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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(9): 1049-1050, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502342
3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 20(10): 650-659, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397687

RESUMO

: Despite recent improvement in therapy, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remains a major cause of increased mortality and morbidity.We have reviewed recent advances in the medical treatment of the patients with HFrEF, including drugs introduced into clinical practice for the first time in the most recent guidelines and drugs undergoing active clinical research in major randomized trials. Sacubitril/valsartan for HFrEF treatment, empagliflozin for heart failure prevention in diabetic patients, ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency and potassium binders for hyperkalaemia belong to the first category, whereas drugs undergoing phase 3 clinical trials include omecamtiv mecarbil and vericiguat. A large trial with rivaroxaban has been recently concluded.In conclusion, new drugs recently introduced for HFrEF treatment need implementation in clinical practice, as well as further studies to possibly expand their indications. Ongoing trials will show the role of new drugs acting on cardiac and vascular function and new mechanisms potentially involved in HFrEF progression.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(9): 1129-1141, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410955

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare characteristics of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients receiving a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) with a defibrillator component (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillation, CIED-D) vs. those without one, and to assess whether carrying such a device contiguously with an LVAD is associated with outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 448 patients were analysed (mean age 52 ± 13 years, 82% male) in the multicentre European PCHF-VAD registry. To account for all active CIED-Ds during ongoing LVAD treatment, outcome analyses were performed by a time-varying analysis with active CIED-D status post-LVAD as the time-varying covariate. At the time of LVAD implantation, 235 patients (52%) had an active CIED-D. Median time on LVAD support was 1.1 years (interquartile range 0.5-2.0 years). A reduction of 36% in the risk of all-cause mortality was observed in patients with an active CIED-D [hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.91; P = 0.012), increasing to 41% after adjustment for baseline covariates (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87; P = 0.008) and 39% after propensity score adjustment (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.94; P = 0.027). Other than CIED-D, age, LVAD implant as redo surgery, number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and use of vasopressors pre-LVAD were remaining significant risk factors of all-cause mortality. Incident ventricular arrhythmias post-LVAD portended a 2.4-fold and 2.6-fold increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively; carrying an active CIED-D remained associated with a 47% and 43% reduction in these events, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis accounting for all active CIED-Ds, including those implanted during LVAD support, carrying such a device was associated with significantly better survival during LVAD support.

5.
Drugs ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432436

RESUMO

New therapeutic strategies aimed to tackle the rising socio-economic burden of heart failure (HF) have become an impelling priority. The new pharmacological class of angiotensin (Ang) receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) prompted a real conceptual change in the treatment of HF moving from only the inhibition of the renin-Ang-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system to a strategy based on the concomitant pharmacological enhancement of endogenous natriuretic peptides. Sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class ARNI, has reduced the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalisation, sudden cardiac death, disease progression and improved quality of life, compared with enalapril, in patients on evidence-based contemporary medical therapy. Our review underlines the increasing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan, which may be considered a new disease-modifying therapy and, after about 30 years of research, a real step forward in HF pharmacological therapy.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423712

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients admitted for acute heart failure (HF) are at high risk of readmission and death, especially in the 90 days following discharge. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of early optimization of oral HF therapy with beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) on 90-day clinical outcomes in patients admitted for acute HF. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, a total of 900 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either 'usual care' or 'high-intensity care'. Patients enrolled in the usual care arm will be discharged and managed according to usual clinical practice at the site. In the high-intensity care arm, doses of oral HF medications - including a BB, ACEi or ARB, and MRA - will be up-titrated to 50% of recommended doses before discharge and to 100% of recommended doses within 2 weeks of discharge. Up-titration will be delayed if the patients develop worsening symptoms and signs of congestion, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, bradycardia, worsening of renal function or significant increase in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide between visits. The primary endpoint is 90-day all-cause mortality or HF readmission. CONCLUSIONS: STRONG-HF is the first study to assess whether rapid up-titration of evidence-based guideline-recommended therapies with close follow-up in a large cohort of patients discharged from an acute HF admission is safe and can affect adverse outcomes during the first 90 days after discharge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03412201.

7.
Lancet ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guideline-recommended doses of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and ß blockers are similar for men and women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), even though there are known sex differences in pharmacokinetics of these drugs. We hypothesised that there might be sex differences in the optimal dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of BIOSTAT-CHF, a prospective study in 11 European countries of patients with heart failure in whom initiation and up-titration of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers was encouraged by protocol. We included only patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, and excluded those who died within the first 3 months. Primary outcome was a composite of time to all-cause mortality or hospitalisation for heart failure. Findings were validated in ASIAN-HF, an independent cohort of 3539 men and 961 women with HFrEF. FINDINGS: Among 1308 men and 402 women with HFrEF from BIOSTAT-CHF, women were older (74 [12] years vs 70 [12] years, p<0·0001) and had lower bodyweights (72 [16] kg vs 85 [18] kg, p<0·0001) and heights (162 [7] cm vs 174 [8] cm, p<0·0001) than did men, although body-mass index did not differ significantly. A similar number of men and women reached guideline-recommended target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs (99 [25%] vs 304 [23%], p=0·61) and ß blockers (57 [14%] vs 168 [13%], p=0·54). In men, the lowest hazards of death or hospitalisation for heart failure occurred at 100% of the recommended dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, but women showed approximately 30% lower risk at only 50% of the recommended doses, with no further decrease in risk at higher dose levels. These sex differences were still present after adjusting for clinical covariates, including age and body surface area. In the ASIAN-HF registry, similar patterns were observed for both ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, with women having approximately 30% lower risk at 50% of the recommended doses, with no further benefit at higher dose levels. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that women with HFrEF might need lower doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers than men, and brings into question what the true optimal medical therapy is for women versus men. FUNDING: European Commission.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
11.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358978

RESUMO

Patients with known cardiovascular disease who have not had a recent acute event are often referred to as having stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The concept of 'stable' CAD is misleading for two important reasons: the continuing risks of cardiovascular events over the longer term and the diverse spectrum of powerful risk characteristics. The risks of cardiovascular events are frequently underestimated and continue to exist, despite current standards of care for secondary prevention, including lifestyle changes, optimal medical therapy, myocardial revascularization and the use of antiplatelet agents to limit thrombosis. In dispelling the myth of 'stable' CAD, we explore the pathophysiology of the disease and the relative contribution of plaque and systemic factors to cardiovascular events. A broader concept of the vulnerable patient, not just the vulnerable plaque, takes into account the diversity and future risks of atherothrombotic events. We also evaluate new and ongoing research into medical therapies aimed at further reducing the risks of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic - but not stable - atherothrombotic disease.

12.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in renal function have been associated with differential outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (HF). However, individual trajectories of changes in renal function are unknown, and it is unclear whether they relate to different clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic importance of individual trajectories of change in renal function in acute HF. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational analysis from the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled PROTECT trial in patients with acute HF. We identified and internally validated 8 different renal trajectories among 1897 patients by visual inspection of inhospital serum creatinine changes. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 180 days. Mean age was 70 ± 12 years; 70% were male, and mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49.0 mL/min/1.73m2. RESULTS: A total of 8 different trajectories was established. The most prevalent trajectories were an inhospital bump (19.0%), a sustained increase (17.6%) and a dip (14.5%) in serum creatinine. Overall, the clinical characteristics of patients in different trajectories were remarkably similar. Crude 180-day mortality rates ranged from 12.0% in the trajectory, with no significant changes to 18.3% in the trajectory of sustained increase without significant differences. Overall, after multivariable adjustment, there was no trajectory of changes in renal function that was associated with significantly better or worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of changes in renal function in acute HF differ considerably on the patient level. Despite these differences, clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar, therefore, questioning the prognostic importance of changes in renal function in acute HF.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), levels of NT-proBNP are influenced by the presence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), making it difficult to distinguish between HF versus AF in patients with raised NT-proBNP. It is unknown whether levels of GDF-15 are also influenced by AF in patients with HF. In this study we compared the plasma levels of NT-proBNP versus GDF-15 in patients with HF in AF versus sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 2516), we studied patients with HF categorized into three groups: (1) AF at baseline (n = 733), (2) SR at baseline with a history of AF (n = 183), and (3) SR at baseline and no history of AF (n = 1025). The findings were validated in the validation cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 1738). RESULTS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of patients who had AF at baseline were higher than those of patients in SR (both with and without a history of AF), even after multivariable adjustment (3417 [25th-75th percentile 1897-6486] versus 1788 [682-3870], adjusted p < 0.001, versus 2231 pg/mL [902-5270], adjusted p < 0.001). In contrast, after adjusting for clinical confounders, the levels of GDF-15 were comparable between the three groups (3179 [2062-5253] versus 2545 [1686-4337], adjusted p = 0.36, versus 2294 [1471-3855] pg/mL, adjusted p = 0.08). Similar patterns of both NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were found in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: These data show that in patients with HF, NT-proBNP is significantly influenced by underlying AF at time of measurement and not by previous episodes of AF, whereas the levels of GDF-15 are not influenced by the presence of AF. Therefore, GDF-15 might have additive value combined with NT-proBNP in the assessment of patients with HF and concomitant AF.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

16.
Echocardiography ; 36(6): 1118-1122, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148213

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of CFTR in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress could explain vascular alterations in cystic fibrosis. Aortic elastic properties are determinants of left ventricular function by means of ventriculo-arterial coupling and indicators of cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to compare clinically stable patients affected by cystic fibrosis without overt pulmonary hypertension with controls to evaluate aortic tissue Doppler elastic properties, such as distensibility, stiffness, and strain. METHODS: A total of 22 adults affected by cystic fibrosis, and 24 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex were enrolled. None had known cardiovascular risk factors, secondary diabetes, neither aortic stenosis nor regurgitation. All people underwent blood pressure measurement and transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: Aortic diameter measured at Valsalva sinuses was significantly higher in patients with cystic fibrosis than healthy people, median 32.0 (interquartile range 29.8-35.0) vs 24.3 (22.2-30.0) mm; P < 0.001. Aortic distensibility was significantly lower among patients than controls, being 2.4 (1.3-3.3) vs 5.6 (3.4-8.3) per mm Hg (P < 0.001), while stiffness higher, 7.7 (6.0-14.8) vs 3.7 (2.9-6.7); P < 0.001. Finally, M-mode strain of ascending aorta was lower in patients, 4.1 (3.4-7.3)% than in controls, 13.4 (7.7-19.4)%; P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: For the first time in humans, we demonstrated subclinical alterations in aortic elastic properties in young adults affected by cystic fibrosis without pulmonary hypertension or secondary diabetes. This phenomenon could influence left ventricular function earlier by means of ventriculo-arterial coupling and may be a tool to identify patients who benefit from a closer follow-up.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

19.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087253

RESUMO

Strain echocardiography is able to detect subclinical ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Prolonged survival to cystic fibrosis favors heart and vessel involvement. The purpose of the present study was to compare clinically stable adult patients affected by cystic fibrosis without overt pulmonary hypertension with controls to evaluate right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic function by means of strain and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), respectively. 22 adults affected by cystic fibrosis and 24 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex were enrolled. None had known cardiovascular risk factors or overt pulmonary hypertension. All people underwent blood pressure measurement and transthoracic echocardiography. Cystic fibrosis patients showed higher sPAP [median 25 (IQR 21-30) vs 22 (22-22) mmHg; p = 0.02] and more frequent RV diastolic dysfunction (p < 0.001). Among cases, some RV systolic parameters were significantly altered than controls, such as TAPSE [20 (18-24) vs. 23 (21-28) mm; p = 0.001], FAC [34 (26-44) vs. 49 (48-50)%; p < 0.001], midwall tissue strain [- 25.0 (- 31.3 to - 22.8) vs. - 30.5 (- 31.8 to - 29.3)%; p = 0.03], apical tissue strain [- 22 (- 29.3 to - 19.0) vs. - 30.5 (- 32.8 to - 28.3)%; p = 0.001] and 2D strain [- 22.0 (- 25.1 to - 19.0) vs. - 29.5 (- 31.8 to - 27.3)%; p < 0.001]. Finally, 2D strain correlated with spirometric FEV1 (ρ = - 0.463, p = 0.03) and nearly with FEF25-75% (ρ = - 0.393, p = 0.07). Our study confirmed a RV subclinical systo-diastolic dysfunction in clinically stable patients affected by cystic fibrosis without overt pulmonary hypertension nor cardiovascular risk factors. This may be due to systemic inflammation and temporary recurrent pulmonary hypertension. We retain that RV 2D strain and TDI echocardiography could become an important tool in the follow-up of these patients.

20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005544, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PENK (proenkephalin) is a stable surrogate for enkephalins, endogenous opioid peptides, which exert cardiodepressive effects and improve renal function. PENK has been associated with heart failure (HF) severity and renal dysfunction. We therefore hypothesized that PENK could be associated with deterioration of kidney function and could have a role as a novel renal marker in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2180 patients with HF of a large multicenter cohort (BIOSTAT-CHF [A Systems Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure]), the relationship between PENK and clinical variables, plasma and urinary biomarkers, and clinical end points was established. Data were validated in a separate cohort of 1703 patients with HF. PENK was elevated (>80 pmol/L, 99th percentile) in 1245 (57%) patients. Higher PENK was associated with more advanced HF and glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The strongest independent predictor of PENK was estimated glomerular filtration rate. Others were plasma NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; all P<0.001). Using correlation heatmaps and hierarchical cluster analyses, PENK clustered with estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine, NGAL, galectin-3, and urea. Higher PENK was independently associated with increased risk of deterioration of kidney function between baseline and 9 months (odds ratio, 1.29 [1.02-1.65] per PENK doubling; P=0.038; defined as >25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23 [1.07-1.43] per doubling; P=0.004). Analyses in the validation cohort yielded comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PENK levels are associated with more severe HF, with glomerular and tubular renal dysfunction, with incidence of a deterioration of kidney function, and with mortality. These findings suggest that the opioid system might be involved in deteriorating kidney function in HF.

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