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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519288

RESUMO

We analyzed by bidimensional electrophoresis the acid-insoluble fraction of saliva from three classes of angioedema patients and a healthy control group, highlighting significant variations of several normalized spot volumes. Characterization of the corresponding proteins was performed by in-gel tryptic digestion of the spots, followed by high-resolution HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of tryptic mixtures. By this strategy, 16 differentially-expressed proteins among two or more groups were identified. We found higher concentration of proteins involved in immune response (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and annexin A1), and of moonlighting proteins acting as plasminogen receptors (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-enolase, and annexin A2) in patients affected by the idiopathic non-histaminergic or hereditary angioedema with unknown origin with respect to healthy controls. These data provide new information on the molecular basis of these less characterized types of angioedema. Graphical Abstract Graphical Abstract.

2.
J Proteome Res ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575983

RESUMO

Mastocytosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm causing abnormal clonal mast-cell accumulation in different tissues, such as skin and bone marrow. A cutaneous subtype (CM) is distinguished from a systemic one (SM); SM patients can be grouped in SM with (SM+C) or without (SM-C) additional cutaneous lesions and their classification is often challenging. This study purposed to highlight variations in the salivary proteome of patients with different mastocytosis subtypes and compared to healthy controls. A top-down proteomics approach coupled to a label-free quantitation revealed salivary profiles in patient different from those of controls, a down-regulation of peptides/proteins involved in the mouth homeostasis and defense, as statherin, histatins, and acidic proline-rich proteins (aPRPs), and in innate immunity and inflammation, as the cathepsin inhibitors, suggesting a systemic condition associated to an exacerbated inflammatory state. The up-regulation of antileukoproteinase and S100A8 suggested a protective role against the disease status. The two SM forms were distinguished by the lower levels of truncated forms of aPRPs, statherin, P-B peptide, and cystatin D, and the higher levels of thymosin ß4, α-defensins 1 and 4 in SM-C patients with respect to SM+C. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD017759.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(2): 329-339, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Present study is designed to discover potential salivary biomarkers associated with predominantly antibody deficiencies, which include a large spectrum of disorders sharing failure of antibody production, and B cell defects resulting in recurrent infections, autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations, and tumor susceptibility. Understanding and clinical classification of these syndromes is still challenging. METHODS: We carried out a study of human saliva based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements of intact protein mass values. Salivary protein profiles of patients (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 30) were compared. RESULTS: Patients exhibited lower abundance of α-defensins 1-4, cystatins S1 and S2, and higher abundance of glutathionylated cystatin B and cystatin SN than controls. Patients could be clustered in two groups on the basis of different levels of cystatin SN, S1 and S2, suggesting that these proteins may play different roles in the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative variations of these pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial peptides/proteins may be related to immunodeficiency and infectious condition of the patients. The high incidence of tumors in the group with the highest level of cystatin SN, which is recognized as tumoral marker, appeared an intriguing result deserving of future investigations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD012688.

4.
J Proteome Res ; 19(1): 300-313, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638822

RESUMO

Because of the distinctive features of the oral cavity, the determination of the proteins involved in the formation of the "oral protein pellicle" is demanding. The present study investigated the susceptibility of several human basic proline-rich peptides, named P-H, P-D, P-F, P-J, and II-2, as substrates of transglutaminase-2. The reactivity of the P-C peptide and statherin was also investigated. Peptides purified from human whole saliva were incubated with the enzyme in the presence or in the absence of monodansyl-cadaverine. Mass spectrometry analyses of the reaction products highlighted that P-H and P-D (P32 and A32 variants) were active substrates, II-2 was less reactive, and P-F and P-J showed very low reactivity. P-C and statherin were highly reactive. All of the peptides formed cyclo derivatives, and only specific glutamine residues were involved in the cycle formation and reacted with monodansyl-cadaverine: Q29 of P-H, Q37 of P-D, Q21 of II-2, Q41 of P-C, and Q37 of statherin were the principal reactive residues. One or two secondary glutamine residues of only P-H, P-D P32, P-C, and statherin were hierarchically susceptible to the reaction with monodansyl-cadaverine. MS and MS/MS data were deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium ( http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride ) via the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier PXD014658.

5.
J Sep Sci ; 43(1): 313-336, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631532

RESUMO

More than 300 different protein post-translational modifications are currently known, but only a few have been extensively investigated because modified proteoforms are commonly present in sub-stoichiometry amount. For this reason, improvement of specific enrichment techniques is particularly useful for the proteomic characterization of post-translationally modified proteins. Enrichment proteomic strategies could help the researcher in the challenging issue to decipher the complex molecular cross-talk existing between the different factors influencing the cellular pathways. In this review the state of art of the platforms applied for the enrichment of specific and most common post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation and glycation, phosphorylation, sulfation, redox modifications (i.e. sulfydration and nitrosylation), methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitinylation, are described. Enrichments strategies applied to characterize less studied post-translational modifications are also briefly discussed.

6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 98: 148-155, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study the salivary proteome of burning mouth syndrome patients and healthy subjects was characterized by a top-down proteomic approach and compared to highlight possible qualitative and quantitative differences that may give suggestions about the causes of this pathology which are still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting and stimulated whole saliva, stimulated parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected from burning mouth syndrome patients (n = 16) and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 14). An equal volume of 0.2% trifluoroacetic acid was added to each sample immediately after collection and the supernatants were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry. Proteins and peptides were quantified using a label-free approach measuring the extracted ion current peak areas of the main salivary proteins and peptides. RESULTS: The quantitation of the main salivary proteins and peptides revealed a higher concentration of cystatin SN in resting saliva of burning mouth syndrome patients with respect to healthy controls and no other conspicuous changes. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data showed that the salivary protein profile was not affected, in composition and relative abundance, by the burning mouth syndrome, except for the cystatin SN, a protein up-regulated in several pathological conditions, that might be considered potentially indicative of the disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Ardência Bucal/complicações , Síndrome da Ardência Bucal/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Saliva/química , Glândulas Salivares/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Parótida/metabolismo , Salivação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Xerostomia/complicações
7.
J Proteomics ; 187: 212-222, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086402

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration which is of undetermined origin. To date a single diagnostic test of multiple sclerosis does not exists and novel biomarkers are demanded for a more accurate and early diagnosis. In this study, we performed the quantitative analysis of 119 salivary peptides/proteins from 49 multiple sclerosis patients and 54 healthy controls by a mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomic approach. Statistical analysis evidenced different levels on 23 proteins: 8 proteins showed lower levels in multiple sclerosis patients with respect to controls and they were mono- and di-oxidized cystatin SN, mono- and di-oxidized cystatin S1, mono-oxidized cystatin SA and mono-phosphorylated statherin. 15 proteins showed higher levels in multiple sclerosis patients with respect to controls and they were antileukoproteinase, two proteoforms of Prolactin-Inducible Protein, P-C peptide (Fr.1-14, Fr. 26-44, and Fr. 36-44), SV1 fragment of statherin, cystatin SN Des1-4, cystatin SN P11 → L variant, and cystatin A T96 → M variant. The differences observed between the salivary proteomic profile of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects is consistent with the inflammatory condition and altered immune response typical of the pathology. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009440. SIGNIFICANCE: To date a single diagnostic test of multiple sclerosis does not exist, and diagnosis is based on multiple tests which mainly include the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. However, the need for lumbar puncture makes the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid impractical for monitoring disease activity and response to treatment. The possible use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for oral and systemic diseases has been largely investigated, but only marginally in multiple sclerosis compared to other body fluids. Our study demonstrates that the salivary proteome of multiple sclerosis patients differs considerably compared to that of sex and age matched healthy individuals and suggests that some differences might be associated with the different disease-modifying therapy used to treat multiple sclerosis patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteoma/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
8.
J Proteome Res ; 17(9): 3292-3307, 2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064219

RESUMO

Human basic proline-rich proteins and basic glycosylated proline-rich proteins, encoded by the polymorphic PRB1-4 genes and expressed only in parotid glands, are the most complex family of adult salivary proteins. The family includes 11 parent peptides/proteins and more than 6 parent glycosylated proteins, but a high number of proteoforms with rather similar structures derive from polymorphisms and post-translational modifications. 55 new components of the family were characterized by top-down liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem-mass platforms, bringing the total number of proteoforms to 109. The new components comprise the three variants P-H S1 → A, P-Ko P36 → S, and P-Ko A41 → S and several of their naturally occurring proteolytic fragments. The paper represents an updated reference for the peptides included in the heterogeneous family of proteins encoded by PRB1/PRB4. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD009813.


Assuntos
Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Saliva/química , Proteínas Salivares Ricas em Prolina/metabolismo , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Glicosilação , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Parótida/química , Glândula Parótida/metabolismo , Peptídeos/análise , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Salivares Ricas em Prolina/química , Proteínas Salivares Ricas em Prolina/genética , Proteínas Salivares Ricas em Prolina/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol ; 53(3): 246-263, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564928

RESUMO

Proteomic surveys with top-down platforms are today revealing thousands of naturally occurring fragments of bigger proteins. Some of them have not functional meaning because they derive from pathways responsible for protein degradation, but many have specific functions, often completely different from that one of the parent proteins. These peptides encrypted in the protein sequence are nowadays called cryptides. They are frequent in the animal and plant kingdoms and represent a new interesting -omic field of investigation. To point out how much widespread is their presence, we describe here the most studied cryptides from very common sources such as serum albumin, immunoglobulins, hemoglobin, and from saliva and milk proteins. Given its vastness, it is unfeasible to cover the topic exhaustively, therefore only several selected examples of cryptides from other sources are thereafter reported. Demanding is the development of new -omic platforms for the functional screening of new cryptides, which could provide suggestion for peptides and peptido-mimetics with variegate fields of application.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
10.
J Proteome Res ; 17(1): 455-469, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083190

RESUMO

Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and Sardinian alcohol-non preferring (sNP) rats have been selectively bred for opposite alcohol preference and consumption. Aiming to verify possible differences at the proteomics level between sP and sNP rats, we investigated the salivary proteome by a a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry top-down-bottom-up integrated approach. For this purpose, submandibular saliva was collected from alcohol-naive sP and sNP rats under isoprenaline stimulation. A total of 200 peptides and proteins were detected and quantified in the two rat lines, 149 of which were characterized in their naturally occurring structure. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006997. Surprisingly, sP rats exhibited marked quantitative and qualitative differences with respect to sNP rats, namely higher levels of proteoforms originating from submandibular gland protein C, and from submandibular rat protein 2, as well as those of several unidentified peptides and proteins. sP rats expressed some proteins not detectable in sNP rats such as the glutamine and glutamic acid-rich protein (GRP)-CB. The isoform GRP-B, detectable in both rat lines, was more abundant in sNP rats. The submandibular saliva of sNP rats was also characterized by very high levels of GRP-B proteolytic peptides and rat salivary protein 1. Whether these differences could contribute to the opposite alcohol preference and consumption of sP and sNP rats is currently unknown and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Saliva/química , Animais , Itália , Ratos , Glândula Submandibular
11.
J Proteome Res ; 16(11): 4196-4207, 2017 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019242

RESUMO

Cystatins are a complex family of cysteine peptidase inhibitors. In the present study, various proteoforms of cystatin A, cystatin B, cystatin S, cystatin SN, and cystatin SA were detected in the acid-soluble fraction of human saliva and characterized by a top-down HPLC-ESI-MS approach. Proteoforms of cystatin D were also detected and characterized by an integrated top-down and bottom-up strategy. The proteoforms derive from coding sequence polymorphisms and post-translational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation, N-terminal processing, and oxidation. This study increases the current knowledge of salivary cystatin proteoforms and provides the basis to evaluate possible qualitative/quantitative variations of these proteoforms in different pathological states and reveal new potential salivary biomarkers of disease. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007170.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo Genético , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Cistatinas Salivares/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Fosforilação , Saliva/química , Cistatinas Salivares/metabolismo
12.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 11: 158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626390

RESUMO

From the VGF precursor protein originate several low molecular weight peptides, whose distribution in the brain and blood circulation is not entirely known. Among the VGF peptides, those containing the N-terminus portion were altered in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and hypothalamus of schizophrenia patients. "Hence, we aimed to better investigate the involvement of the VGF peptides in schizophrenia by studying their localization in the brain regions relevant for the disease, and revealing their possible modulations in response to certain neuronal alterations occurring in schizophrenia". We produced antibodies against different VGF peptides encompassing the N-terminus, but also C-terminus-, TLQP-, GGGE- peptide sequences, and the so named NERP-3 and -4. These antibodies were used to carry out specific ELISA and immunolocalization studies while mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was also performed to recognize the intact brain VGF fragments. We used a schizophrenia rat model, in which alterations in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response occurred after PCP treatment. In normal rats, all the VGF peptides studied were distributed in the brain areas examined including hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, accumbens and amygdaloid nuclei and also in the plasma. By liquid chromatography-high resolution mass, we identified different intact VGF peptide fragments, including those encompassing the N-terminus and the NERPs. PCP treatment caused behavioral changes that closely mimic schizophrenia, estimated by us as a disruption of PPI of the acoustic startle response. The PCP treatment also induced selective changes in the VGF peptide levels within certain brain areas. Indeed, an increase in VGF C-terminus and TLQP peptides was revealed in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01) where they were localized within parvoalbumin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) containing neurons, respectively. Conversely, in the nucleus accumbens, PCP treatment produced a down-regulation in the levels of VGF C-terminus-, N-terminus- and GGGE- peptides (p < 0.01), expressed in GABAergic- (C-terminus/GGGE) and somatostatin- (N-terminus) neurons. These results confirm that VGF peptides are widely distributed in the brain and modulated in specific areas involved in schizophrenia.

13.
Arch Oral Biol ; 77: 68-74, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28178587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the salivary peptidome/proteome of edentulous subject with respect to dentate control subjects. DESIGN: Unstimulated whole saliva, collected from 11 edentulous subjects (age 60-76 years) and 11 dentate age-matched control subjects, was immediately treated with 0.2% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid and the acidic soluble fraction analyzed by High Performace Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The relative abundance of the salivary peptides/proteins was determined by measuring the area of the High Performace Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry eXtracted Ion Current peaks which is linearly proportional to peptide/protein concentration under identical experimental conditions. Levels of salivary peptides/proteins in the two groups were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test to evidence statistically significant differences. RESULTS: Levels of cystatin A, S-glutathionylated, S-cystenylated, S-S dimer derivatives of cystatin B and S-glutathionylated derivative of SPRR3, were found significantly higher in edentulous subjects with respect to dentate controls. The major peptides and proteins typically deriving from salivary glands did not show any statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Cystatin A, S-glutathionylated, S-cystenylated, S-S dimer derivatives of cystatin B and S-glutathionylated derivative of SPRR3, which are mainly of intracellular origin and represent the major constituents of the cornified cell envelope are a clue of inflammation of mucosal epithelia.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ricas em Prolina do Estrato Córneo/metabolismo , Cistatina A/metabolismo , Cistatina B/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Saliva/química , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca Edêntula , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
14.
Physiol Behav ; 173: 163-173, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28130087

RESUMO

Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health.


Assuntos
Adstringentes/farmacologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Percepção Gustatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Taninos/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164689, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737014

RESUMO

VGF mRNA is widely expressed in areas of the nervous system known to degenerate in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), including cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Despite certain VGF alterations are reported in animal models, little information is available with respect to the ALS patients. We addressed VGF peptide changes in fibroblast cell cultures and in plasma obtained from ALS patients, in parallel with spinal cord and plasma samples from the G93A-SOD1 mouse model. Antisera specific for the C-terminal end of the human and mouse VGF proteins, respectively, were used in immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while gel chromatography and HPLC/ESI-MS/MS were used to identify the VGF peptides present. Immunoreactive VGF C-terminus peptides were reduced in both fibroblast and plasma samples from ALS patients in an advanced stage of the disease. In the G93A-SOD1 mice, the same VGF peptides were also decreased in plasma in the late-symptomatic stage, while showing an earlier down-regulation in the spinal cord. In immunohistochemistry, a large number of gray matter structures were VGF C-terminus immunoreactive in control mice (including nerve terminals, axons and a few perikarya identified as motoneurons), with a striking reduction already in the pre-symptomatic stage. Through gel chromatography and spectrometry analysis, we identified one form likely to be the VGF precursor as well as peptides containing the NAPP- sequence in all tissues studied, while in the mice and fibroblasts, we revealed also AQEE- and TLQP- peptides. Taken together, selective VGF fragment depletion may participate in disease onset and/or progression of ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Neuropeptídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/análise , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 18(1): 229, 2016 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27716395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated whether thymosin ß (Tß) in saliva and in minor salivary glands is differentially expressed in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and patients with autoimmune diseases (systemic sclerosis [SSc], systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], and rheumatoid arthritis [RA], with and without sicca syndrome [ss]). METHODS: Saliva specimens of nine patients with pSS, seven with ss/SSc, seven with ss/SLE, seven with ss/RA, seven with SSc, seven with SLE, and seven with RA, as well as ten healthy subjects, were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source to investigate the presence and levels of Tß4, Tß4 sulfoxide, and Tß10. Immunostaining for Tß4 and Tß10 was performed on minor salivary glands of patients with pSS and ss. RESULTS: Tß4 levels were statistically higher in patients with pSS with respect to the other subgroups. Tß10 was detectable in 66.7 % of patients with pSS and in 42.8 % of those with ss/SSc, while Tß4 sulfoxide was detectable in 44.4 % of patients with pSS and in 42.9 % of those with ss/SSc. Tß10 and Tß4 sulfoxide were not detectable in patients without associated ss and in healthy control subjects. Regarding thymosin immunostaining, all patients had immunoreactivity for Tß10, and a comparable distribution pattern in the four different subgroups of patients was observed. Tß4 immunoreactivity was present in patients with ss/SSc and those with ss/SLE, while it was completely absent in patients with pSS and those with ss/RA. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that higher salivary Tß expression characterizes patients with pSS, while Tß4 sulfoxide and Tß10 salivary expression was selectively present in patients with sicca symptoms. Moreover, at the immunohistochemical level in patients with pSS, minor salivary glands showed a peculiar pattern characterized by immunostaining for Tß10 in acinar cells in the absence of any reactivity for Tß4. These findings, taken together, suggest a different role for Tß4 and Tß10 in patients with pSS who have ss and other autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Saliva/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares Menores/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Timosina/biossíntese , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , Saliva/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
17.
Expert Rev Proteomics ; 13(9): 883-94, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498711

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Care in pediatrics often refers to treatments directed to adults. However, childhood is a specific life period, with molecular pathways connected to development and thereby it requires distinctive considerations and special treatments under disease. Proteomics can help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the human development and disease onset in pediatric age and this review is devoted to underline the results recently obtained in the field. AREAS COVERED: The contribution of proteomics to the characterization of physiological modifications occurring during human development is presented. The proteomic studies carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying different pediatric pathologies and to discover new markers for early diagnosis and prognosis of disease, comprising genetic and systemic pathologies, sepsis and pediatric oncology are thereafter reported. The investigations concerning milk composition in human and farm mammals are also presented. Finally, the chances offered by the integration of different -omic platforms are discussed. Expert commentary: The growing utilization of holistic technologies such as proteomics, metabolomics and microbiomics will allow, in the near future, to define at the molecular level the complexity of human development and related diseases, with great benefit for future generations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Pediatria/tendências , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica , Adulto , Criança , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Metabolômica , Prognóstico
18.
Biopolymers ; 106(5): 714-25, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272460

RESUMO

Human saliva contains hundreds of small proline-rich peptides originated by the proteolytic cleavage of the salivary basic Proline-Rich Proteins. Nevertheless only for few of them a specific biological activity has been assigned to date. Among them, the 1932 Da peptide (p1932) has been patented as an anti-HIV agent. In order to shed light on the possible mechanism of action of this peptide, we assessed in this study, by means of molecular dynamics calculations, circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopic techniques, that p1932 has an intrinsic propensity to adopt a polyproline-II helix arrangement. This structural feature combined with the presence of PxxP motifs in its primary structure, represents an essential property for the exploitation of several biological activities. Next to these findings, we recently demonstrated the ability of this peptide to be internalized within cells of the oral mucosa, thus we focused onto a possible intracellular target, represented by the SH3 domains family. Its ability to interact with selected SH3 domains was finally assayed by Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopy. As a result, only Fyn, Hck, and c-Src SH3 domains gave positive results in terms of interaction, showing dissociation constants ranging from nanomolar to micromolar values having the best performer a KD of 148 nM. It is noteworthy that all the interacting domains belong to the Src kinases family, suggesting a role for p1932 as a modulator of the signal transduction pathways mediated by these kinases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 714-725, 2016.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Salivares Ricas em Prolina/química , Domínios de Homologia de src , Humanos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
19.
J Proteomics ; 146: 48-57, 2016 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27321913

RESUMO

The acid-insoluble salivary proteome obtained by addition of TFA to whole human saliva from adults, preterm and at-term newborns has been analysed by 2-DE in order to evidence differences among the three groups, and integrate data previously obtained on the acid-soluble fraction. 2-DE spots differentially expressed among the three groups were submitted to in-gel tryptic digestion and the peptide mixtures analysed by high resolution HPLC­ESI­MS/MS. By this strategy, we identified 3 over-expressed proteins in at-term newborns with respect to preterm newborns and adults (BPI fold-containing family A member 1, annexin A1, and keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 13), and several over-expressed proteins in adults (fatty acid-binding protein, S100 A6, S100 A7, S100 A9, prolactin-inducible protein, Ig kappa chain, cystatin SN, cystatin S/SA and α-amylase 1). Four spots, already detected but not characterized by other authors in human saliva 2-DE, were attributed to different protein species of S100 A9 (long-type and long-type monophosphorylated, short-type and short-type monophosphorylated) by MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides and sequential staining of 2-DE gels with Pro-Q Diamond, for specific detection of phosphoproteins, and total protein SYPRO Ruby stain. SIGNIFICANCE: Differential protein expression analysis of the acid insoluble fraction of saliva from preterm, at-term newborns and adults has been performed in this study by coupling 2-DE analysis and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry in order to complete the information previously obtained by top-down LC­MS only on the acid-soluble proteome. Several proteins identified in the acid insoluble fraction of both preterm newborn and adult saliva are not of glandular origin, being only prolactin-inducible protein, salivary cystatins, α-amylase and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor exclusive of salivary glands. Three proteins resulted increased in at-term newborns with respect to preterm newborns and adults: BPI fold-containing family A member 1, two proteoforms of annexin A1 and keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 13, while several proteins were significantly increased in adults.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anexina A1/análise , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Glicoproteínas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Queratina-1/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Proteoma/análise , Saliva/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Urol ; 196(3): 911-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27113968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among the different types of kidney stones, matrix stones are uncommon urinary calculi composed of a soft, pliable, amorphous substance with little crystalline content. To gain insight into the pathogenesis we investigated the protein component by analyzing the proteomic profiles of surgically removed matrix stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5 stones were harvested from 4 patients who underwent surgery for medical reasons at 3 clinical centers during a 7-year period. Matrix stone proteome characterization was performed by mass spectrometry based techniques using an integrated top-down/bottom-up proteomic platform. RESULTS: We identified 142 nonredundant proteins and peptides across all samples. Neutrophil defensin 1, and proteins S100-A8 and S100-A9 were the main components of these renal calculi. CONCLUSIONS: The abundance of identified inflammatory molecules points to an inflammatory process as the event that initializes soft calculi formation rather than as a consequence of such formation. The post-translational oxidative changes in S100-A8 and A9, and the presence of thymosin ß-4, granulins and ubiquitin also suggest the intervention of host defenses through a superimposed, vigorous counter inflammatory process. The post-translational changes seen in the proteins and peptides, and the known self-assembling capability of S100-A8 and S100-A9 probably explain the gelatinous consistency of these stones.


Assuntos
Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
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