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1.
Heart Views ; 22(3): 214-219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760055

RESUMO

The neurofibromatosis is a large class of different genetic disorders: Neurofibromatosis type 1, type 2, type 3 (or Schwannomatosys), which have different clinical characterization. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, represents 95% of the total cases. It is a complex autosomal dominant disorder with multisystem involvement, frequently associated to cardiac malformation. We present the case of a 52-years-old male affected by NF-1 with severe tricuspid regurgitation and atrial septal defect (ASD). No previous report about tricuspid valve surgery in NF-1 are available in the literature. A complete perioperative assessment was performed, including dermatologist evaluation, angio-CT scan and transesophageal echocardiography. The patient underwent uneventfully tricuspid valve replacement and ASD closure, with no wound complication even at 6-months follow-up. Treating congenital malformation in patient with complex genetic disorders like NF-1 is safe and can be resolutive, permitting to reduce long-term risk of complications for the patients. Preoperative assessments are fundamental, as well as in-hospital care and expertise on congenital heart defects.

2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 711273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733173

RESUMO

Background: The pathophysiological effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory mechanics, lung recruitment, and intracranial pressure (ICP) in acute brain-injured patients have not been completely elucidated. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of PEEP augmentation on respiratory mechanics, quantitative computed lung tomography (qCT) findings, and its relationship with ICP modifications. Secondary aims included the assessment of the correlations between different factors (respiratory mechanics and qCT features) with the changes of ICP and how these factors at baseline may predict ICP response after greater PEEP levels. Methods: A prospective, observational study included mechanically ventilated patients with acute brain injury requiring invasive ICP and who underwent two-PEEP levels lung CT scan. Respiratory system compliance (Crs), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial pressure (MAP), data from qCT and ICP were obtained at PEEP 5 and 15 cmH2O. Results: Sixteen examinations (double PEEP lung CT and neuromonitoring) in 15 patients were analyzed. The median age of the patients was 54 years (interquartile range, IQR = 39-65) and 53% were men. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at intensive care unit (ICU) admission was 8 (IQR = 3-12). Median alveolar recruitment was 2.5% of total lung weight (-1.5 to 4.7). PEEP from 5 to 15 cmH2O increased ICP [median values from 14.0 (11.2-17.5) to 23.5 (19.5-26.8) mmHg, p < 0.001, respectively]. The amount of recruited lung tissue on CT was inversely correlated with the change (Δ) in ICP (rho = -0.78; p = 0.0006). Additionally, ΔCrs (rho = -0.77, p = 0.008), ΔPaCO2 (rho = 0.81, p = 0.0003), and ΔMAP (rho = -0.64, p = 0.009) were correlated with ΔICP. Baseline Crs was not predictive of ICP response to PEEP. Conclusions: The main factors associated with increased ICP after PEEP augmentation included reduced Crs, lower MAP and lung recruitment, and increased PaCO2, but none of these factors was able to predict, at baseline, ICP response to PEEP. To assess the potential benefits of increased PEEP in patients with acute brain injury, hemodynamic status, respiratory mechanics, and lung morphology should be taken into account.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(12): 1347-1367, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide consensus, and a list of experts' recommendations regarding the basic skills for head-to-toe ultrasonography in the intensive care setting. METHODS: The Executive Committee of the European Society of Intensive Care (ESICM) commissioned the project and supervised the methodology and structure of the consensus. We selected an international panel of 19 expert clinicians-researchers in intensive care unit (ICU) with expertise in critical care ultrasonography (US), plus a non-voting methodologist. The panel was divided into five subgroups (brain, lung, heart, abdomen and vascular ultrasound) which identified the domains and generated a list of questions to be addressed by the panel. A Delphi process based on an iterative approach was used to obtain the final consensus statements. Statements were classified as a strong recommendation (84% of agreement), weak recommendation (74% of agreement), and no recommendation (less than 74%), in favor or against. RESULTS: This consensus produced a total of 74 statements (7 for brain, 20 for lung, 20 for heart, 20 for abdomen, 7 for vascular Ultrasound). We obtained strong agreement in favor for 49 statements (66.2%), 8 weak in favor (10.8%), 3 weak against (4.1%), and no consensus in 14 cases (19.9%). In most cases when consensus was not obtained, it was felt that the skills were considered as too advanced. A research agenda and discussion on training programs were implemented from the results of the consensus. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus provides guidance for the basic use of critical care US and paves the way for the development of training and research projects.

4.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid challenge (FC) is often adopted as gold standard used to assess the reliability of passive leg raising (PLR) in predicting fluid responsiveness in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to address the impact of the different definitions and timings used to assess FC response on PLR reliability. METHODS: Ancillary study from a data set of a multicentric study in 85 ICU patient with acute circulatory failure who received a FC (500 mL of crystalloids in 10 minutes) within the first 48h of ICU admission, preceded by PLR in 30 patients. FC response was assessed considering the changes in cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVI) using different thresholds and at different timepoints. RESULTS: The definitions of fluid responsiveness by using CI or SVI with a 15% increase after 10 minutes were associated to the best performances of the PLR [AUC (95% CI) 0.94 (0.83-1.01); vs. AUC (95% CI) 0.95 (0.87-1.02)]. The sensitivity of the PLR by adopting the CI or the SVI as reference variable ranged from 54.1% to 67.6% and from 81.5% to 100.0%; the specificity from 65.9% to 78.0% and from 79.5% to 100.0%, respectively. Considering all the subgroups, the number of responders 10 minutes after FC administration was higher as compared to 15 and 30 minutes (140 vs. 120 and 125, respectively, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the PLR test to predict fluid responsiveness depends on the definition of FC adopted. The timing of FC outcome assessment affected the overall fluid responsiveness.

5.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A number of studies performed in the operating room evaluated the hemodynamic effects of the fluid challenge (FC), solely considering the effect before and after the infusion. Few studies have investigated the pharmacodynamic effect of the FC on hemodynamic flow and pressure variables. We designed this trial aiming at describing the pharmacodynamic profile of two different FC infusion times, of a fixed dose of 4 ml kg-1. METHODS: Forty-nine elective neurosurgical patients received two consecutive FCs of 4 ml kg-1 of crystalloids in 10 (FC10) or 20 (FC20) minutes, in a random order. Fluid responsiveness was defined as stroke volume index increase ≥ 10%. We assessed the net area under the curve (AUC), the maximal percentage difference from baseline (dmax), time when the dmax was observed (tmax), change from baseline at 1-min (d1) and 5-min (d5) after FC end. RESULTS: After FC10 and FC20, 25 (51%) and 14 (29%) of 49 patients were classified as fluid responders (p = 0.001). With the exception of the AUCs of SAP and MAP, the AUCs of all the considered hemodynamic variables were comparable. The dmax and the tmax were overall comparable. In both groups, the hemodynamic effects on flow variables were dissipated within 5 min after FC end. CONCLUSIONS: The infusion time of FC administration affects fluid responsiveness, being higher for FC10 as compared to FC20. The effect on flow variables of either FCs fades 5 min after the end of infusion.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501392

RESUMO

Target temperature management (TTM) in cardiac arrest (CA) survivors is recommended after hospital admission for its possible beneficial effects on survival and neurological outcome. Whether a lower target temperature (i.e., 32-34 °C) improves outcomes is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on Pubmed and EMBASE to evaluate the effects on mortality and neurologic outcome of TTM at 32-34 °C as compared to controls (patients cared with "actively controlled" or "uncontrolled" normothermia). Results were analyzed via risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. TTM at 32-34 °C was compared to "actively controlled" normothermia in three RCTs and to "uncontrolled" normothermia in five RCTs. TTM at 32-34 °C does not improve survival as compared to normothermia (RR:1.06 (95%CI 0.94, 1.20), p = 0.36; I2 = 39%). In the subgroup analyses, TTM at 32-34 °C is associated with better survival when compared to "uncontrolled" normothermia (RR: 1.31 (95%CI 1.07, 1.59), p = 0.008) but shows no beneficial effects when compared to "actively controlled" normothermia (RR: 0.97 (95%CI 0.90, 1.04), p = 0.41). TTM at 32-34 °C does not improve neurological outcome as compared to normothermia (RR: 1.17 (95%CI 0.97, 1.41), p = 0.10; I2 = 60%). TTM at 32-34 °C increases the risk of arrhythmias (RR: 1.35 (95%CI 1.16, 1.57), p = 0.0001, I2 = 0%). TTM at 32-34 °C does not improve survival nor neurological outcome after CA and increases the risk of arrhythmias.

7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 674466, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220684

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are at high risk of neurological complications consequent to several factors including persistent hypotension. There is a paucity of data on the effects of therapeutic interventions designed to optimize systemic hemodynamics on cerebral autoregulation (CA) in this group of patients. Methods: Single-center, observational prospective study conducted at San Martino Policlinico Hospital, Genoa, Italy, from October 1 to December 15, 2020. Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, who had at least one episode of hypotension and received a passive leg raising (PLR) test, were included. They were then treated with fluid challenge (FC) and/or norepinephrine (NE), according to patients' clinical conditions, at different moments. The primary outcome was to assess the early effects of PLR test and of FC and NE [when clinically indicated to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP)] on CA (CA index) measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD). Secondary outcomes were to evaluate the effects of PLR test, FC, and NE on systemic hemodynamic variables, cerebral oxygenation (rSo2), and non-invasive intracranial pressure (nICP). Results: Twenty-three patients were included and underwent PLR test. Of these, 22 patients received FC and 14 were treated with NE. The median age was 62 years (interquartile range = 57-68.5 years), and 78% were male. PLR test led to a low CA index [58% (44-76.3%)]. FC and NE administration resulted in a CA index of 90.8% (74.2-100%) and 100% (100-100%), respectively. After PLR test, nICP based on pulsatility index and nICP based on flow velocity diastolic formula was increased [18.6 (17.7-19.6) vs. 19.3 (18.2-19.8) mm Hg, p = 0.009, and 12.9 (8.5-18) vs. 15 (10.5-19.7) mm Hg, p = 0.001, respectively]. PLR test, FC, and NE resulted in a significant increase in MAP and rSo2. Conclusions: In mechanically ventilated severe COVID-19 patients, PLR test adversely affects CA. An individualized strategy aimed at assessing both the hemodynamic and cerebral needs is warranted in patients at high risk of neurological complications.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13418, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183764

RESUMO

In patients intubated for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we retrospectively compared two weaning strategies, early extubation with immediate non-invasive ventilation (NIV) versus standard weaning encompassing spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), with respect to IMV duration (primary endpoint), extubation failures and reintubations, rate of tracheostomy, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and mortality (additional endpoints). All COVID-19 adult patients, intubated for hypoxemic ARF and subsequently extubated, were enrolled. Patients were included in two groups, early extubation followed by immediate NIV application, and conventionally weaning after passing SBT. 121 patients were enrolled and analyzed, 66 early extubated and 55 conventionally weaned after passing an SBT. IMV duration was 9 [6-11] days in early extubated patients versus 11 [6-15] days in standard weaning group (p = 0.034). Extubation failures [12 (18.2%) vs. 25 (45.5%), p = 0.002] and reintubations [12 (18.2%) vs. 22 (40.0%) p = 0.009] were fewer in early extubation compared to the standard weaning groups, respectively. Rate of tracheostomy, ICU mortality, and ICU length of stay were no different between groups. Compared to standard weaning, early extubation followed by immediate NIV shortened IMV duration and reduced the rate of extubation failure and reintubation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia
9.
J Crit Care ; 65: 26-35, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may trigger a multi-systemic disease involving different organs. There has been growing interest regarding the harmful effects of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system. This systematic review aims to systematically analyze papers reporting echocardiographic findings in hospitalized COVID-19 subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included prospective and retrospective studies reporting echocardiography data in >10 hospitalized adult subjects with COVID-19; from 1st February 2020 to 15th January 2021. RESULTS: The primary electronic search identified 1120 articles. Twenty-nine studies were finally included, enrolling 3944 subjects. Overall the studies included a median of 68.0% (45.5-100.0) of patients admitted to ICU. Ten studies (34.4%) were retrospective, and 20 (68.9%) single-centred. Overall enrolling 1367 subjects, three studies reported normal echocardiographic findings in 49 ± 18% of cases. Seven studies (24.1%) analyzed the association between echocardiographic findings and mortality, mostly related to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Data regarding the use of echocardiography on hospitalized, predominantly ICU, COVID-19 patients were retrieved from studies with heterogeneous designs, variable sample sizes, and severity scores. Normal echocardiographic findings were reported in about 50% of subjects, with LVEF usually not affected. Overall, RV dysfunction seems more likely associated with increased mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42020218439.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 205, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative complications impact on early and long-term patients' outcome. Appropriate perioperative fluid management is pivotal in this context; however, the most effective perioperative fluid management is still unclear. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathways recommend a perioperative zero-balance, whereas recent findings suggest a more liberal approach could be beneficial. We conducted this trial to address the impact of restrictive vs. liberal fluid approaches on overall postoperative complications and mortality. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid) and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register databases, published from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2019. We included RCTs enrolling adult patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery and comparing the use of restrictive/liberal approaches enrolling at least 15 patients in each subgroup. Studies involving cardiac, non-elective surgery, paediatric or obstetric surgeries were excluded. RESULTS: After full-text examination, the metanalysis finally included 18 studies and 5567 patients randomised to restrictive (2786 patients; 50.0%) or liberal approaches (2780 patients; 50.0%). We found no difference in the occurrence of severe postoperative complications between restrictive and liberal subgroups [risk difference (95% CI) = 0.009 (- 0.02; 0.04); p value = 0.62; I2 (95% CI) = 38.6% (0-66.9%)]. This result was confirmed also in the subgroup of five studies having a low overall risk of bias. The liberal approach was associated with lower overall renal major events, as compared to the restrictive [risk difference (95% CI) = 0.06 (0.02-0.09); p value = 0.001]. We found no difference in either early (p value = 0.33) or late (p value = 0.22) postoperative mortality between restrictive and liberal subgroups CONCLUSIONS: In major abdominal elective surgery perioperative, the choice between liberal or restrictive approach did not affect overall major postoperative complications or mortality. In a subgroup analysis, a liberal as compared to a restrictive perioperative fluid policy was associated with lower overall complication renal major events, as compared to the restrictive. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42020218059; Registration: February 2020, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=218059 .


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/normas , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Clin Imaging ; 77: 194-201, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify COVID-19 pneumonia features using CT performed at time of admission to emergency department in order to predict patients' hypoxia during the hospitalization and outcome. METHODS: Consecutive chest CT performed in the emergency department between March 1st and April 7th 2020 for COVID-19 pneumonia were analyzed. The three features of pneumonia (GGO, semi-consolidation and consolidation) and the percentage of well-aerated lung were quantified using a HU threshold based software. ROC curves identified the optimal cut-off values of CT parameters to predict hypoxia worsening and hospital discharge. Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the capability of CT quantitative features, demographic and clinical variables to predict the time to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients (median age 56-years-old, 51 men) with COVID-19 pneumonia at CT were enrolled. The quantitative features of COVID-19 pneumonia were not associated to age, sex and time-from-symptoms onset, whereas higher number of comorbidities was correlated to lower well-aerated parenchyma ratio (rho = -0.234, p = 0.04) and increased semi-consolidation ratio (rho = -0.303, p = 0.008). Well-aerated lung (≤57%), semi-consolidation (≥17%) and consolidation (≥9%) predicted worst hypoxemia during hospitalization, with moderate areas under curves (AUC 0.76, 0.75, 0.77, respectively). Multiple Cox regression identified younger age (p < 0.01), female sex (p < 0.001), longer time-from-symptoms onset (p = 0.049), semi-consolidation ≤17% (p < 0.01) and consolidation ≤13% (p = 0.03) as independent predictors of shorter time to hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: Quantification of pneumonia features on admitting chest CT predicted hypoxia worsening during hospitalization and time to hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Chest ; 160(2): 454-465, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few small studies have described hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) occurring in patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: What characteristics in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are associated with HAIs and how are HAIs associated with outcomes in these patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data including adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to eight Italian hub hospitals from February 20, 2020, through May 20, 2020. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate Weibull regression models were used to assess incidence, microbial cause, resistance patterns, risk factors (ie, demographics, comorbidities, exposure to medication), and impact on outcomes (ie, ICU discharge, length of ICU and hospital stays, and duration of mechanical ventilation) of microbiologically confirmed HAIs. RESULTS: Of the 774 included patients, 359 patients (46%) demonstrated 759 HAIs (44.7 infections/1,000 ICU patient-days; 35% multidrug-resistant [MDR] bacteria). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; n = 389 [50%]), bloodstream infections (BSIs; n = 183 [34%]), and catheter-related BSIs (n = 74 [10%]) were the most frequent HAIs, with 26.0 (95% CI, 23.6-28.8) VAPs per 1,000 intubation-days, 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.5) BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days, and 4.7 (95% CI, 3.8-5.9) catheter-related BSIs per 1,000 ICU patient-days. Gram-negative bacteria (especially Enterobacterales) and Staphylococcus aureus caused 64% and 28% of cases of VAP, respectively. Variables independently associated with infection were age, positive end expiratory pressure, and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics at admission. Two hundred thirty-four patients (30%) died in the ICU (15.3 deaths/1,000 ICU patient-days). Patients with HAIs complicated by septic shock showed an almost doubled mortality rate (52% vs 29%), whereas noncomplicated infections did not affect mortality. HAIs prolonged mechanical ventilation (median, 24 days [interquartile range (IQR), 14-39 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 5-13 days]; P < .001), ICU stay (24 days [IQR, 16-41 days] vs 9 days [IQR, 6-14 days]; P = .003), and hospital stay (42 days [IQR, 25-59 days] vs 23 days [IQR, 13-34 days]; P < .001). INTERPRETATION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk for HAIs, especially VAPs and BSIs resulting from MDR organisms. HAIs prolong mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, and HAIs complicated by septic shock almost double mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04388670; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia
13.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 983-993, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of diaphragmatic kinetics through tissue Doppler imaging (dTDI) was recently proposed as a means to describe diaphragmatic activity in both healthy individuals and intubated patients undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation. Our primary aim was to investigate whether the diaphragmatic excursion velocity measured with dTDI at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) was different in subjects successfully extubated versus those who passed the trial but exhibited extubation failure within 48 h after extubation. METHODS: We enrolled 100 adult subjects, all of whom had successfully passed a 30-min SBT conducted in CPAP of 5 cm H2O. In cases of extubation failure within 48 h after liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation, subjects were re-intubated or supported through noninvasive ventilation. dTDI was performed at the end of the SBT to assess excursion, velocity, and acceleration. RESULTS: Extubation was successful in 79 subjects, whereas it failed in 21 subjects. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) inspiratory peak excursion velocity (3.1 [IQR 2.0-4.3] vs 1.8 [1.3-2.6] cm/s, P < .001), mean velocity (1.6 [IQR 1.2-2.4] vs 1.1 [IQR 0.8-1.4] cm/s, P < .001), and acceleration (8.8 [IQR 5.0-17.8] vs 4.2 [IQR 2.4-8.0] cm/s2, P = .002) were all significantly higher in subjects who failed extubation compared with those who were successfully extubated. Similarly, the median expiratory peak relaxation velocity (2.6 [IQR 1.9-4.5] vs 1.8 [IQR 1.2-2.5] cm/s, P < .001), mean velocity (1.1 [IQR 0.7-1.7] vs 0.9 [IQR 0.6-1.0] cm/s, P = .002), and acceleration (11.2 [IQR 9.1-19.0] vs 7.1 [IQR 4.6-12.0] cm/s2, P = .004) were also higher in the subjects who failed extubation. CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, at the end of SBT, subjects who developed extubation failure within 48 h after extubation experienced a greater diaphragmatic activation compared with subjects who were successfully extubated. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT03962322.).


Assuntos
Extubação , Desmame do Respirador , Adulto , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cinética , Respiração Artificial
14.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 928-935, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a critical care outreach team was implemented in our hospital to guarantee multidisciplinary patient assessment at admission and prompt ICU support in medical wards. In this paper, we report the activity plan results and describe the baseline characteristics of the referred subjects. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 125 subjects referred to the critical care outreach team from March 22 to April 22, 2020. We considered subjects with a ceiling of care decision, with those deemed eligible assigned to level 3 care (ward subgroup), and those deemed ineligible admitted to the ICU (ICU subgroup). Quality indicators of the outreach team plan delivery included number of cardiac arrest calls, number of intubations in level 2 areas, and ineffective palliative support. RESULTS: We enrolled 125 consecutive adult subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. We did not report any emergency endotracheal intubations in the clinical ward. In the care ceiling subgroup, we had 2 (3.3%) emergency calls for cardiac arrest, whereas signs of ineffective palliative support were reported in 5 subjects (12.5%). Noninvasive forms of respiratory assistance were delivered to 40.0% of subjects in the ward subgroup (median 3 d [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5]), to 45.9% of subjects in the care ceiling subgroup (median 5 d [IQR 3-7]), and to 64.7% of subjects in the ICU subgroup (median 2.5 d [IQR 1-3]). Thirty of the 31 ward subjects (96.7%), 26 of the 34 ICU subjects, (76.4%), and 19 of the 61 ceiling of care subjects (31.1%) were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a hospital and ICU surge, a multidisciplinary daily plan supported by a dedicated critical care outreach team was associated with a low rate of cardiac arrest calls, no emergency intubations in the ward, and appropriate palliative care support for subjects with a ceiling of care decision.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur Radiol ; 31(9): 7077-7087, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in working patterns and education experienced by radiology residents in Northwest Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to residents of 9 postgraduate schools in Lombardy and Piedmont, investigating demographics, changes in radiological workload, involvement in COVID-19-related activities, research, distance learning, COVID-19 contacts and infection, changes in training profile, and impact on psychological wellbeing. Descriptive and χ2 statistics were used. RESULTS: Among 373 residents invited, 300 (80%) participated. Between March and April 2020, 44% (133/300) of respondents dedicated their full time to radiology; 41% (124/300) engaged in COVID-19-related activities, 73% (90/124) of whom working in COVID-19 wards; 40% (121/300) dedicated > 25% of time to distance learning; and 66% (199/300) were more involved in research activities than before the pandemic. Over half of residents (57%, 171/300) had contacts with COVID-19-positive subjects, 5% (14/300) were infected, and 8% (23/300) lost a loved one due to COVID-19. Only 1% (3/300) of residents stated that, given the implications of this pandemic scenario, they would not have chosen radiology as their specialty, whereas 7% (22/300) would change their subspecialty. The most common concerns were spreading the infection to their loved ones (30%, 91/300), and becoming sick (7%, 21/300). Positive changes were also noted, such as being more willing to cooperate with other colleagues (36%, 109/300). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic changed radiology residents' training programmes, with distance learning, engaging in COVID-19-related activities, and a greater involvement in research becoming part of their everyday practice. KEY POINTS: • Of 300 participants, 44% were fully dedicated to radiological activity and 41% devoted time to COVID-19-related activities, 73% of whom to COVID-19 wards. • Distance learning was substantial for 40% of residents, and 66% were involved in research activities more than before the COVID-19 pandemic. • Over half of residents were exposed to COVID-19 contacts and less than one in twenty was infected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Radiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 43, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate perioperative fluid management is of pivotal importance to reduce postoperative complications, which impact on early and long-term patient outcome. The so-called perioperative goal-directed therapy (GDT) approach aims at customizing perioperative fluid management on the individual patients' hemodynamic response. Whether or not the overall amount of perioperative volume infused in the context of GDT could influence postoperative surgical outcomes is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of GDT approach between study population and control group in reducing postoperative complications and perioperative mortality, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register. The enrolled studies were grouped considering the amount infused intraoperatively and during the first 24 h after the admission in the critical care unit (perioperative fluid). RESULTS: The metanalysis included 21 RCTs enrolling 2729 patients with a median amount of perioperative fluid infusion of 4500 ml. In the studies reporting an overall amount below or above this threshold, the differences in postoperative complications were not statically significant between controls and GDT subgroup [43.4% vs. 34.2%, p value = 0.23 and 54.8% vs. 39.8%; p value = 0.09, respectively]. Overall, GDT reduced the overall rate of postoperative complications, as compared to controls [pooled risk difference (95% CI) = - 0.10 (- 0.14, - 0.07); Chi2 = 30.97; p value < 0.0001], but not to a reduction of perioperative mortality [pooled risk difference (95%CI) = - 0.016 (- 0.0334; 0.0014); p value = 0.07]. Considering the rate of organ-related postoperative events, GDT did not reduce neither renal (p value = 0.52) nor cardiovascular (p value = 0.86) or pulmonary (p value = 0.14) or neurological (p value = 0.44) or infective (p value = 0.12) complications. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespectively to the amount of perioperative fluid administered, GDT strategy reduces postoperative complications, but not perioperative mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42020168866; Registration: February 2020 https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=168866.


Assuntos
Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Perioperatório/métodos , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Período Perioperatório/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Driving pressure can be readily measured during assisted modes of ventilation such as pressure support ventilation (PSV) and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). The present prospective randomized crossover study aimed to assess the changes in driving pressure in response to variations in the level of assistance delivered by PSV vs NAVA. METHODS: 16 intubated adult patients, recovering from hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) and undergoing assisted ventilation, were randomly subjected to six 30-min-lasting trials. At baseline, PSV (PSV100) was set with the same regulation present at patient enrollment. The corresponding level of NAVA (NAVA100) was set to match the same inspiratory peak of airway pressure obtained in PSV100. Therefore, the level of assistance was reduced and increased by 50% in both ventilatory modes (PSV50, NAVA50; PSV150, NAVA150). At the end of each trial, driving pressure obtained in response to four short (2-3 s) end-expiratory and end-inspiratory occlusions was analyzed. RESULTS: Driving pressure at PSV50 (6.6 [6.1-7.8] cmH2O) was lower than that recorded at PSV100 (7.9 [7.2-9.1] cmH2O, P = 0.005) and PSV150 (9.9 [9.1-13.2] cmH2O, P < 0.0001). In NAVA, driving pressure at NAVA50 was reduced compared to NAVA150 (7.7 [5.1-8.1] cmH2O vs 8.3 [6.4-11.4] cmH2O, P = 0.013), whereas there were no changes between baseline and NAVA150 (8.5 [6.3-9.8] cmH2O vs 8.3 [6.4-11.4] cmH2O, P = 0.331, respectively). Driving pressure at PSV150 was higher than that observed in NAVA150 (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: NAVA delivers better lung-protective ventilation compared to PSV in hypoxemic ARF patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION: The present trial was prospectively registered at www.clinicatrials.gov (NCT03719365) on 24 October 2018.

18.
J Crit Care ; 62: 256-264, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461118

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Septic induced cardiomyopathy has a wide spectrum of presentation, being associated with systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. There is currently no evidence of association between left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and mortality in septic patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between systolic wave (s') obtained with Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) and mortality in septic patients. Secondary outcome was the association of LV ejection fraction with mortality. RESULTS: In the primary analysis we included a total of 13 studies (1197 patients, mortality 39.9%); overall s' wave was not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors (Standardized Mean Difference 0.20, 95%Confidence-Interval - 0.18, 0.59). This result was confirmed also in sub-groups analyses according to regional criteria of TDI sampling. A post-hoc analysis including only septic shock patients confirmed that s' wave was not associated with mortality. Several sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. We found no evidence of publication bias. The secondary analysis (11 studies, 1081 patients, mortality 36.7%) showed that LV ejection fraction was not associated with mortality (Mean Difference 0.98, 95% Confidence-Interval - 1.79,3.75). CONCLUSIONS: There is no association between mortality and LV systolic function as evaluated by TDI s' wave in septic patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Sepse , Choque Séptico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico por imagem , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478004

RESUMO

Hemodynamic optimization during sepsis and septic shock is based on a prompt and large fluid resuscitation strategy associated with early administration of norepinephrine. In our hospital, norepinephrine is administered in the emergency department (ED), within a protocol-guided management context, to reduce norepinephrine infusion timing due to central line insertion. This choice, however, can be associated with side effects. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a retrospective analysis regarding the safety of norepinephrine in the ED. We also appraised the association between in-hospital mortality and predefined ED variables and patients' admission severity scores. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective analysis of electronic sheets of the ED of a tertiary hospital in the North of Italy. Outcomes measure and analysis: Electronic documentation was assessed to identify local and systemic side effects. We considered two subgroups of patients according to the in-hospital clinical paths: (1) those admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU); and (2) those who received a ceiling of care decision. We collected and considered variables related to septic shock treatment in the ED and analyzed their association with in-hospital mortality. MAIN RESULTS: We considered a two-year period, including 108,033 ED accesses, and ultimately analyzed data from 127 patients. Side effects related to the use of this drug were reported in five (3.9%) patients. Thirty patients (23.6%) were transferred to the ICU from the ED, of whom six (20.0%) died. Twenty-eight patients (22.0%) received a ceiling of care indication, of whom 21 (75.0%) died. Of the 69 (54.3%) finally discharged to either medical or surgical wards, 21 (30.4%) died. ICU admission was the only variable significantly associated to in-hospital mortality in the multivariable analysis [OR (95% CI) = 4.48 (1.52-13.22); p-value = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Norepinephrine peripheral infusion in the ED was associated with a low incidence of adverse events requiring discontinuation (3.9%). It could be considered safe within <12 h when a specific line management protocol and pump infusion protocol are adopted. None of the variables related to septic shock management affected in-hospital mortality, except for the patient's ICU admission.


Assuntos
Sepse , Choque Séptico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(4): 422-431, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fluid challenge response in surgical patients can be predicted by functional haemodynamic tests. Two tests, the mini-fluid challenge (mini-FC) and end-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT), have been assessed in a few small single-centre studies with conflicting results. In general, functional haemodynamic tests have not performed reliably in predicting fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing laparotomy. OBJECTIVE: This trial is designed to address and compare the reliability of the EEOT and the mini-FC in predicting fluid responsiveness during laparotomy. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre study. SETTING: Three university hospitals in Italy. PATIENTS: A total of 103 adults patients scheduled for elective laparotomy with invasive arterial monitoring. INTERVENTIONS: The study protocol evaluated the changes in the stroke volume index (SVI) 20 s (EEOT20) and 30 s (EEOT30) after an expiratory hold and after a mini-FC of 100 ml over 1 min. Fluid responsiveness required an increase in SVI at least 10% following 4 ml kg-1 of Ringer's solution fluid challenge infused over 10 min. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Haemodynamic data, including SVI, were obtained from pulse contour analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the tests were compared with assess fluid responsiveness. RESULTS: Fluid challenge administration induced an increase in SVI at least 10% in 51.5% of patients. The rate of fluid responsiveness was comparable among the three participant centres (P = 0.10). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (95% CI) of the changes in SVI after mini-FC was 0.95 (0.88 to 0.98), sensitivity 98.0% (89.5 to 99.6) and specificity 86.8% (75.1 to 93.4) for a cut-off value of 4% of increase in SVI. This was higher than the SVI changes after EEOT20, 0.67 (0.57 to 0.76) and after EEOT30, 0.73 (0.63 to 0.81). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing laparotomy the mini-FC reliably predicted fluid responsiveness with high-sensitivity and specificity. The EEOT showed poor discriminative value and cannot be recommended for assessment of fluid responsiveness in this surgical setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03808753.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Salas Cirúrgicas , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Respiração Artificial , Volume Sistólico
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