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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597719

RESUMO

AIM: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is predictive of both outcomes and response to treatment in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil according to baseline NT-proBNP level in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure trial (GALACTIC-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome was the composite of a worsening heart failure event (urgent clinic visit, emergency department visit, or hospitalization) or cardiovascular death. We prespecified analysis of the effect of treatment according to baseline NT-proBNP (≤ median, > median), excluding individuals with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL). Of the 8232 patients analysed, 8206 had an available baseline NT-proBNP measurement. Among the 5971 patients not in AF/AFL, the median (Q1-Q3) NT-proBNP level was 1675 (812-3579) pg/ml. Hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil, compared with placebo, for the primary endpoint in patients without AF/AFL were: ≤ median 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.09), > median 0.81 (0.73-0.90) (p-interaction = 0.095); for the overall population (including patients with AF/AFL) the HRs were ≤ median 1.01 (0.90-1.15) and > median 0.88 (0.80-0.96) (p-interaction = 0.035). There was an interaction between treatment and NT-proBNP, examined as a continuous variable, with greater effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on the primary outcome in patients with a higher baseline NT-proBNP (p-interaction = 0.086). CONCLUSIONS: In GALACTIC-HF, the benefit of omecamtiv mecarbil appeared to be larger in patients with higher baseline NT-proBNP levels, especially in patients without AF/AFL. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02929329; EudraCT number, 2016-002299-28.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597718

RESUMO

AIM: The comorbidities that collectively define metabolic syndrome are common in patients with heart failure. However, the role of metabolic syndrome in the pathophysiology of heart failure is not well understood. We therefore investigated the clinical and biomarker correlates of metabolic syndrome in patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1103 patients with heart failure, we compared the biomarker expression using a panel of 363 biomarkers among patients with (n = 468 [42%]) and without (n = 635 [58%]) metabolic syndrome. Subsequently, a pathway overrepresentation analysis was performed to identify key biological pathways. Findings were validated in an independent cohort of 1433 patients with heart failure of whom 615 (43%) had metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of five criteria, including central obesity, elevated serum triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance and hypertension. The most significantly elevated biomarkers in patients with metabolic syndrome were leptin (log2 fold change 0.92, p = 5.85 × 10-21 ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (log2 fold change 0.61, p = 1.21 × 10-11 ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (log2 fold change 0.47, p = 1.95 × 10-13 ), tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11a (log2 fold change 0.35, p = 4.16 × 10-9 ), and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret (log2 fold change 0.31, p = 4.87 × 10-9 ). Network analysis identified 10 pathways in the index cohort and 6 in the validation cohort, all related to inflammation. The primary overlapping pathway in both the index and validation cohorts was up-regulation of the natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in heart failure and is associated with biomarkers and pathways relating to obesity, lipid metabolism and immune responses underlying chronic inflammation.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 16(2): 127-139, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697147

RESUMO

Secondary (functional) tricuspid regurgitation (sTR) is common in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Because combined valvular heart disease affects long-term survival, in comparison with isolated MR or tricuspid regurgitation, it is essential to offer patients adequate treatment. Despite considerable experience, no conclusive data are yet available on the prognostic impact of concomitant tricuspid valve surgery at the time of mitral valve surgery. Emerging transcatheter treatments offer the opportunity to treat both conditions (MR and sTR) simultaneously or in a stepwise fashion. This review provides a clinical overview on available data regarding the rationale for treatment of sTR in patients with relevant MR undergoing mitral transcatheter edge-to-edge repair, focusing on clinical and anatomical selection criteria.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Prova Pericial , Resultado do Tratamento , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos
5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 16(2): 140-151, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) is a progressive disease with characteristic pathophysiological changes that may influence prognosis. Although the staging of SMR patients suffering from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) according to extramitral cardiac involvement has prognostic value in medically treated patients, such data are so far lacking for edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (M-TEER). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to classify M-TEER patients into disease stages based on the phenotype of extramitral cardiac involvement and to assess its impact on symptomatic and survival outcomes. METHODS: Based on echocardiographic and clinical assessment, patients were assigned to 1 of the following HFrEF-SMR groups: left ventricular involvement (Stage 1), left atrial involvement (Stage 2), right ventricular volume/pressure overload (Stage 3), or biventricular failure (Stage 4). A Cox regression model was implemented to investigate the impact of HFrEF-SMR stages on 2-year all-cause mortality. The symptomatic outcome was assessed with New York Heart Association functional class at follow-up. RESULTS: Among a total of 849 eligible patients who underwent M-TEER for relevant SMR from 2008 until 2019, 9.5% (n = 81) presented with left ventricular involvement, 46% (n = 393) with left atrial involvement, 15% (n = 129) with right ventricular pressure/volume overload, and 29% (n = 246) with biventricular failure. An increase in HFrEF-SMR stage was associated with increased 2-year all-cause mortality after M-TEER (HR: 1.39; CI: 1.23-1.58; P < 0.01). Furthermore, higher HFrEF-SMR stages were associated with significantly less symptomatic improvement at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The classification of M-TEER patients into HFrEF-SMR stages according to extramitral cardiac involvement provides prognostic value in terms of postinterventional survival and symptomatic improvement.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Volume Sistólico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718512

RESUMO

AIMS: The SOLOIST-WHF trial demonstrated efficacy of sotagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and recent worsening heart failure (HF) regardless of ejection fraction (EF). Selection criteria in trials may limit their generalizability. Therefore, we aimed to investigate eligibility for sotagliflozin based on the SOLOIST-WHF criteria in a real-world HF population. METHODS AND RESULTS: SOLOIST-WHF criteria were applied to patients stabilized after HF hospitalization in the Swedish HF Registry according to 1) literal scenario (all inclusion/exclusion criteria) or 2) pragmatic scenario (only criteria likely to influence treatment decisions). Of 5453 inpatients with T2DM and recent worsening HF, 51.4% had reduced EF (HFrEF), 19.1% mildly reduced (HFmrEF), and 29.5% preserved EF (HFpEF). Eligibility (literal) was: 27.2% (32.4% in HFrEF, 24.7% in HFmrEF, 19.7% in HFpEF) and eligibility (pragmatic) was 62.8% (69.1%, 60.3%, 53.4%, respectively). In the literal scenario, criteria limiting eligibility were HF duration < 3 months, eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73m2, age > 85 years, acute coronary syndrome < 3 months, and insufficiently high N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Eligible vs. non-eligible patients had more severe HF, higher cardiovascular (CV) comorbidity burden, higher use of HF treatments, and higher event rates (all-cause death 30.8 vs. 27.2 per 100 patient-years, CV death 19.1 vs. 16.6, and HF hospitalization 36.7 vs. 24.0). CONCLUSION: In this large, real-world HF cohort with T2DM, ∼1/3 of patients were eligible for sotagliflozin in the literal and ∼2/3 of patients in the pragmatic scenario. Eligible patients had more severe HF and higher event rates, in particular CV and HF events.

7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 22(1): 8, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum selenium levels have been associated with the incidence of heart failure (HF) and signs of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, notable differences have been reported between males and females in food intake and micronutrient metabolism, possibly explaining different health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to elucidate sex-specific, cross-sectional phenotypic differences in the association of serum selenium concentrations with parameters of metabolic syndrome and HF. METHODS: We investigated data from individuals from a community-based cohort (PREVEND; N = 4288) and heart failure cohort (BIOSTAT-CHF; N = 1994). In both populations, cross-sectional analyses were performed for potential interaction (p < 0.1) between sex and serum selenium with overlapping signs and clinical parameters of the metabolic syndrome and HF. RESULTS: Baseline selenium levels of the total cohort were similar between PREVEND (85.7 µg/L) and BIOSTAT-CHF (89.1 µg/L). Females with lower selenium levels had a higher BMI and increased prevalence of diabetes than females with higher selenium, in both PREVEND (pinteraction < 0.001; pinteraction = 0.040, resp.) and BIOSTAT-CHF (pinteraction = 0.021; pinteraction = 0.024, resp.), while opposite associations were observed for males. Additionally, in females, but not in males, lower selenium was associated with a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI) in PREVEND (pinteraction = 0.021) and BIOSTAT-CHF (pinteraction = 0.084). CONCLUSION: Lower selenium was associated with a higher BMI and increased prevalence of diabetes in females, opposite to males, and was also associated with more MI in females. Interventional studies are needed to validate this observation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Síndrome Metabólica , Infarto do Miocárdio , Selênio , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Caracteres Sexuais , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações
8.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 15(12): 2038-2047, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preprocedural right ventricular-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) coupling is a major predictor of outcome in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) undergoing transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (M-TEER). However, clinical significance of changes in RV-PA coupling after M-TEER is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in RV-PA coupling after M-TEER, their prognostic value, and predictors of improvement. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study, including patients undergoing successful M-TEER (residual mitral regurgitation ≤2+ at discharge) for SMR at 13 European centers and with complete echocardiographic data at baseline and short-term follow-up (30-180 days). RV-PA coupling was assessed with the use of echocardiography as the ratio of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to pulmonary artery systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP). All-cause death was assessed at the longest available follow-up starting from the time of the echocardiographic reassessment. RESULTS: Among 501 patients included, 331 (66%) improved their TAPSE/PASP after M-TEER (responders) at short-term follow-up (median: 89 days; IQR: 43-159 days), whereas 170 (34%) did not (nonresponders). Lack of previous cardiac surgery, low postprocedural mitral mean gradient, low baseline TAPSE, high baseline PASP, and baseline tricuspid regurgitation were independently associated with TAPSE/PASP improvement after M-TEER. Compared with nonresponders, responders had lower New York Heart Association functional class and less heart failure hospitalizations at short-term follow-up. Improvement in TAPSE/PASP was independently associated with reduced risk of mortality at long-term follow-up (584 days; IQR: 191-1,243 days) (HR: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.42-0.92]; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SMR, improvement in TAPSE/PASP after successful M-TEER is predicted by baseline clinical and echocardiographic variables and postprocedural mitral gradient, and is associated with a better outcome.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar , Humanos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(6): 3667-3693, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546712

RESUMO

In the last years, major progress occurred in heart failure (HF) management. Quadruple therapy is now mandatory for all the patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Whilst verciguat is becoming available across several countries, omecamtiv mecarbil is waiting to be released for clinical use. Concurrent use of potassium-lowering agents may counteract hyperkalaemia and facilitate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor implementations. The results of the EMPagliflozin outcomE tRial in Patients With chrOnic heaRt Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (EMPEROR-Preserved) trial were confirmed by the Dapagliflozin in Heart Failure with Mildly Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction (DELIVER) trial, and we now have, for the first time, evidence for treatment of also patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. In a pre-specified meta-analysis of major randomized controlled trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and HF hospitalization in the patients with HF regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction. Other steps forward have occurred in the treatment of decompensated HF. Acetazolamide in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure with Volume Overload (ADVOR) trial showed that the addition of intravenous acetazolamide to loop diuretics leads to greater decongestion vs. placebo. The addition of hydrochlorothiazide to loop diuretics was evaluated in the CLOROTIC trial. Torasemide did not change outcomes, compared with furosemide, in TRANSFORM-HF. Ferric derisomaltose had an effect on the primary outcome of CV mortality or HF rehospitalizations in IRONMAN (rate ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.02; P = 0.070). Further options for the treatment of HF, including device therapies, cardiac contractility modulation, and percutaneous treatment of valvulopathies, are summarized in this article.


Assuntos
Acetazolamida , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Acetazolamida/farmacologia , Acetazolamida/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 24(Suppl L): L20-L28, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545230

RESUMO

Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have led to major changes in the treatment of patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and these advances are included in the recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America (ACC/AHA/HFSA) guidelines issued in 2021 and 2022, respectively. According to both guidelines, treatment of patients with HFrEF is based on the administration of four classes of drugs that reduce the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death and HF hospitalizations in RCTs: angiotensin-converting enzyme or angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Specific sequences of treatment are not recommended but emphasis is given to reaching treatment with all four drugs as early as possible. Further treatments are considered in selected patients including ivabradine, hydralazine nitrates, digoxin, and the new agent vericiguat. Specific treatments, mostly new, for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities are also given. The aim of this article is to compare the two recent guidelines issued by the ESC and ACC/AHA/HFSA and show the few differences and the many consistent recommendations, now more numerous given the evidence available for many new treatments.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(11): 2175-2184, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482160

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate short-term changes in tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (M-TEER) in secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR), their predictors and impact on mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a retrospective analysis of SMR patients undergoing successful M-TEER (post-procedural mitral regurgitation ≤2+) at 13 European centres. Among 503 patients evaluated 79 (interquartile range [IQR] 40-152) days after M-TEER, 173 (35%) showed ≥1 degree of TR improvement, 97 (19%) had worsening of TR, and 233 (46%) remained unchanged. Smaller baseline left atrial diameter and residual mitral regurgitation 0/1+ were independent predictors of TR ≤2+ after M-TEER. There was a significant association between TR changes and New York Heart Association class and pulmonary artery systolic pressure decrease at echocardiographic re-assessment. At a median follow-up of 590 (IQR 209-1103) days from short-term echocardiographic re-assessment, all-cause mortality was lower in patients with improved compared to those with unchanged/worsened TR (29.6% vs. 42.3% at 3 years; log-rank p = 0.034). Baseline TR severity was not associated with mortality, whereas TR 0/1+ and 2+ at short-term follow-up was associated with lower all-cause mortality compared to TR 3/4+ (30.6% and 35.6% vs. 55.6% at 3 years; p < 0.001). A TR ≤2+ after M-TEER was independently associated with a 42% decreased risk of mortality (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: More than one third of patients with SMR undergoing successful M-TEER experienced an improvement in TR. Pre-procedural TR was not associated with outcome, but a TR ≤2+ at short-term follow-up was independently associated with long-term mortality. Optimal M-TEER result and a small left atrium were associated with a higher likelihood of TR ≤2+ after M-TEER.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Valva Mitral , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Lancet ; 400(10367): 1938-1952, 2022 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence for dose and pace of up-titration of guideline-directed medical therapies after admission to hospital for acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multinational, open-label, randomised, parallel-group trial (STRONG-HF), patients aged 18-85 years admitted to hospital with acute heart failure, not treated with full doses of guideline-directed drug treatment, were recruited from 87 hospitals in 14 countries. Before discharge, eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40% vs >40%) and country, with blocks of size 30 within strata and randomly ordered sub-blocks of 2, 4, and 6, to either usual care or high-intensity care. Usual care followed usual local practice, and high-intensity care involved the up-titration of treatments to 100% of recommended doses within 2 weeks of discharge and four scheduled outpatient visits over the 2 months after discharge that closely monitored clinical status, laboratory values, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations. The primary endpoint was 180-day readmission to hospital due to heart failure or all-cause death. Efficacy and safety were assessed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (ie, all patients validly randomly assigned to treatment). The primary endpoint was assessed in all patients enrolled at hospitals that followed up patients to day 180. Because of a protocol amendment to the primary endpoint, the results of patients enrolled on or before this amendment were down-weighted. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03412201, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between May 10, 2018, and Sept 23, 2022, 1641 patients were screened and 1078 were successfully randomly assigned to high-intensity care (n=542) or usual care (n=536; ITT population). Mean age was 63·0 years (SD 13·6), 416 (39%) of 1078 patients were female, 662 (61%) were male, 832 (77%) were White or Caucasian, 230 (21%) were Black, 12 (1%) were other races, one (<1%) was Native American, and one (<1%) was Pacific Islander (two [<1%] had missing data on race). The study was stopped early per the data and safety monitoring board's recommendation because of greater than expected between-group differences. As of data cutoff (Oct 13, 2022), by day 90, a higher proportion of patients in the high-intensity care group had been up-titrated to full doses of prescribed drugs (renin-angiotensin blockers 278 [55%] of 505 vs 11 [2%] of 497; ß blockers 249 [49%] vs 20 [4%]; and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists 423 [84%] vs 231 [46%]). By day 90, blood pressure, pulse, New York Heart Association class, bodyweight, and NT-proBNP concentration had decreased more in the high-intensity care group than in the usual care group. Heart failure readmission or all-cause death up to day 180 occurred in 74 (15·2% down-weighted adjusted Kaplan-Meier estimate) of 506 patients in the high-intensity care group and 109 (23·3%) of 502 patients in the usual care group (adjusted risk difference 8·1% [95% CI 2·9-13·2]; p=0·0021; risk ratio 0·66 [95% CI 0·50-0·86]). More adverse events by 90 days occurred in the high-intensity care group (223 [41%] of 542) than in the usual care group (158 [29%] of 536) but similar incidences of serious adverse events (88 [16%] vs 92 [17%]) and fatal adverse events (25 [5%] vs 32 [6%]) were reported in each group. INTERPRETATION: An intensive treatment strategy of rapid up-titration of guideline-directed medication and close follow-up after an acute heart failure admission was readily accepted by patients because it reduced symptoms, improved quality of life, and reduced the risk of 180-day all-cause death or heart failure readmission compared with usual care. FUNDING: Roche Diagnostics.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402928

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for more than half of heart failure hospital admissions in the last years and is burdened by high mortality and poor quality of life. Providing effective management for HFpEF patients is a major unmet clinical need. Increase in left atrial pressure is the key determinant of pulmonary congestion, with consequent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. Evidence on benefits of medical treatment in HFpEF patients is limited. Thus, alternative strategies, including devices able to reduce left atrial pressure, through an interatrial communication determining a left-right shunt, were developed. This review aims to summarize evidence regarding the use of percutaneous interatrial shunting devices. These devices are safe and effective in improving hemodynamic and clinical parameters, including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, 6-min walking distance, and New York Heart Association functional class. Data on cardiovascular mortality and re-hospitalization for heart failure are still scarce.

16.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used to measure exercise capacity; however, the magnitude of change that is clinically meaningful for individuals is not well established in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). OBJECTIVE: To calculate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for change in exercise capacity on the 6MWT in iron-deficient HFrEF populations. METHODS: In this pooled secondary analysis of FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF trials, mean changes in 6MWT from baseline to weeks 12 and 24 were calculated and calibrated against the Patient Global Assessment (PGA) tool [clinical anchor] to derive MCIDs for improvement and deterioration. RESULTS: Of 760 patients included in the two trials, 6MWT and PGA data were available for 680 (89%) and 656 (86%) patients at weeks 12 and 24, respectively. The mean 6MWT distance at baseline was 281±103m. There was a modest correlation between changes in 6MWT and PGA from baseline to week 12 (r=0.31, p<0.0001) and week 24 (r=0.43, p<0.0001). Respective estimates (95% confidence intervals) for MCID in 6MWT at weeks 12 and 24 were 14m (5;23) and 15m (3;27) for a "little improvement" (vs no change), 20m (10;30) and 24m (12;36) for "moderate improvement" vs a "little improvement", -11m (-32;9.2) and -31m (-53;-8) for a "little deterioration" (vs no change), and -84m (-144;-24) and -69m (-118;-20) for "moderate deterioration" vs a "little deterioration". CONCLUSIONS: The MCID for improvement in exercise capacity on the 6MWT was 14-15m in patients with HFrEF and iron deficiency. These MCIDs can aid clinical interpretation of study data.

17.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(12): 761-769, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349941

RESUMO

Prevalence of heart failure is increasing worldwide mainly due to the ageing of the population and the improvement in diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, huge progress has been made in the management of heart failure patients. A new definition of chronic heart failure based on left ventricular ejection fraction and its possible trajectories has been reported. New drug classes have been introduced for the treatment of chronic heart failure. In particular, the prognostic benefit of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors was demonstrated across all the heart failure phenotypes. Therapies for patients with advanced heart failure (long-term mechanical circulatory supports and heart transplantation) are now indicated also in the case of mild-to-moderate symptoms but with high risk of progression. In patients with acute heart failure, monitoring of urinary sodium and the use of acetazolamide may lead to better decongestion. Importantly, pre- and postdischarge assessment should lead to optimal treatment. Devices and telemonitoring can also be of help. Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities are major determinants of the clinical course and need proper management. This review will summarize these important advances.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Simportadores , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico , Assistência ao Convalescente , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Alta do Paciente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Simportadores/uso terapêutico , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Sódio , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The predictive role of chest radiographs in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is underestimated and may benefit from artificial intelligence (AI) applications. OBJECTIVES: To train, test, and validate a deep learning (DL) solution for detecting significant CAD based on chest radiographs. METHODS: Data of patients referred for angina and undergoing chest radiography and coronary angiography were analysed retrospectively. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was designed to detect significant CAD from posteroanterior/anteroposterior chest radiographs. The DCNN was trained for severe CAD binary classification (absence/presence). Coronary angiography reports were the ground truth. Stenosis severity of ≥70% for non-left main vessels and ≥ 50% for left main defined severe CAD. RESULTS: Information of 7728 patients was reviewed. Severe CAD was present in 4091 (53%). Patients were randomly divided for algorithm training (70%; n = 5454) and fine-tuning/model validation (10%; n = 773). Internal clinical validation (model testing) was performed with the remaining patients (20%; n = 1501). At binary logistic regression, DCNN prediction was the strongest severe CAD predictor (p < 0.0001; OR: 1.040; CI: 1.032-1.048). Using a high sensitivity operating cut-point, the DCNN had a sensitivity of 0.90 to detect significant CAD (specificity 0.31; AUC 0.73; 95% CI DeLong, 0.69-0.76). Adding to the AI chest radiograph interpretation angina status improved the prediction (AUC 0.77; 95% CI DeLong, 0.74-0.80). CONCLUSION: AI-read chest radiographs could be used to pre-test significant CAD probability in patients referred for suspected angina. Further studies are required to externally validate our algorithm, develop a clinically applicable tool, and support CAD screening in broader settings.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440764

RESUMO

Device-related thrombus (DRT) is a known complication occurring in up to 7% of patients undergoing percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). Since the target population of LAAC is generally ineligible for oral anticoagulant therapies, DRT raises important concerns. The aim of this review will be to summarize available evidence on DRT after LAAC focusing on its possible impact on outcomes. Recent findings showed a tighter association between DRT and neurological ischemic events. Antithrombotic regimen adopted after LAAC may have a protective effect against DRT. Many patient-related and procedural factors have been identified as possible predictors of DRT. A tailored approach, which takes into account DRT, is needed in the patient selection for LAAC and in the postprocedural follow-up.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(10): 1741-1743, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426607
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