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1.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
2.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(18): 2243-2250, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of both bleeding and ischemic cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the balance of risks and benefits from the dual pathway antithrombotic regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily [bd] plus aspirin, compared with aspirin) in vascular patients with or without moderate renal dysfunction. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the COMPASS (Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS) trial involving 27,395 patients with chronic coronary or peripheral artery disease. RESULTS: In COMPASS, 21,111 patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at baseline of ≥60 ml/min, 6,276 had a GRF of <60 ml/min. Both the primary efficacy outcome (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and major bleeding were more frequent in those with renal dysfunction, and the frequency of these outcome events was inversely related to GFR. However, the primary outcome was consistently reduced with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bd plus aspirin, irrespective of GFR category (GFR ≥60 ml/min, 3.5% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 4.5% aspirin alone, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 0.90; GFR <60 ml/min, 6.4% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 8.4% aspirin alone, HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.94). Major bleeding was more frequent with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in those with GFR ≥60 ml/min (2.9% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 1.6% aspirin alone, HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.28) and similarly in those with GFR <60 ml/min (3.9% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 2.7% aspirin alone, HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of the dual pathway COMPASS regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bd plus aspirin), versus aspirin alone, are preserved in patients with moderate renal dysfunction without evidence of an excess hazard of bleeding.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 377(14): 1319-1330, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P<0.001; z=-4.126), but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in intracranial or fatal bleeding between these two groups. There were 313 deaths (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, those assigned to rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin had better cardiovascular outcomes and more major bleeding events than those assigned to aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) alone did not result in better cardiovascular outcomes than aspirin alone and resulted in more major bleeding events. (Funded by Bayer; COMPASS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01776424 .).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
5.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo...(AU)


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Anticoagulantes , Aspirina
6.
Hemodial Int ; 11(4): 411-6, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17922737

RESUMO

Calcium phosphate product (Ca x Pi) is a clinically relevant tool to estimate the cardiovascular risk of patients with renal failure. In reports, mostly total serum calcium has been used. As measurement of serum ionized calcium has some benefits and is being used increasingly, we estimated the respective levels of calcium phosphate product using both total (t-Ca x Pi) and ionized calcium (ion-Ca x Pi). Fifty-eight healthy individuals and 180 hemodialysis (HD) patients from 2 centers were studied. Diagnostic accuracies for corresponding values of the t-Ca x Pi and ion-Ca x Pi were calculated using a GraphROC program. Of HD patients, 64% had t-Ca x Pi <4.4 mmol(2)/L(2) regarded as a desirable goal, and 10% had values over 5.6 mmol(2)/L(2) associated with a high cardiovascular risk. Based on GraphROC analysis, t-Ca x Pi of 4.4 mmol(2)/L(2) corresponded to a value of 2.2 mmol(2)/L(2) of ion-Ca x Pi and, respectively, t-Ca x Pi of 5.6 mmol(2)/L(2) corresponded 2.8 mmol(2)/L(2) of ion-Ca x Pi. Owing to the good agreement between the results in the 2 centers, these values for risk levels can be used in both centers. When measurement of ionized calcium is used, Ca x Pi values of 2.2 and 2.8 mmol(2)/L(2) can be used instead of generally used values of 4.4 and 5.6 mmol(2)/L(2) with total calcium.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Fosfatos de Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Íons/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Diálise Renal/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Albumina Sérica/análise
7.
J Gen Virol ; 87(Pt 11): 3201-8, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17030853

RESUMO

BK polyomavirus (BKV) is highly prevalent in the human population, infecting children without obvious symptoms and persisting in the kidney in a latent state. In immunosuppressed patients, BKV is reactivated and excreted in urine. BKV isolates worldwide are classified into four serologically distinct subtypes, I-IV, with subtype I being the most frequently detected. Furthermore, subtype I is subdivided into subgroups based on genomic variations. In this study, the distribution patterns of the subtypes and subgroups of BKV were compared among four patient populations with various immunosuppressive states and of various ethnic backgrounds: (A) Finnish renal-transplant recipients; (B) Irish/English haematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients with and without haemorrhagic cystitis; (C) Japanese renal-transplant recipients; and (D) Japanese bone-marrow transplant recipients. The typing sequences (287 bp) of BKV in population A were determined in this study; those in populations B-D have been reported previously. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Based on the results of these analyses, the BKV isolates in the four patient populations were classified into subtypes and subgroups. The incidence of subtype IV varied significantly among patient populations. Furthermore, the incidence of subgroup Ib-2 within subtype I was high in populations A and B, whereas that of Ic was high in populations C and D (P<0.01). These results suggest that subgroup Ib-2 is widespread among Europeans, whereas Ic is unique to north-east Asians. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis based on complete BKV DNA sequences supported the hypothesis that there is geographical separation of European and Asian BKV strains.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Vírus BK/classificação , Vírus BK/patogenicidade , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Variação Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/etnologia , Virulência
8.
Scand J Infect Dis ; 38(8): 645-9, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16857609

RESUMO

The first-line antibiotic treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis has to cover the most common causative microorganisms. Our aim was to analyse antimicrobial sensitivities of different empirical protocols for initial therapy of PD peritonitis. We analysed the aetiological microorganisms of PD peritonitis and their antimicrobial sensitivities during a 36-month period. Clinical characteristics of the cases were recorded. Altogether 86 PD peritonitides were diagnosed during the study period. In 58 cases, microbial cultures were positive with 72 different causative agents. 28 cases (33%) were culture-negative. Over-representation of icodextrin users was noted among the culture-negative cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent causative agent, often leading to severe course of illness. Of antimicrobial protocols for initial treatment of peritonitis tested in vitro, the combination of a first-generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside was superior to the combination of a first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime as well as to fluoroquinolone monotherapy but similar to the combination of vancomycin and ceftazidime. Based on antimicrobial sensitivities we continue using an aminoglycoside in the empirical treatment of PD peritonitis. In the present material, users of icodextrin PD fluid were over-represented among patients with culture-negative peritonitis.


Assuntos
Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/microbiologia , Idoso , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Cefalotina/farmacologia , Cefalotina/uso terapêutico , Soluções para Diálise , Feminino , Glucanos , Glucose , Humanos , Icodextrina , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tobramicina/farmacologia , Tobramicina/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 22(2): 268-73, 2002 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11834527

RESUMO

Subendothelial mast cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, in atherosclerosis, and in the regulation of vascular tone. Because endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an important regulator of vascular tone and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we studied the role of mast cells in the metabolism of endothelial cell-derived ET-1. In mast cell-endothelial cell cocultures, activation of the mast cells with ensuing degranulation was accompanied by the increased expression of ET-1 mRNA in the endothelial cells, yet the immunoreactive ET-1 protein in the coculture medium disappeared almost completely during the 24-hour coculture. Activation of the mast cells with the ensuing degranulation resulted in proteolytic degradation of ET-1 by the 2 neutral proteases, chymase and carboxypeptidase A, of the exocytosed mast cell granules. With synthetic ET-1 and purified mast cell granule enzymes, efficient degradation of ET-1 by chymase and carboxypeptidase A was verified. These in vitro results imply a novel role for mast cell-derived neutral proteases in ET-1 metabolism and suggest that activated subendothelial mast cells are important local regulators of ET-1 metabolism.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/genética , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Mastócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Carboxipeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases A , Quimases , Técnicas de Cocultura , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Endotelina-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Exocitose , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
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