended that women complete movements with the intent to move weight quickly to improve early RFD.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Vibração , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(3): 488-500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509118

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence of obesity in Latino children and potential health risks, the purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate relationships among metabolic-risk, fitness, and body fatness; 2) determine sex differences in cardio-metabolic risk factors and fitness of obese children of Latino descent. Sixty children (boys, n = 39, 7.8 ± 1.5 years; girls, n = 21, 7.2 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 97.8 ± 2.5th percentile) completed assessments of height, weight, and body fat, prior to fasted blood draws and a battery of fitness tests. Cardio-metabolic markers were analyzed, and a metabolic risk score created. Correlations and regression analyses evaluated the relationships among body fatness, metabolic-risk, and fitness. Independent samples t-tests determined sex differences (p < 0.05). Body fat related negatively to lower body power (p < 0.016), but positively to upper body power (p = 0.049). After controlling for age and sex, body fat (p < 0.001) was a positive predictor of variance in metabolic-risk scores, (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.001). Further, the association between body fat and metabolic-risk was not moderated by sex. Metabolic-risk scores and body fat were similar for both sexes, but boys performed better on muscular fitness tests, even after accounting for fat free mass (p < 0.05). Higher body fatness in obese Latino children may result in greater metabolic-risk and difficulty performing weight-bearing tasks. Therefore, culturally adapted weight management programs should employ a multifaceted approach to improve metabolic-risk and fitness.

19.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(4): 778-788, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509129

RESUMO

Monitoring internal load provides useful and non-invasive markers of training stress and adaptation. However, the relationship between internal load measures across a competitive window remains inconclusive and limited. The purpose of this study was to report various internal load measures, as well as their relationship, across a season in Division I women lacrosse athletes (n = 20). Ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (lnRMSSD), salivary testosterone, cortisol, the testosterone:cortisol ratio, and self-reported measures of fatigue and recovery were collected weekly for 13 weeks. Means ± SD were calculated to provide descriptive values and a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze changes in testosterone, cortisol, testosterone:cortisol ratio (n = 8), and lnRMSSD (n = 8) over the course of the season. Pearson correlations assessed relationships between all internal load measures. No significant time effect was observed in testosterone (p = 0.059), cortisol (p = 0.544), testosterone:cortisol ratio (p = 0.120), or lnRMSSD (p = 0.062). lnRMSSD was correlated with testosterone (r = 0.265), cortisol (r = -0.232), testosterone:cortisol ratio (r = 0.345), and fatigue (r = -0.256) (p < 0.05). More research is needed to examine relationships among markers of internal stress across all phases of the training cycle. Routine monitoring may help practitioners optimize training programming to reduce injury, illness, and overtraining.

20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598121

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Tufano, JJ, Fields, JB, Oliver, JM, and Jones, MT. Rest redistribution does not alter hormone responses in resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020-The purpose was to examine acute effects of rest redistribution (RR) on perceptual, metabolic, and hormonal responses during back squats. Twelve resistance-trained women (training age 5 ± 2 years; one repetition maximum [1-RM] per body mass, 1.6 ± 0.2) performed traditional (TS, 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 120 seconds interset rest) and RR sets (4 sets of two 5 repetition clusters with 30-second intraset rest and 90-second interset rest) in counterbalanced order, separated by 72 hours. Both conditions were performed at 70% 1RM with 360 seconds of total rest. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken after each set. Blood was sampled at baseline, after each set, and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, as well as 24 and 48 hours after training. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. The RPE progressively increased throughout both conditions (p = 0.002) with a greater overall mean for TS (5.81 ± 0.14) than RR (4.71 ± 0.14; p = 0.003). Lactate increased above baseline and remained elevated through 15 minutes post in both conditions (4.00 ± 0.76; p = 0.001), with greater lactate levels for TS (6.33 ± 0.47) than RR (4.71 ± 0.53; p < 0.001). Total testosterone was elevated after set 2 (0.125 ± 0.02; p = 0.011), but no other time point, while free testosterone remained unchanged. Growth hormone continually rose from baseline to set 3 and returned to baseline by 60 minutes post (20.58 ± 3.19). Cortisol and creatine kinase did not change over time. No condition × time interactions existed for any hormone (p > 0.05). Use of rest redistribution resulted in lower perceived effort and lactate responses. Yet, hormone responses during rest redistribution were no different from TS.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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