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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; : JCM0190721, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757831

RESUMO

Background: Pyrazinamide is an important component of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens. Although approximately 50% of rifampicin resistant isolates are also resistant to pyrazinamide, pyrazinamide susceptibility testing is not routinely performed due to the challenging nature of the assay. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of genotypic and phenotypic methods, and explored the occurrence of pyrazinamide heteroresistance. Methods: We assessed pyrazinamide susceptibility among 358 individuals enrolled in the South African EXIT-RIF cohort using Sanger and targeted deep sequencing (TDS) of the pncA gene, whole genome sequencing (WGS), and phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of the different methods, and investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of pncA heteroresistance. True pyrazinamide susceptibility status was assigned to each isolate using the Koser classification and expert rules. Results: We observed 100% agreement across genotypic methods for detection of pncA fixed mutations, only TDS confidently identified three isolates (0.8%) with minor variants. For the 355 (99.2%) isolates that could be assigned true pyrazinamide status with confidence, phenotypic DST had a sensitivity of 96.5% (95% CI: 93.8-99.3%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 100-100%); both Sanger sequencing and WGS had a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% CI: 94.6-99.6%) and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI: 95.7-99.9%); and TDS, sensitivity of 98.8% (95% CI: 97.2-100%) and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI: 95.7-99.9%). Conclusions: We demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing among all assessed genotypic methods. The prevalence of pyrazinamide heteroresistance in Mtb isolates was lower than that identified for other first-line drugs.

2.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(11): e604-e616, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796339

RESUMO

Background: Bedaquiline is a crucial drug for control of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Molecular drug resistance assays could facilitate effective use of bedaquiline and surveillance of drug resistance emergence. To facilitate molecular assay development, we aimed to identify genomic markers of bedaquiline resistance. Methods: In this systematic review and individual isolate analysis, we searched Europe PubMed Central and Scopus for studies published from the inception of each database until Oct 19, 2020, that assessed genotypic and phenotypic bedaquiline resistance in clinical or non-clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. All studies reporting on the assessment of variants in the four genes of interest (Rv0678, atpE, pepQ, and Rv1979c) and phenotypic bedaquiline data in both clinical and non-clinical samples were included. We collated individual isolate data from eligible studies to assess the association between genomic variants with phenotypic bedaquiline resistance, using a standardised method endorsed by WHO. Risk of bias of the extracted data was independently assessed by two authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool for clinical studies and Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation tool for animal studies. The primary outcome was to identify mutations associated with resistance in four genes of interest (Rv0678, atpE, pepQ, and Rv1979c); for each genomic variant, the odds ratio (OR), 95% CI, and p value were calculated to identify resistance markers associated with bedaquiline resistance. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020221498. Findings: Of 1367 studies identified, 41 published between 2007 and 2020 were eligible for inclusion. We extracted data on 1708 isolates: 1569 (91·9%) clinical isolates and 139 (8·1%) non-clinical isolates. We identified 237 unique variants in Rv0678, 14 in atpE, 28 in pepQ, and 11 in Rv1979c. Most clinical isolates with a single variant reported in Rv0678 (229 [79%] of 287 variants), atpE (14 [88%] of 16 variants), pepQ (32 [100%] of 32 variants), or Rv1979c (115 [98%] of 119 variants) were phenotypically susceptible to bedaquiline. Except for the atpE 187G→C (OR ∞, [95% CI 13·28-∞]; p<0·0001) and Rv0678 138_139insG (OR 6·91 [95% CI 1·16-47·38]; p=0·016) variants, phenotypic-genotypic associations were not significant (p≥0·05) for any single variant in Rv0678, atpE, pepQ, and Rv1979c. Interpretation: Absence of clear genotypic-phenotypic associations for bedaquiline complicates the development of molecular drug susceptibility tests. A concerted global effort is urgently needed to assess the genotypic and phenotypic drug susceptibility of M tuberculosis isolates, especially in patients who have received unsuccessful bedaquiline-containing regimens. Treatment regimens should be designed to prevent emergence of bedaquiline resistance and phenotypic drug susceptibility tests should be used to guide and monitor treatment. Funding: Research Foundation Flanders, South African Medical Research Council, Department of Science and Innovation - National Research Foundation, National Institute of Health Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in seeking and accessing treatment for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) and multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) are major impediments to TB control in high-burden, resource-limited settings. METHOD: We prospectively determined health-seeking behavioural patterns and associations with treatment outcomes and costs among 68 RR-TB patients attending conveniently selected facilities in a decentralised system in Harare, Zimbabwe. RESULTS: From initial symptoms to initiation of effective treatment, patients made a median number of three health care visits (IQR 2-4 visits) at a median cost of 13% (IQR 6-31%) of their total annual household income (mean cost, US$410). Cumulatively, RR-TB patients most frequently first visited private facilities, i.e., private pharmacies (30%) and other private health care providers (24%) combined. Median patient delay was 26 days (IQR 14-42 days); median health system delay was 97 days (IQR 30-215 days) and median total delay from symptom onset to initiation of effective treatment was 132 days (IQR 51-287 days). The majority of patients (88%) attributed initial delay in seeking care to "not feeling sick enough." Total delay, total cost and number of health care visits were not associated with treatment or clinical outcomes, though our study was not adequately powered for these determinations. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the public availability of rapid molecular TB tests, patients experienced significant delays and high costs in accessing RR-TB treatment. Active case finding, integration of private health care providers and enhanced service delivery may reduce treatment delay and TB associated costs.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antituberculosos/toxicidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/economia , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Rifampina/toxicidade , Zimbábue
4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(10): 1248-1255, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and major drivers of catastrophic costs among TB-affected households in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative health facility-based survey with random cluster sampling among consecutively enrolled drug-susceptible (DS-TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients. Costs incurred and income lost due to TB illness were captured using an interviewer-administered standardised questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs. RESULTS: A total of 841 patients were enrolled and were weighted to 900 during data analysis. There were 500 (56%) males and 46 (6%) DR-TB patients. Thirty-five (72%) DR-TB patients were HIV co-infected. Overall, 80% (95% CI: 77-82) of TB patients and their households experienced catastrophic costs. The major cost driver pre-TB diagnosis was direct medical costs. Nutritional supplements were the major cost driver post-TB diagnosis, with a median cost of US$360 (IQR: 240-600). Post-TB median diagnosis costs were three times higher among DR-TB (US$1,659 [653-2,787]) than drug DS-TB-affected households (US$537 [204-1,134]). Income loss was five times higher among DR-TB than DS-TB patients. In multivariable analysis, household wealth was the only covariate that remained significantly associated with catastrophic costs: The poorest households had 16 times the odds of incurring catastrophic costs versus the wealthiest households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 15.7 95% CI: 7.5-33.1]). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB-affected households, especially those affected by DR-TB, experienced catastrophic costs. Since the major cost drivers fall outside the healthcare system, multi-sectoral approaches to TB control and linking TB patients to social protection may reduce catastrophic costs.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e362-e370, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rifampicin (RIF) resistance is highly correlated with isoniazid (INH) resistance and used as proxy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Using MTBDRplus as a comparator, we evaluated the predictive value of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert)-detected RIF resistance for MDR-TB in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving data from new or retreatment pulmonary adult TB cases evaluated between July 2013 and December 2016. Separate, paired sputa for smear microscopy and MTBDRplus were collected. Xpert testing was performed subject to the availability of Xpert cartridges on sample remnants after microscopy. RESULTS: Among 353 patients, 193 (54.7%) were previously treated and 224 (63.5%) were MTBDRplus TB positive. Of the 224, 43 (19.2%) were RIF monoresistant, 11 (4.9%) were INH monoresistant, 53 (23.7%) had MDR-TB, and 117 (52.2%) were RIF and INH susceptible. Overall, among the 96 samples detected by MTBDRplus as RIF resistant, 53 (55.2%) had MDR-TB. Xpert testing was performed in 179 (50.7%) specimens; among these, 163 (91.1%) were TB positive and 73 (44.8%) RIF resistant. Only 45/73 (61.6%) Xpert-identified RIF-resistant isolates had concomitant MTBDRplus-detected INH resistance. Xpert had a sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI, 92.1-100.0) for detecting RIF resistance but a positive-predictive value of only 61.6% (95% CI, 49.5-72.8) for MDR-TB. The most frequent mutations associated with RIF and INH resistance were S531L and S315T1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-risk MDR-TB study population, Xpert had low positive-predictive value for the presence of MDR-TB. Comprehensive resistance testing for both INH and RIF should be performed in this setting.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16186, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999331

RESUMO

Chronic lung disease (CLD) is a common co-morbidity for HIV-positive children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. In this population, distinct airway microbiota may differentially confer risk of CLD. In a cross-sectional study of 202 HIV-infected children aged 6-16 years in Harare, Zimbabwe, we determined the association of sputum microbiota composition (using 16S ribosomal RNA V4 gene region sequencing) with CLD defined using clinical, spirometric, or radiographic criteria. Forty-two percent of children were determined to have CLD according to our definition. Dirichlet multinomial mixtures identified four compositionally distinct sputum microbiota structures. Patients whose sputum microbiota was dominated by Haemophilus, Moraxella or Neisseria (HMN) were at 1.5 times higher risk of CLD than those with Streptococcus or Prevotella (SP)-dominated microbiota (RR = 1.48, p = 0.035). Cell-free products of HMN sputum microbiota induced features of epithelial disruption and inflammatory gene expression in vitro, indicating enhanced pathogenic potential of these CLD-associated microbiota. Thus, HIV-positive children harbor distinct sputum microbiota, with those dominated by Haemophilus, Moraxella or Neisseria associated with enhanced pathogenesis in vitro and clinical CLD.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota , Escarro/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Masculino , Zimbábue
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following early implementation of public health measures, San Francisco has experienced a slow rise and a low peak level of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the safety net hospital for San Francisco through April 8, 2020. Each patient had ≥15 days of follow-up. Among 26 patients, the median age was 54 years (interquartile range, 43 to 62), 65% were men, and 77% were Latinx. Mechanical ventilation was initiated for 11 (42%) patients within 24 hours of ICU admission and 20 patients (77%) overall. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.5 days (interquartile range, 5 to 20). Patients were managed with lung protective ventilation (tidal volume <8 ml/kg of ideal body weight and plateau pressure ≤30 cmH2O on 98% and 78% of ventilator days, respectively). Prone positioning was used for 13 of 20 (65%) ventilated patients for a median of 5 days (interquartile range, 2 to 10). Seventeen (65%) patients were discharged home, 1 (4%) was discharged to nursing home, 3 (12%) were discharged from the ICU, and 2 (8%) remain intubated in the ICU at the time of this report. Three (12%) patients have died. CONCLUSIONS: Good outcomes were achieved in critically ill patients with COVID-19 by using standard therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) such as lung protective ventilation and prone positioning. Ensuring hospitals can deliver sustained high-quality and evidence-based critical care to patients with ARDS should remain a priority.

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 119-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of resistance to rifampicin alone; rifampicin and isoniazid, and second-line anti-TB drugs among sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A health facility-based cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: In total, 1114 (87.6%) new and 158 (12.4%) retreatment TB patients were enrolled. MTB was confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF among 1184 (93%) smear-positive sputum samples. There were 64 samples with Xpert MTB/RIF-determined rifampicin resistance. However, two were rifampicin susceptible on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The prevalence of RR-TB was [4.0% (95% CI, 2.9, 5.4%), n=42/1043) and 14.2% (95% CI, 8.9, 21.1%; n=20/141) among new and retreatment patients, respectively. The prevalence of MDR-TB was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3, 3.1%) and 6.4% (95% CI, 2.4, 10.3%) among new and retreatment TB patients, respectively. Risk factors for RR-TB included prior TB treatment, self-reported HIV infection, travel outside Zimbabwe for ≥one month (univariate), and age <15 years. Having at least a secondary education was protective against RR-TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDR-TB in Zimbabwe has remained stable since the 1994 subnational survey. However, the prevalence of rifampicin mono-resistance was double that of MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(2): e191-e199, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF, the most widely used automated nucleic acid amplification test for tuberculosis, is available in more than 130 countries. Although diagnostic accuracy is well documented, anticipated improvements in patient outcomes have not been clearly identified. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to examine improvements in patient outcomes associated with Xpert MTB/RIF. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry from inception to Feb 1, 2018, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of Xpert MTB/RIF with sputum smear microscopy as tests for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults (aged 18 years or older). We excluded studies of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and studies in which mortality was not assessed. We used a two-stage approach for our primary analysis and a one-stage approach for the sensitivity analysis. To assess the primary outcome of cumulative 6-month all-cause mortality, we first performed logistic regression models (random effects for cluster randomised trials, with robust SEs for multicentre studies) for each trial, and then pooled the odds ratio (OR) estimates by a fixed-effects (inverse variance) or random-effects (Der Simonian Laird) meta-analysis. We adjusted for age and gender, and stratified by HIV status and previous tuberculosis-treatment history. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42014013394. FINDINGS: Our search identified 387 studies, of which five RCTs were eligible for analysis. 8567 adult clinic attendees (4490 [63·5%] of 7074 participants for whom data were available were HIV-positive) were tested for tuberculosis with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert group) versus sputum smear microscopy (sputum smear group), across five low-income and middle-income countries (South Africa, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Tanzania). The primary outcome (reported in three studies) occurred in 182 (4·5%) of 4050 patients in the Xpert group and 217 (5·3%) of 4093 patients in the smear group (pooled adjusted OR 0·88, 95% CI 0·68-1·14 [p=0·34]; for HIV-positive individuals OR 0·83, 0·65-1·05 [p=0·12]). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a lower rate of death (12·73 per 100 person-years in the Xpert group vs 16·38 per 100 person-years in the sputum smear group) for HIV-positive patients (hazard ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·60-0·97; p=0·03). The risk of bias was assessed as reasonable and the statistical heterogeneity across studies was low (I2<20% for the primary outcome). INTERPRETATION: Despite individual patient data analysis from five RCTs, we were unable to confidently rule in nor rule out an Xpert MTB/RIF-associated reduction in mortality among outpatients tested for tuberculosis. Reduction in mortality among HIV-positive patients in a secondary analysis suggests the possibility of population-level impact. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893776

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) presents a major public health dilemma. Heteroresistance, the coexistence of drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains or of multiple drug-resistant strains with discrete haplotypes, may affect accurate diagnosis and the institution of effective treatment. Subculture, or passage of cells onto fresh growth medium, is utilized to preserve Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell lines and is universally employed in TB diagnostics. The impact of such passages, typically performed in the absence of drug, on drug-resistant subpopulations is hypothesized to vary according to the competitive costs of genotypic resistance-associated variants. We applied ultradeep next-generation sequencing to 61 phenotypically rifampin-monoresistant (n = 17) and preextensively (n = 41) and extensively (n = 3) drug-resistant isolates with presumptive heteroresistance at two time points in serial subculture. We found significant dynamic loss of minor-variant resistant subpopulations across all analyzed resistance-determining regions, including eight isolates (13%) whose antibiogram data would have transitioned from resistant to susceptible for at least one drug through subculture. Surprisingly, some resistance-associated variants appeared to be selected for in subculture.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Girase/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 196(9): 1191-1201, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614668

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Minority drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis subpopulations can be associated with phenotypic resistance but are poorly detected by Sanger sequencing or commercial molecular diagnostic assays. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of targeted next-generation sequencing in resolving these minor variant subpopulations. METHODS: We used single molecule overlapping reads (SMOR), a targeted next-generation sequencing approach that dramatically reduces sequencing error, to analyze primary cultured isolates phenotypically resistant to rifampin, fluoroquinolones, or aminoglycosides, but for which Sanger sequencing found no resistance-associated variants (RAVs) within respective resistance-determining regions (study group). Isolates also underwent single-colony selection on antibiotic-containing agar, blinded to sequencing results. As a positive control, isolates with multiple colocalizing chromatogram peaks were also analyzed (control group). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 61 primary culture isolates (25 study group and 36 control group), SMOR described 66 (49%) and 45 (33%) of 135 total heteroresistant RAVs at frequencies less than 5% and less than 1% of the total mycobacterial population, respectively. In the study group, SMOR detected minor resistant variant subpopulations in 80% (n = 20/25) of isolates with no Sanger-identified RAVs (median subpopulation size, 1.0%; interquartile range, 0.2-3.9%). Single-colony selection on drug-containing media corroborated SMOR results for 90% (n = 18/20) of RAV-containing specimens, and the absence of RAVs in 60% (n = 3/5) of isolates. Overall, Sanger sequencing was concordant with SMOR for 77% (n = 53/69) of macroheteroresistant (5-95% total population), but only 5% of microheteroresistant (<5%) subpopulations (n = 3/66) across both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptic minor variant mycobacterial subpopulations exist below the resolving capability of current drug susceptibility testing methodologies, and may explain an important proportion of false-negative resistance determinations.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 875, 2016 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assays may be used as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test for detection of M. tuberculosis infection. However, the risk of active tuberculosis disease following screening using interferon-gamma release assays in immigrants is not well defined. To address these uncertainties, we determined the incidence rates of active tuberculosis disease in a cohort of high-risk immigrants with Class B TB screened with interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) upon arrival in the United States. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, we enrolled recent U.S. immigrants with Class B TB who were screened with an IGRA (QuantiFERON ® Gold or Gold In-Tube Assay) at the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Clinic from January 2005 through December 2010. We reviewed records from the Tuberculosis Control Patient Management Database and from the California Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Case Registry to determine incident cases of active tuberculosis disease through February 2015. RESULTS: Of 1233 eligible immigrants with IGRA screening at baseline, 81 (6.6 %) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis disease as a result of their initial evaluation. Of the remaining 1152 participants without active tuberculosis disease at baseline, 513 tested IGRA-positive and 639 tested IGRA-negative. Seven participants developed incident active tuberculosis disease over 7730 person-years of follow-up, for an incidence rate of 91 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 43-190). Five IGRA-positive and two IGRA-negative participants developed active tuberculosis disease (incidence rates 139 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 58-335) and 48 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 12-193), respectively) for an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 2.9 (95 % CI 0.5-30, p = 0.21). IGRA test results had a negative predictive value of 99.7 % but a positive predictive value of only 0.97 %. CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk immigrants without active tuberculosis disease at the time of entry into the United States, risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease was higher in IGRA-positive participants compared with IGRA-negative participants. However, these findings did not reach statistical significance, and a positive IGRA at enrollment had a poor predictive value for progressing to active tuberculosis disease. Additional research is needed to identify biomarkers and develop clinical algorithms that can better predict progression to active tuberculosis disease among U.S. immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , California , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , São Francisco , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
16.
J Infect Dis ; 212(2): 302-10, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601940

RESUMO

The transcontinental spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is poorly characterized in molecular epidemiologic studies. We used genomic sequencing to understand the establishment and dispersion of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a group of immigrants to the United States. We used a genomic epidemiology approach to study a genotypically matched (by spoligotype, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat signature) lineage 2/Beijing MDR strain implicated in an outbreak of tuberculosis among refugees in Thailand and consecutive cases within California. All 46 MDR M. tuberculosis genomes from both Thailand and California were highly related, with a median difference of 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The Wat Tham Krabok (WTK) strain is a new sequence type distinguished from all known Beijing strains by 55 SNPs and a genomic deletion (Rv1267c) associated with increased fitness. Sequence data revealed a highly prevalent MDR strain that included several closely related but distinct allelic variants within Thailand, rather than the occurrence of a single outbreak. In California, sequencing data supported multiple independent introductions of WTK with subsequent transmission and reactivation within the state, as well as a potential super spreader with a prolonged infectious period. Twenty-seven drug resistance-conferring mutations and 4 putative compensatory mutations were found within WTK strains. Genomic sequencing has substantial epidemiologic value in both low- and high-burden settings in understanding transmission chains of highly prevalent MDR strains.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , California , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Tailândia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 189(12): 1551-9, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24869625

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Guidelines recommend routine nucleic-acid amplification testing in patients with presumed tuberculosis (TB), but these tests have not been widely adopted. GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), a novel, semiautomated TB nucleic-acid amplification test, has renewed interest in this technology, but data from low-burden countries are limited. OBJECTIVES: We sought to estimate Xpert's potential clinical and public health impact on empiric treatment, contact investigation, and housing in patients undergoing TB evaluation. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study with 2-month follow-up comparing Xpert with standard strategies for evaluating outpatients for active pulmonary TB at the San Francisco Department of Public Health TB Clinic between May 2010 and June 2011. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of standard algorithms for initial empiric TB treatment, contact investigation, and housing in reference to three Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum cultures, as compared with that of a single sputum Xpert test. We estimated the incremental diagnostic value of Xpert, and the hypothetical reductions in unnecessary treatment, contact investigation, and housing if Xpert were adopted to guide management decisions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 156 patients underwent Xpert testing. Fifty-nine (38%) received empiric TB treatment. Thirteen (8%) had culture-positive TB. Xpert-guided management would have hypothetically decreased overtreatment by 94%, eliminating a median of 44 overtreatment days (interquartile range, 43-47) per patient and 2,169 total overtreatment days (95% confidence interval, 1,938-2,400) annually, without reducing early detection of TB patients. We projected similar benefits for contact investigation and housing. CONCLUSIONS: Xpert could greatly reduce the frequency and impact of unnecessary empiric treatment, contact investigation, and housing, providing substantial patient and programmatic benefits if used in management decisions.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibióticos Antituberculose/economia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Busca de Comunicante , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Habitação/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , São Francisco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Triagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/economia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Desnecessários/economia , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos
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