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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 118, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer and might differently impact breast cancer risk among pre and postmenopausal women. We performed a nested case-control study to examine whether pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, c-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and 6 interleukins were associated with breast cancer risk, overall and by menopausal status. METHODS: Pre-diagnostic levels of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma from 1558 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer at blood collection, per one standard deviation increase in biomarker concentration. RESULTS: Cases were diagnosed at a mean age of 61.4 years on average 8.6 years after blood collection. No statistically significant association was observed between inflammatory markers and breast cancer risk overall. In premenopausal women, borderline significant inverse associations were observed for leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and CRP [OR= 0.89 (0.77-1.03), OR= 0.88 (0.76-1.01) and OR= 0.87 (0.75-1.01), respectively] while positive associations were observed among postmenopausal women [OR= 1.16 (1.05-1.29), OR= 1.11 (1.01-1.23), OR= 1.10 (0.99-1.22), respectively]. Adjustment for BMI strengthened the estimates in premenopausal women [leptin: OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.00), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 0.80 (0.66-0.97), CRP: OR = 0.85 (0.72-1.00)] but attenuated the estimates in postmenopausal women [leptin: OR = 1.09 (0.96-1.24), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 1.02 (0.89-1.16), CRP: OR = 1.04 (0.92-1.16)]. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between CRP, leptin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio with breast cancer risk may represent the dual effect of obesity by menopausal status although this deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Leptina , Adipocinas , Adiponectina , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 221-231, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486728

RESUMO

There are racial/ethnic differences in the incidence of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer. To understand why these differences exist, we investigated associations between hormone-related factors and breast cancer risk by race/ethnicity in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Among 81 511 MEC participants (Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latina, African American and White women), 3806 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and 828 ER- incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median of 21 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate associations between race/ethnicity and breast cancer risk, and associations between hormone-related factors and breast cancer risk by race/ethnicity. Relative to White women, ER+ breast cancer risk was higher in Native Hawaiians and lower in Latinas and African Americans; ER- disease risk was higher in African Americans. We observed interaction with race/ethnicity in associations between oral contraceptive use (OC; Pint .03) and body mass index (BMI; Pint .05) with ER+ disease risk; ever versus never OC use increased risk only in Latinas and positive associations for obese versus lean BMI were strongest in Japanese Americans. For ER- disease risk, associations for OC use, particularly duration of use, were strongest for African Americans (Pint .04). Our study shows that associations of OC use and obesity with ER+ and ER- breast cancer risk differ by race/ethnicity, but established risk factors do not fully explain racial/ethnic differences in risk. Further studies are needed to identify factors to explain observed racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa/etnologia , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Nutr ; 151(11): 3579-3587, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet plays a key role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Limited data exist regarding specific nutrients and food groups and liver fat continuously, particularly among different ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the relationship between usual dietary intake and accurately measured liver fat content in a multiethnic population. METHODS: Participants from the Multiethnic Cohort were recruited into the cross-sectional Adiposity Phenotype Study including women and men aged 60-77 y and 5 race/ethnic groups (African American, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and white). They filled out a detailed FFQ and underwent abdominal MRI for liver fat quantification and whole-body DXA for total adiposity. Intake of a priori-selected dietary factors (total and macronutrient energy, specific micronutrients, and food groups) was analyzed in relation to liver fat by estimating the mean percentage liver fat for quartiles of each dietary factor in a general linear model that adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, percentage body fat, and daily energy intake (kcal/d). RESULTS: In total, 1682 participants (mean age: 69.2 y; 51% female) were included. Mean ± SD liver fat percentage was 5.7 ± 4.6. A significant positive association with liver fat was found across quartiles of percentage energy from fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total red meat, red meat excluding processed red meat, and coffee (Bonferroni-adjusted P-trend < 0.05). A significant inverse association was observed for dietary fiber, vitamin C, and vitamin E (Bonferroni-adjusted P-trend < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study of ethnically diverse older adults shows that certain dietary factors, in particular red meat and saturated fat from red meat, were strongly associated with liver fat, whereas dietary fiber was inversely associated with liver fat, replicating some of the previous studies conducted mostly in whites.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Dieta , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(2): 475-481, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with obesity and dysregulation of metabolic factors such as estrogen and insulin signaling are causal risk factors for this malignancy. To identify additional novel metabolic pathways associated with endometrial cancer we performed metabolomic analyses on pre-diagnostic plasma samples from 853 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: A total of 129 metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and sphingolipids) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the associations of metabolites with endometrial cancer risk. An analysis focusing on clusters of metabolites using the bootstrap lasso method was also employed. RESULTS: After adjustment for body mass index, sphingomyelin [SM] C18:0 was positively (OR1SD: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.33), and glycine, serine, and free carnitine (C0) were inversely (OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99; OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-1.00 and OR1SD: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.00, respectively) associated with endometrial cancer risk. Serine, C0 and two sphingomyelins were selected by the lasso method in >90% of the bootstrap samples. The ratio of esterified to free carnitine (OR1SD: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28) and that of short chain to free acylcarnitines (OR1SD: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00-1.25) were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further adjustment for C-peptide or other endometrial cancer risk factors only minimally altered the results. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that variation in levels of glycine, serine, SM C18:0 and free carnitine may represent specific pathways linked to endometrial cancer development. If causal, these pathways may offer novel targets for endometrial cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicina/sangue , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Serina/sangue , Serina/metabolismo , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo
7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(9): 953-964, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148186

RESUMO

The role of chronic inflammation on breast cancer (BC) risk remains unclear beyond as an underlying mechanism of obesity and physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of BC overall, according to menopausal status and tumour subtypes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 318,686 women were followed for 14 years, among whom 13,246 incident BC cases were identified. The inflammatory potential of the diet was characterized by an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the potential effect of the ISD on BC risk by means of hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISD was positively associated with BC risk. Each increase of one standard deviation (1-Sd) of the score increased by 4% the risk of BC (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Women in the highest quintile of the ISD (indicating a most pro-inflammatory diet) had a 12% increase in risk compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21) with a significant trend. The association was strongest among premenopausal women, with an 8% increased risk for 1-Sd increase in the score (HR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. There were no significant interactions between ISD and body mass index, physical activity, or alcohol consumption. Women consuming more pro-inflammatory diets as measured by ISD are at increased risk for BC, especially premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Br J Cancer ; 124(10): 1724-1733, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropometric and hormone-related factors are established endometrial cancer risk factors; however, little is known about the impact of these factors on endometrial cancer risk in non-White women. METHODS: Among 110,712 women participating in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study, 1150 incident invasive endometrial cancers were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with endometrial cancer risk for race/ethnicity and for risk factors across racial/ethnic groups were calculated. RESULTS: Having a higher body mass index (BMI) at baseline or age 21 years was strongly associated with increased risk (pint race/ethnicity ≥ 0.36). Parity (vs nulliparity) was inversely associated with risk in all the groups except African Americans (pint 0.006). Current use of postmenopausal hormones at baseline (PMH-E; vs never use) was associated with increased risk in Whites and Japanese Americans (pint 0.002). Relative to Whites, endometrial cancer risk was lower in Japanese Americans and Latinas and non-significantly higher in Native Hawaiians. Risk in African Americans did not differ from that in Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic differences in endometrial cancer risk were not fully explained by anthropometric or hormone-related risk factors. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for the observed racial/ethnic differences in endometrial cancer risk.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etnologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Hormônios Gonadais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 719-726, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of sex hormone and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis signaling on endometrial cancer recurrence is unknown. We evaluated these pathways in a prospective cohort of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)0210 trial endometrial adenocarcinoma patients. METHODS: Stage II-IV patients (N = 816) were included in this study. Pretreatment specimens were tested for tumor mRNA and protein expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and -3, insulin (IR) and IGF-I receptors (IGF1R), phosphorylated IR/IGF1R (pIGF1R/pIR), and estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) using qPCR and IHC. Serum concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin were measured. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for progression-free survival were calculated from Cox models adjusting for age, stage, and grade. RESULTS: Recurrence occurred in 280 (34%) cases during a median of 4.6 years of follow-up. ER positivity (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.95), IR positivity (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.98), and circulating IGF-I (highest vs. lowest quartile: HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92) were inversely associated with recurrence risk. Circulating estradiol (highest vs. lowest tertile: HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.02-2.36) and pIGF1R/pIR positivity (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92) were associated with increased recurrence risk. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating estradiol and tumor tissue phosphorylated (activated) IGR1R/IR were independently associated with higher risk of recurrence in patients with endometrial cancer. IMPACT: This study may inform future clinical trials of endocrine-targeted adjuvant therapies in patients with endometrial cancer that could include baseline assessment of serum and tissue biomarkers of estradiol and insulin signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Somatomedinas/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2019-2025, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) vary across racial/ethnic groups, yet little is known about the impact of hormone-related EOC risk factors in non-Whites. METHODS: Among 91,625 female Multiethnic Cohort Study participants, 155 incident EOC cases were diagnosed in Whites, 93 in African Americans, 57 in Native Hawaiians, 161 in Japanese Americans, and 141 in Latinas. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between race/ethnicity and EOC risk and between hormone-related factors and EOC risk across racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: Compared with Whites, African Americans and Japanese Americans had a lower multivariable-adjusted EOC risk; Native Hawaiians had a suggestive higher risk. Parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use were inversely associated with EOC risk (P int race/ethnicity ≥ 0.43); associations were strongest among Japanese Americans (e.g., ≥4 vs. 0 children; HR = 0.45; CI, 0.26-0.79). Age at natural menopause and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use were not associated with EOC risk in the overall population, but were positively associated with risk in Latinas (e.g., ≥5 years vs. never PMH use; HR = 2.13; CI, 1.30-3.49). CONCLUSIONS: We observed strong associations with EOC risk for parity and OC use in Japanese Americans and PMH use and age at natural menopause in Latinas. However, differences in EOC risk among racial/ethnic groups were not fully explained by established hormone-related risk factors. IMPACT: Our study indicates there are racial/ethnic differences in EOC risk and risk factors, and could help improve prevention strategies for non-White women.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1739-1749, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids impact obesity, estrogens, and inflammation, which are risk factors for ovarian cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of fatty acids with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,486 incident ovarian cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for ovarian cancer risk factors were used to estimate HRs of ovarian cancer across quintiles of intake of fatty acids. False discovery rate was computed to control for multiple testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs of ovarian cancer across tertiles of plasma fatty acids among 633 cases and two matched controls in a nested case-control analysis. RESULTS: A positive association was found between ovarian cancer and intake of industrial trans elaidic acid [HR comparing fifth with first quintileQ5-Q1 = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.62; P trend = 0.02, q-value = 0.06]. Dietary intakes of n-6 linoleic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; P trend = 0.03) and n-3 α-linolenic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34; P trend = 0.007) from deep-frying fats were also positively associated with ovarian cancer. Suggestive associations were reported for circulating elaidic (OR comparing third with first tertileT3-T1 = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99-1.94; P trend = 0.06) and α-linolenic acids (ORT3-T1 = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.98-1.72; P trend = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher intakes and circulating levels of industrial trans elaidic acid, and higher intakes of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid from deep-frying fat, may be associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer. IMPACT: If causal, eliminating industrial trans-fatty acids could offer a straightforward public health action for reducing ovarian cancer risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 509-519, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent efforts to improve outcomes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a leading cause of cancer death in women, have focused on identifying molecular subtypes and prognostic gene signatures, but existing subtypes have poor cross-study robustness. We tested the contribution of cell admixture in published ovarian cancer molecular subtypes and prognostic gene signatures. METHODS: Gene signatures of tumor and stroma were developed using paired microdissected tissue from two independent studies. Stromal genes were investigated in two molecular subtype classifications and 61 published gene signatures. Prognostic performance of gene signatures of stromal admixture was evaluated in 2,527 ovarian tumors (16 studies). Computational simulations of increasing stromal cell proportion were performed by mixing gene-expression profiles of paired microdissected ovarian tumor and stroma. RESULTS: Recently described ovarian cancer molecular subtypes are strongly associated with the cell admixture. Tumors were classified as different molecular subtypes in simulations where the percentage of stromal cells increased. Stromal gene expression in bulk tumors was associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.23), and in one data set, increased stroma was associated with anatomic sampling location. Five published prognostic gene signatures were no longer prognostic in a multivariate model that adjusted for stromal content. CONCLUSIONS: Cell admixture affects the interpretation and reproduction of ovarian cancer molecular subtypes and gene signatures derived from bulk tissue. Elucidating the role of stroma in the tumor microenvironment and in prognosis is important. IMPACT: Single-cell analyses may be required to refine the molecular subtypes of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Ovário/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microdissecção , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/citologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
15.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5442-5451, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from prediagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.12-2.48). A CRP concentration >10 mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR = 9.67; 95% CI = 1.10-84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.07-10.92), and suggestively positive, although not statistically significant, for serous (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.82-2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 0.36-11.57; P heterogeneity = 0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (P interaction = 0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.62-6.47). This study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: C-reactive protein is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, and chronic inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Carcinoma/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(8): 1122-1132, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. RESULTS: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case-control subset. CONCLUSIONS: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Heme/administração & dosagem , Heme/metabolismo , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(1): 22-30, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534999

RESUMO

Background: Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. Objective: To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth. Design: Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies. Setting: The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Participants: Women younger than 55 years. Measurements: During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns. Limitations: Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited. Conclusion: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women. Primary Funding Source: The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Parto , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(8): 1107-1116, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among women in the USA. In this study, our objective was to determine whether modifiable exposures to common analgesics outside of standard treatment influence prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) are ongoing prospective studies of 121 700 and 116 429 US nurses who have completed biennial questionnaires since 1976 and 1989, respectively. We retrieved information from medical records, death certificates, or linkage to a state or Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry on ovarian cancer cases. Eligible participants had confirmed invasive, stage I-III epithelial ovarian cancer, and had data available on analgesic use. The primary objective was to determine whether self-reported regular use (≥2 days per week) of aspirin, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or paracetamol before and after ovarian cancer diagnosis, was associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for these associations, adjusting for age and year of diagnosis, disease stage, and histology. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 1976, and May 31, 2012, for the NHS and between June 1, 1989, and May 31, 2013, for NHSII, 1789 participants of the NHS and NHSII studies were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1143 (64%) were eligible to be included in this study; 1031 (90%) of 1143 cases were included in the pre-diagnosis exposure analysis and 964 cases (84%) in the post-diagnosis exposure analysis. Compared with never-users, participants who reported recent (current use in the past 2 years) post-diagnosis use of aspirin (HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·52-0·89]) and non-aspirin NSAIDs (HR 0·67 [95% CI 0·51-0·87]) had an improved ovarian cancer-specific survival. Any type of analgesic use pre-diagnosis, and post-diagnosis use of paracetamol, were not positively associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses of change in analgesic use from pre-diagnosis to post-diagnosis, those participants who became recent users of aspirin (HR 0·44 [95% CI 0·26-0·74]) or became recent users of non-aspirin NSAIDs (HR 0·46 [95% CI 0·29-0·73]) post-diagnosis had a lower risk of ovarian cancer-specific death than never-users. INTERPRETATION: Recent use of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs, defined as current use in the past 2 years, after diagnosis appears to improve ovarian cancer-specific survival. If these results are confirmed in further studies, further research should explore potential synergistic effects of anti-inflammatory medications used in combination with standard ovarian cancer therapies to improve the prognosis for patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, The Marsha Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Analgésicos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Aspirina , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
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