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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 229(Pt A): 109124, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have been a marginalized and a stigmatized population since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic and have not experienced the same life-changing benefits of antiretroviral therapy as others. Tele-Harm Reduction (THR) is a telehealth-enhanced, harm reduction intervention, delivered within a trusted SSP venue. It aims to facilitate initiation of care and achieve rapid HIV viral suppression among PWID living with HIV. METHODS: In this mixed-methods study, we employed the Practical, Robust, Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM) implementation science framework to identify multilevel barriers and facilitators to implementing the THR intervention. Focus groups (n = 2, 16 participants), stakeholder interviews (n = 7) and in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID living with HIV (n = 25). In addition, to assess feasibility and acceptability, we pilot tested the THR intervention and reported viral suppression at 6 months. RESULTS: Focus groups and stakeholder interviews revealed system and organizational level barriers to implementation including requirements for identification and in person visits, waiting times, stigma, case management inexperience, multiple electronic health records, and billing. A potential facilitator was using telehealth for case management and initial provider visit. In the in depth interviews conducted with PWID living with HIV, participants expressed that the SSP creates a convenient, comfortable, confidential environment for delivering multiple, non-stigmatizing PWID-specific services. 35 PWID living with HIV were enrolled in the pilot study, 35 initiated antiretroviral therapy, and 25 (78.1%) were virally suppressed at six months. CONCLUSION: Rooted in harm reduction, the THR intervention shows promise in being an acceptable and feasible intervention that may facilitate engagement in HIV care and viral suppression among PWID.

2.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(11): 441-448, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739336

RESUMO

Stigma in health care settings can have negative consequences on women living with HIV, such as increasing the likelihood of missed visits and reducing trust in their clinical providers. Informed by prior stigma research and considering knowledge gaps related to the effect of patient-provider race concordance, we conducted this study to assess if patient-provider race concordance moderates the expected association between HIV-related stigma in health care settings and patients' trust in their providers. Moderation analyses were conducted using Women's Interagency HIV Study data (N = 931). We found significant main effects for patient-provider race concordance. Higher experienced stigma was associated with lower trust in providers in all patient-provider race combinations [White-White: B = -0.89, standard error (SE) = 0.14, p = 0.000, 95% confidence interval, CI (-1.161 to -0.624); Black patient-White provider: B = -0.19, SE = 0.06, p = 0.003, 95% CI (-0.309 to -0.062); and Black-Black: B = -0.30, SE = 0.14, p = 0.037, 95% CI (-0.575 to -0.017)]. Higher anticipated stigma was also associated with lower trust in providers [White-White: B = -0.42, SE = 0.07, p = 0.000, 95% CI (-0.552 to -0.289); Black patient-White provider: B = -0.17, SE = 0.03, p = 0.000, 95% CI (-0.232 to -0.106); and Black-Black: B = -0.18, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI (-0.293 to -0.066)]. Significant interaction effects indicated that the negative associations between experienced and anticipated HIV-related stigma and trust in providers were stronger for the White-White combination compared with the others. Thus, we found that significant relationships between HIV-related experienced and anticipated stigma in health care settings and trust in providers exist and that these associations vary across different patient-provider race combinations. Given that reduced trust in providers is associated with antiretroviral medication nonadherence and higher rates of missed clinical visits, interventions to address HIV-related stigma in health care settings may improve continuum of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Confiança , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estigma Social
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the sources of HIV transmission provides a basis for prioritizing HIV prevention resources in specific geographic regions and populations. This study estimated the number, proportion, and rate of HIV transmissions attributable to individuals along the HIV care continuum, within different HIV transmission risk groups in six US cities. METHODS: We used a dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model that draws on racial/ethnic- and risk-behavior-specific linkage to HIV care and use of HIV prevention services from local, state and national surveillance sources. We estimated the rate and number of HIV transmissions attributable to individuals in the stage of acute undiagnosed HIV, non-acute undiagnosed HIV, HIV diagnosed but antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve, off ART, and on ART, stratified by HIV transmission group for the 2019 calendar year. RESULTS: Individuals with undiagnosed non-acute HIV infection accounted for the highest proportion of total transmissions in every city, ranging from 36.8% [26.7%-44.9%] in New York City to 64.9% [47.0%-71.6%] in Baltimore. Individuals who had discontinued ART contributed to the second highest percentage of total infections in four of six cities. Individuals with acute HIV had the highest transmission rate per 100 person years, ranging from 76.4 [58.9-135.9] in Miami to 160.2 [85.7-302.8] in Baltimore. CONCLUSION: These findings underline the importance of both early diagnosis and improved ART retention for ending the HIV epidemic in the US. Differences in the sources of transmission across cities indicate that localized priority-setting to effectively address diverse microepidemics at different stages of epidemic control is necessary.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648131

RESUMO

Long-acting injectable (LAI) modalities have been developed for ART and PrEP. Women face unique barriers to LAI use yet little research has examined women's perceptions of potential LAI HIV therapy candidates. We conducted 89 in-depth interviews at six Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) sites with women living with HIV (n = 59) and HIV-negative women (n = 30) from 2017 to 2018. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Participants identified specific sub-populations who could most benefit from LAI over daily pills: (1) young people; (2) women with childcare responsibilities; (3) people with adherence-related psychological distress; (4) individuals with multiple sex partners; and (5) people facing structural insecurities such as homelessness. Women are underserved by current HIV care options and their perspectives are imperative to ensure a successful scale-up of LAI PrEP and LAI ART that prioritizes equitable access and benefit for all individuals.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642834

RESUMO

In this mixed-methods study, we examine the relationship between provider communication and patient health literacy on HIV continuum of care outcomes among women living with HIV in the United States. We thematically coded qualitative data from focus groups and interviews (N = 92) and conducted mediation analyses with quantitative survey data (N = 1455) collected from Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Four qualitative themes related to provider communication emerged: importance of respect and non-verbal cues; providers' expressions of condescension and judgement; patient health literacy; and unclear, insufficient provider communication resulting in diminished trust. Quantitative mediation analyses suggest that higher health literacy is associated with higher perceived patient-provider interaction quality, which in turn is associated with higher levels of trust in HIV providers, improved antiretroviral medication adherence, and reduced missed clinical visits. Findings indicate that enhancing provider communication and bolstering patient health literacy could have a positive impact on the HIV continuum of care.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590235

RESUMO

CHOICES was an open-label, randomized, comparative effectiveness trial of office-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual in people with untreated opioid use disorder and HIV. This study explored facilitators to recruitment in Miami, a successful recruiting site in the national trial. The mixed-methods study included quantitative surveys of randomized participants, medical record abstraction, and qualitative interviews with study staff. Miami recruited 47 (40.5%) of 116 randomized participants in the six-site national trial. In-depth interviews of study staff (n = 6) revealed that Miami had a recruitment approach consisting of street level outreach and a close relationship with the local syringe services program (SSP). Partnership with a local SSP provided access to people living with HIV who inject drugs in Miami. SSPs' fundamental trust within the community of people who inject drugs can be leveraged in studies aiming to improve health outcomes in this underserved and high-priority population.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab334, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377726

RESUMO

Background: Direct-acting antivirals can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV). Persons with HCV/HIV and living with substance use are disadvantaged in benefiting from advances in HCV treatment. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, participants with HCV/HIV were randomized between February 2016 and January 2017 to either care facilitation or control. Twelve-month follow-up assessments were completed in January 2018.Care facilitation group participants received motivation and strengths-based case management addressing retrieval of HCV viral load results, engagement in HCV/HIV care, and medication adherence. Control group participants received referral to HCV evaluation and an offer of assistance in making care appointments. Primary outcome was number of steps achieved along a series of 8 clinical steps (eg, receiving HCV results, initiating treatment, sustained virologic response [SVR]) of the HCV/HIV care continuum over 12 months postrandomization. Results: Three hundred eighty-one individuals were screened and 113 randomized. Median age was 51 years; 58.4% of participants were male and 72.6% were Black/African American. Median HIV-1 viral load was 27 209 copies/mL, with 69% having a detectable viral load. Mean number of steps completed was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group vs controls (2.44 vs 1.68 steps; χ 2 [1] = 7.36, P = .0067). Men in the intervention group completed a statistically significantly higher number of steps than controls. Eleven participants achieved SVR with no difference by treatment group. Conclusions: The care facilitation intervention increased progress along the HCV/HIV care continuum, as observed for men and not women. Study findings also highlight continued challenges to achieve individual-patient SVR and population-level HCV elimination. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02641158.

8.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): 877-885, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neighborhood poverty and deprivation are associated with adverse health outcomes including death, but evidence is limited among persons with HIV, particularly women. We estimated changes in mortality risk from improvement in three measures of area-level socioeconomic context among participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: Starting in October 2013, we linked geocoded residential census block groups to the 2015 Area Deprivation Index (ADI) and two 2012-2016 American Community Survey poverty variables, categorized into national tertiles. We used parametric g-computation to estimate, through March 2018, impacts on mortality of improving each income or poverty measure by one and two tertiles maximum versus no improvement. RESULTS: Of 1596 women with HIV (median age 49), 91 (5.7%) were lost to follow-up and 83 (5.2%) died. Most women (62%) lived in a block group in the tertile with the highest proportions of individuals with income:poverty <1; 13% lived in areas in the tertile with the lowest proportions. Mortality risk differences comparing a one-tertile improvement (for those in the two highest poverty tertiles) in income:poverty <1 versus no improvement increased over time; the risk difference was -2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.7, -0.64) at 4 years. Estimates from family income below poverty level (-1.0%; 95% CI = -2.7, 0.62) and ADI (-1.5%; 95% CI = -2.8, -0.21) exposures were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent results from three distinct measures of area-level socioeconomic environment support the hypothesis that interventions to ameliorate neighborhood poverty or deprivation reduce mortality risk for US women with HIV. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B863.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pobreza , Censos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
AIDS ; 35(13): 2169-2179, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Combination strategies generate health benefits through improved health outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and prevention of new infections. We aimed to determine health benefits attributable to improved health among PLHIV versus HIV prevention for a set of combination strategies in six US cities. DESIGN: A dynamic HIV transmission model. METHODS: Using a model calibrated for Atlanta, Baltimore, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City (NYC) and Seattle, we assessed the health benefits of city-specific optimal combinations of evidence-based interventions implemented at publicly documented levels and at ideal (90% coverage) scale-up (2020-2030 implementation, 20-year study period). We calculated the proportion of health benefit gains (measured as quality-adjusted life-years) resulting from averted and delayed HIV infections; improved health outcomes among PLHIV; and improved health outcomes due to medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD). RESULTS: The HIV-specific proportion of total benefits ranged from 68.3% (95% credible interval: 55.3-80.0) in Seattle to 98.5% (97.5-99.3) in Miami, with the rest attributable to MOUD. The majority of HIV-specific health benefits in five of six cities were attributable HIV prevention, and ranged from 33.1% (26.1-41.1) in NYC to 83.1% (79.6-86.6) in Atlanta. Scaling up to ideal service levels resulted in three to seven-fold increases in additional health benefits, mostly from MOUD, with HIV-specific health gains primarily driven by HIV prevention. CONCLUSION: Optimal combination strategies generated a larger proportion of health benefits attributable to HIV prevention in five of six cities, underlining the substantial benefits of antiretroviral therapy engagement for the prevention of HIV transmission through viral suppression. Understanding to whom benefits accrue may be important in assessing the equity and impact of HIV investments.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Cidades , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
10.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 32, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardization and harmonization of healthcare resource utilization data can improve evaluations of the economic impact of treating people with substance use disorder (SUD), including reductions in use of expensive hospital and emergency department (ED) services, and can ensure consistency with current cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis guidelines. METHODS: We examined self-reported healthcare and other resource utilization data collected at baseline from three National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain intervention studies of individuals living with/at risk for HIV with SUD. Costs were calculated by multiplying mean healthcare resource utilization measures by monetary conversion factors reflecting cost per unit of care. We normalized baseline recall timeframes to past 30 days and evaluated for missing data. RESULTS: We identified measures that are feasible and appropriate for estimating healthcare sector costs including ED visits, inpatient hospital and residential facility stays, and outpatient encounters. We also identified two self-reported measures to inform societal costs (days experiencing SUD problems, participant spending on substances). Missingness was 8% or less for all study measures and was lower for single questions measuring utilization in a recall period. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend including measures representing units of service with specific recall periods (e.g., 6 months vs. lifetime), and collecting healthcare resource utilization data using single-question measures to reduce missingness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215226, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835175

RESUMO

Importance: Concentrated epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have persisted among Black women in community supervision programs (CSPs) in the United States. Accumulating research has highlighted the effectiveness of culturally tailored HIV/STI interventions for Black women; however, there is a dearth of such interventions for the large number of Black women in CSPs. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a 5-session culturally tailored group-based intervention (Empowering African-American Women on the Road to Health [E-WORTH]) with individualized computerized modules and streamlined HIV testing in reducing STIs and condomless sex vs a 1-session streamlined HIV testing control condition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 18, 2015, (first recruitment) to August 20, 2019 (last 12-month follow-up). Black women mandated to probation, parole, or alternative-to-incarceration programs in New York City who had a history of drug use were recruited and randomized to receive either E-WORTH or a streamlined HIV testing control condition. Both conditions were delivered by Black female staff at a large CSP. The analysis took an intention-to-treat approach. Intervention: E-WORTH included a 1-hour individual HIV testing and orientation session and 4 weekly 90-minute group sessions. The control condition included one 30-minute session of HIV testing and information. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were incidence of any STI (biologically assayed chlamydia, gonorrhea, and Trichomonas vaginalis) at the 12-month assessment and the number of condomless acts of vaginal or anal intercourse in the past 90 days during the 12-month period. Results: A total of 352 participants who identified as Black or African American were enrolled, including 79 (22.5%) who also identified as Latinx. The mean (SD) age was 32.4 (11.0) years. A total of 172 participants (48.9%) were assigned to the E-WORTH condition, and 180 (51.1%) were assigned to the control condition. Compared with control participants, participants assigned to the E-WORTH condition had 54% lower odds of testing positive for any STI at the 12-month follow-up (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25-0.88; P = .01) and reported 38% fewer acts of condomless vaginal or anal intercourse during the 12-month period (incidence rate ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: The magnitudes of effects found across biological and behavioral outcomes in this randomized clinical trial indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing E-WORTH in real-world CSPs. The findings lend further evidence to the promise of culturally tailored HIV/STI interventions for Black women. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02391233.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros/educação , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Vaginite por Trichomonas/prevenção & controle , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108567, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV who report substance use (PLWH-SU) face many barriers to care, resulting in an increased risk for poor health outcomes and the potential for ongoing disease transmission. This study evaluates the mechanisms by which Patient Navigation (PN) and Contingency Management (CM) interventions may work to address barriers to care and improve HIV outcomes in this population. METHODS: Mediation analysis was conducted using data from a randomized, multi-site trial testing PN interventions to improve HIV care outcomes among 801 hospitalized PLHW-SU. Direct and indirect effects of PN and PN + CM were evaluated through five potential mediators-psychosocial conditions, healthcare avoidance, financial hardship, system barriers, and self-efficacy for HIV treatment adherence-on engagement in HIV care and viral suppression. RESULTS: The PN + CM intervention had an indirect effect on improving engagement in HIV care at 6 months by increasing self-efficacy for HIV treatment adherence (ß = 0.042, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.086). PN + CM also led to increases in viral suppression at 6 months (ß = 0.090, 95% CI = 0.023, 0.168) and 12 months (ß = 0.069, 95% CI = 0.009, 0.129) via increases in self-efficacy, although the direct effects were not significant. No mediating effects were observed for PN alone. CONCLUSION: PN + CM interventions for PLWH-SU can increase an individual's self-efficacy for HIV treatment adherence, which in turn improves engagement in care at 6 months and may contribute to viral suppression over 12 months. Building self-efficacy may be a key factor in the success of such interventions and should be considered as a primary goal of PN + CM in practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Navegação de Pacientes/métodos , Autoeficácia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração
14.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(1): 23-30, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400587

RESUMO

Medications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are currently daily pill regimens, which pose barriers to long-term adherence. Long-acting injectable (LAI) modalities have been developed for ART and PrEP, but minimal LAI-focused research has occurred among women. Thus, little is known about how women's history of injection for medical or nonmedical purposes may influence their interest in LAI. We conducted 89 in-depth interviews at 6 sites (New York, NY; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; Atlanta, GA; Chapel Hill, NC; Washington, DC) of the Women's Interagency HIV study. Interviews occurred with women living with HIV (n = 59) and HIV-negative women (n = 30) from November 2017 to October 2018. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Women's prior experiences with injections occurred primarily through substance use, physical comorbidities, birth control, or flu vaccines. Four primary categories of women emerged; those who (1) received episodic injections and had few LAI-related concerns; (2) required frequent injections and would refuse additional injections; (3) had a history of injection drug use, of whom some feared LAI might trigger a recurrence, while others had few LAI-related concerns; and (4) were currently injecting drugs and had few LAI-related concerns. Most women with a history of injectable medication would prefer LAI, but those with other frequent injections and history of injection drug use might not. Future research needs to address injection-related concerns, and develop patient-centered approaches to help providers best identify which women could benefit from LAI use.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
15.
AIDS Behav ; 25(3): 667-678, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910351

RESUMO

Long-acting injectable (LAI) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to facilitate adherence and transform HIV prevention. However, little LAI PrEP research has occurred among women, who face unique barriers. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with HIV-negative women from 2017-2018 across six sites (New York; Chicago; San Francisco; Atlanta; Washington, DC; Chapel Hill) of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Few women expressed interest in PrEP and when prompted to choose a regimen, 55% would prefer LAI, 10% daily pills, and 33% said they would not take PrEP regardless of formulation. Perceived barriers included: (1) the fear of new-and perceived untested-injectable products and (2) potential side effects (e.g., injection-site pain, nausea). Facilitators included: (1) believing shots were more effective than pills; (2) ease and convenience; and (3) confidentiality. Future studies should incorporate women's LAI PrEP-related experiences to facilitate uptake.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
16.
J Public Health Dent ; 81(1): 65-76, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research has shown inconsistent patterns of patients' HIV serostatus disclosure to their dentists. Common barriers to disclosure have included confidentiality concerns, fear of treatment refusal, and discrimination. This study evaluated the prevalence of HIV serostatus disclosure to the dentist, whether the frequency of dental care utilization is associated with disclosure, and reasons for nondisclosure among women living with HIV. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional oral health survey to 1,526 women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study including questions regarding HIV serostatus disclosure to dentists. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dental care utilization (at least annually versus less than annually) and HIV serostatus disclosure to dentists. RESULTS: Overall, 83 percent of women reported that they disclosed their HIV serostatus to their dentist. The most common reasons for nondisclosure were: a) the dentist did not ask, b) believing that the dentist did not need to know, and c) not having a consistent dentist. In the multivariable logistic regression model, at least annual dental care utilization, compared to less than annual, led to a 59 percent reduction in the odds of HIV nondisclosure to the dentist. DISCUSSION: Study findings highlight that dentists who see their patients infrequently should consider methods for overcoming barriers to HIV nondisclosure and the possibility that their patient's HIV serostatus is undisclosed. Educating women living with HIV about how disclosure to dentists is a critical component of their dental assessment and treatment, and how preventive dental treatment can improve overall health outcomes, is important.


Assuntos
Revelação , Infecções por HIV , Confidencialidade , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrevelação
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e828-e834, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread viral and serological testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present a unique opportunity to also test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We estimated the potential impact of adding linked, opt-out HIV testing alongside SARS-CoV-2 testing on the HIV incidence and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in 6 US cities. METHODS: Using a previously calibrated dynamic HIV transmission model, we constructed 3 sets of scenarios for each city: (1) sustained current levels of HIV-related treatment and prevention services (status quo); (2) temporary disruptions in health services and changes in sexual and injection risk behaviors at discrete levels between 0%-50%; and (3) linked HIV and SARS-CoV-2 testing offered to 10%-90% of the adult population in addition to Scenario 2. We estimated the cumulative number of HIV infections between 2020-2025 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of linked HIV testing over 20 years. RESULTS: In the absence of linked, opt-out HIV testing, we estimated a total of a 16.5% decrease in HIV infections between 2020-2025 in the best-case scenario (50% reduction in risk behaviors and no service disruptions), and a 9.0% increase in the worst-case scenario (no behavioral change and 50% reduction in service access). We estimated that HIV testing (offered at 10%-90% levels) could avert a total of 576-7225 (1.6%-17.2%) new infections. The intervention would require an initial investment of $20.6M-$220.7M across cities; however, the intervention would ultimately result in savings in health-care costs in each city. CONCLUSIONS: A campaign in which HIV testing is linked with SARS-CoV-2 testing could substantially reduce the HIV incidence and reduce direct and indirect health care costs attributable to HIV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(6): 2021-2029, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parametric g-computation is an analytic technique that can be used to estimate the effects of exposures, treatments and interventions; it relies on a different set of assumptions than more commonly used inverse probability weighted estimators. Whereas prior work has demonstrated implementations for binary exposures and continuous outcomes, use of parametric g-computation has been limited due to difficulty in implementation in more typical complex scenarios. METHODS: We provide an easy-to-implement algorithm for parametric g-computation in the setting of a dynamic baseline intervention of a baseline exposure and a time-to-event outcome. To demonstrate the use of our algorithm, we apply it to estimate the effects of interventions to reduce area deprivation on the cumulative incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs: gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis) among women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. RESULTS: We found that reducing area deprivation by a maximum of 1 tertile for all women would lead to a 2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1%, 4.3%] reduction in 4-year STI incidence, and reducing deprivation by a maximum of 2 tertiles would lead to a 4.3% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.4%) reduction. CONCLUSIONS: As analytic methods such as parametric g-computation become more accessible, epidemiologists will be able to estimate policy-relevant effects of interventions to better inform clinical and public health practice and policy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Políticas
19.
J Community Health ; 46(3): 557-564, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761292

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) who use drugs experience worse health outcomes than their non-using counterparts. Little is known about how often they seek dental care and the factors that influence their utilization. PLWH with substance use disorders who were inpatients at 11 urban hospitals (n = 801) participated in a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network study to improve engagement in HIV outcomes. Dental care utilization at each time point during the study period (baseline, 6 months and/or 12 months) was assessed (n = 657). Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to examine factors associated with dental care utilization. Over half (59.4%) reported not having received any dental care at any timepoint. Participants with less than high school education had lower odds of reporting dental care utilization than those with more than education (aOR = 0.60 [95% CI 0.37-0.99], p = 0.0382). Participants without health insurance also had lower odds of reporting dental care utilization than those with insurance (aOR = 0.50 [95% CI 0.331-0.76], p = 0.0012). Higher food insecurity was associated with having recent dental care utilization (OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00, 1.05], p = 0.0359). Additionally, those from Southern states were less likely to report dental care utilization (aOR = 0.55 [95% CI 0.38, 0.79], p = 0.0013). Having health insurance and education are key factors associated with use of dental care for PLWH with substance use disorders. The association between food insecurity and dental care utilization among this population suggests the need for further exploration.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1982-e1990, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on the day of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing or at first clinical visit. The hospital setting is understudied for immediate ART initiation. METHODS: CTN0049, a linkage-to-care randomized clinical trial, enrolled 801 persons living with HIV (PLWH) and substance use disorder (SUD) from 11 hospitals across the United States. This secondary analysis examined factors related to initiating (including reinitiating) ART in the hospital and its association with linkage to HIV care, frequency of outpatient care visits, retention, and viral suppression. RESULTS: Of 801 participants, 124 (15%) initiated ART in the hospital, with more than two-thirds of these participants (80/124) initiating ART for the first time. Time to first HIV care visit among those who initiated ART in the hospital and those who did not was 29 and 54 days, respectively (P = .0145). Hospital initiation of ART was associated with increased frequency of HIV outpatient care visits at 6 and 12 months. There was no association with ART initiation in the hospital and retention and viral suppression over a 12-month period. Participants recruited in Southern hospitals were less likely to initiate ART in the hospital (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Previous research demonstrated benefits of immediate ART initiation, yet this approach is not widely implemented. Research findings suggest that starting ART in the hospital is beneficial for increasing linkage to HIV care and frequency of visits for PLWH and SUD. Implementation research should address barriers to early ART initiation in the hospital.

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