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1.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 885031, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573295

RESUMO

Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota have been shown to play an important role in numerous inflammatory, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, microbial metabolites have been implicated in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity, especially in the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are key regulators of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Furthermore, they affect processes relevant to MS pathophysiology, such as inflammation and demyelination, which makes them attractive molecules to be explored as therapeutics in MS. In this review, we discuss the importance of these metabolites as factors contributing to disease pathogenesis and as therapeutic targets in MS. Establishing an improved understanding of these gut-microbiota derived metabolites may provide new avenues for the treatment of MS.

2.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 89, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myasthenic crisis (MC) and disease exacerbation in myasthenia gravis (MG) are associated with significant lethality and continue to impose a high disease burden on affected patients. Therefore, we sought to determine potential predictors for MC and exacerbation as well as to identify factors affecting outcome. METHODS: We examined a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients diagnosed with MG between 2000 and 2021 with a mean follow-up of 62.6 months after diagnosis from eight tertiary hospitals in Germany. A multivariate Cox regression model with follow-up duration as the time variable was used to determine independent risk factors for MC and disease exacerbation. RESULTS: 815 patients diagnosed with MG according to national guidelines were included. Disease severity at diagnosis (quantitative MG score or Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America class), the presence of thymoma and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase-antibodies were independent predictors of MC or disease exacerbation. Patients with minimal manifestation status 12 months after diagnosis had a lower risk of MC and disease exacerbation than those without. The timespan between diagnosis and the start of immunosuppressive therapy did not affect risk. Patients with a worse outcome of MC were older, had higher MGFA class before MC and at admission, and had lower vital capacity before and at admission. The number of comorbidities, requirement for intubation, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and MC triggered by infection were associated with worse outcome. No differences between outcomes were observed comparing treatments with IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulin) vs. plasma exchange vs. IVIG together with plasma exchange. CONCLUSIONS: MC and disease exacerbations inflict a substantial burden of disease on MG patients. Disease severity at diagnosis and antibody status predicted the occurrence of MC and disease exacerbation. Intensified monitoring with emphasis on the prevention of infectious complications could be of value to prevent uncontrolled disease in MG patients.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Miastenia Gravis , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Miastenia Gravis/complicações , Miastenia Gravis/epidemiologia , Miastenia Gravis/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 301, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365746

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in Kv7.1 often lead to long QT syndrome (LQTS), a cardiac repolarization disorder associated with arrhythmia and subsequent sudden cardiac death. The discovery of agonistic IKs modulators may offer a new potential strategy in pharmacological treatment of this disorder. The benzodiazepine derivative (R)-L3 potently activates Kv7.1 channels and shortens action potential duration, thus may represent a starting point for drug development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying modulation by (R)-L3 are still unknown. By combining alanine scanning mutagenesis, non-canonical amino acid incorporation, voltage-clamp electrophysiology and fluorometry, and in silico protein modelling, we show that (R)-L3 not only stimulates currents by allosteric modulation of the pore domain but also alters the kinetics independently from the pore domain effects. We identify novel (R)-L3-interacting key residues in the lower S4-segment of Kv7.1 and observed an uncoupling of the outer S4 segment with the inner S5, S6 and selectivity filter segments.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Mutação
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409067

RESUMO

Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies (Abs) against α1, ß3, and γ2 subunits of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABAAR) represents a severe form of encephalitis with refractory seizures and status epilepticus. Reduction in inhibitory GABAergic synaptic activity is linked to dysfunction of neuronal networks, hyperexcitability, and seizures. The aim in this study was to investigate the direct pathogenic effect of a recombinant GABAAR autoantibody (rAb-IP2), derived from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient with autoimmune GABAAR encephalitis, on hippocampal CA1 and CA3 networks. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 mice were incubated with rAb-IP2. The spontaneous synaptic GABAergic transmission was measured using electrophysiological recordings in voltage-clamp mode. The GABAAR autoantibody rAb-IP2 reduced inhibitory postsynaptic signaling in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with regard to the number of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) but did not affect their amplitude. In the hippocampal CA3 network, decreased number and amplitude of sIPSCs were detected, leading to decreased GABAergic synaptic transmission. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the rAb-IP2 bound to hippocampal tissue. These findings suggest that GABAAR autoantibodies exert direct functional effects on both hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and play a crucial role in seizure generation in GABAAR autoimmune encephalitis.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Receptores de GABA-A , Animais , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Encefalite/metabolismo , Doença de Hashimoto , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Convulsões/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
5.
Infection ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis is an arthropod-borne zoonotic flavivirus infection endemic to tropical and subtropical Asia. A minority of infections leads to a symptomatic course, but affected patients often develop life-threatening encephalitis with severe sequelae. LITERATURE REVIEW: Myelitis with flaccid paralysis is a rare complication of Japanese Encephalitis, which-according to our literature search-was reported in 27 cases, some of which were published as case reports and others as case series. Overall, there is a broad clinical spectrum with typically asymmetric manifestation and partly severe motor sequelae and partly mild courses. Lower limb paralysis appears to be more frequent than upper limb paralysis. An encephalitic component is not apparent in all cases CASE PRESENTATION: We herein add the case of a 29 year-old female who developed encephalitis and myelitis with flaccid paralysis during a long-time stay in Indonesia. Diagnostic workup in Indonesia did not clearly reveal an underlying cause. Upon clinical stabilization, the patient was evacuated to her home country Germany, where further diagnostics confirmed Japanese encephalitis virus as the causative agent. The patient has partly recovered, but still suffers from residual paralysis of the upper limb. CONCLUSION: Flaccid paralysis is a rare, and likely underdiagnosed complication of Japanese encephalitis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been diagnosed outside endemic areas before.

6.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585221079731, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ofatumumab is approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Ongoing safety reporting is crucial to understand its long-term benefit-risk profile. OBJECTIVE: Report the safety and tolerability of ofatumumab in RMS after extended treatment up to 3.5 years. METHODS: Patients completing ASCLEPIOS I/II (phase 3), APLIOS, or APOLITOS (phase 2) trials could enter ALITHIOS, a phase 3b, open-label, long-term safety study. We analyzed cumulative data of continuous ofatumumab treatment and of patients newly switched from teriflunomide. RESULTS: The safety population had 1969 patients: 1292 continuously treated with ofatumumab (median time-at-risk 35.5 months, 3253 patient-years) and 677 newly switched (median time-at-risk 18.3 months, 986 patient-years). A total of 1650 patients (83.8%) had ⩾1 adverse events and 191 (9.7%) had ⩾1 serious adverse events. No opportunistic infections or progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy events were identified; the risk of malignancies was low. Mean serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels remained stable. Mean IgM levels decreased but remained above the lower limit of normal in most. Serious infection incidence was low; decreased Ig levels were not associated with serious infections. CONCLUSION: In patients with up to 3.5 years' exposure, ofatumumab was well tolerated, with no new safety risks identified. These findings, with its established effectiveness, support a favorable benefit-risk profile of ofatumumab in RMS.

7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(5): 548-554, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. However, evidence shaping treatment decisions, particularly for treatment-refractory cases, is sparse. Both rituximab and eculizumab may be considered as therapeutic options for refractory MG after insufficient symptom control by standard immunosuppressive therapies. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we included 57 rituximab-treated and 20 eculizumab-treated patients with MG to compare the efficacy of treatment agents in generalised, therapy-refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR-ab)-mediated MG with an observation period of 24 months. Change in the quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score was defined as the primary outcome parameter. Differences between groups were determined in an optimal full propensity score matching model. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Eculizumab was associated with a better outcome compared with rituximab, as measured by the change of the QMG score at 12 and 24 months of treatment. Minimal manifestation of disease was more frequently achieved in eculizumab-treated patients than rituximab-treated patients at 12 and 24 months after baseline. However, the risk of myasthenic crisis (MC) was not ameliorated in either group. INTERPRETATION: This retrospective, observational study provides the first real-world evidence supporting the use of eculizumab for the treatment of refractory, anti-AChR-ab positive MG. Nonetheless, the risk of MC remained high and prompts the need for intensified monitoring and further research effort aimed at this vulnerable patient cohort.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Miastenia Gravis , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
8.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite improved techniques and sophisticated postinterventional care, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) remains the most feared complication of mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Based on peri-interventional parameters, we aimed to discover which patients have a higher risk of sICH. METHODS: From March 2017 until March 2020 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and confirmed large-vessel occlusion who underwent MT were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, and radiological variables and parameters specific to thrombectomy were reviewed. A univariate analysis was performed and statistically significant variables were included in a logistic regression model to identify independent factors predictive of sICH. RESULTS: A total of 236 patients with confirmed large-vessel occlusion were included and 22 (9.3%) had sICH. Univariate predictors of sICH included diabetes mellitus, glucose > 11.1 mmol/L, creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≤ 30 ml/min/1.73, ASPECTS indicating pretreatment infarct size, acute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, stent implantation, tirofiban use, time from symptom onset to groin puncture > 4.5 h and high contrast medium consumption. In the adjusted analysis, ASPECTS < 6 (OR 3.673, p = 0.041), and amount of contrast injected ≥ 140 ml (OR 5.412, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of sICH, but not any more baseline glucose > 11.1 mmol/L (OR 1.467, p = 0.584), CrCl ≤ 30 ml/min/1.73 (OR 4.177, p = 0.069), acute ICA occlusion (OR 2.079, p = 0.181), stent implantation (OR 0.465, p = 0.512), tirofiban use (OR 5.164, p = 0.167), and time from onset-to-groin puncture (OR 1.453, p = 0.514). CONCLUSION: The amount of contrast medium used is a modifiable factor associated with sICH. This association is novel and may be related to the neurotoxicity of the contrast medium disrupting the blood-brain barrier.

9.
Neurol Res Pract ; 4(1): 8, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by a prolonged, but self-limiting segmental cerebral vasoconstriction. Neurological outcomes vary, but can be severe. The clinical hallmark of RCVS is thunderclap headache, which might come along with further neurological symptoms. Distinguishing RCVS from other entities, such as primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), is of utmost importance for appropriate therapy. The angiographic response to intra-arterial nimodipine application has been suggested as an additional diagnostic criterion for RCVS but confirmatory studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate the angiographic nimodipine test. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the clinical and imaging data of 13 RCVS patients, who were admitted to a single German neurological department between January 2013 and December 2020. RESULTS: Out of 13 patients diagnosed with RCVS, 4 patients underwent an angiographic nimodipine test. In all 4 patients cerebral vasoconstriction completely resolved during nimodipine application. Among the four patients with a positive test, there was one individual, in whom a response was detected after a delay of 60 min. In all patients, we found a complete resolution of cerebral vasoconstriction within 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the usefulness of the application of nimodipine in diagnosing RCVS. Prolonged angiographic observation of the vascular response after nimodipine injection is important.

10.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 59: 103670, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alemtuzumab is an anti-CD52 antibody approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The summary of product characteristics (SmPC) provides recommendations on the administration of alemtuzumab to prevent or reduce the risk of serious side effects associated with alemtuzumab infusion, including myocardial ischemia, hemorrhagic stroke, arterial dissection, and pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage. However, real-world implementation of alemtuzumab infusion management recommendations has not been previously assessed. METHODS: Here we provide a large-scale multi-center (in- and outpatient) observational study on alemtuzumab infusion management in daily clinical care in Germany (ALEMLL08025; INFUSE-MS; NIS-no. 364). Parameters of infusion management - including infusion administration, clinical and laboratory monitoring - were assessed, compared between study centers and the occurrence of infusion-associated reactions (IARs) was documented. Moreover, the TSQM and MSIS-29 questionnaires were used to quantify patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: 140 RRMS patients were enrolled in this study. Alemtuzumab infusion regimes (treatment course 1 and 2) were comparable between infusion sites and in accordance with recommendations by the SmPC. Standardization of infusion management was associated with a satisfactory safety profile. IARs were usually mild, headache (13.6%), rash (10.7%), and pyrexia (6.4%) being the most common ones. TSQM and MSIS-29 scores denoted high patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life among RRMS patients treated with alemtuzumab. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results indicate that infusion management of alemtuzumab is highly standardized and in line with the SmPC. Alemtuzumab treatment and implementation of infusion management recommendations are associated with a satisfactory safety profile regarding the occurrence of IARs, a high patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life as important indicators for the quality of MS care.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Qualidade de Vida , Alemtuzumab/efeitos adversos , Alemanha , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente , Satisfação Pessoal
11.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107651

RESUMO

The new study program "Multiple Sclerosis Management" is aimed at physicians, therapists, nurses, scientists, pharmacists, psychologists and biologists who want to specialize in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS). After successful accreditation in 2019, the first students have been in the master's program offered by Dresden International University (DIU) since 2020. Over a period of four semesters, it can be completed part-time and largely digitally. The master's program is divided into six modules focusing on basics, clinical and diagnostic aspects, MS studies and statistics, disease-modifying and symptomatic therapy, disease monitoring and documentation. The teaching includes theoretical parts and numerous practical units. A further goal is to derive therapeutic intervention plans and problem-solving strategies from scientific publications and clinical studies, to develop them further and to apply them in patient care. The lecturers come from Germany, Austria and Switzerland and are predominantly professors. The German Multiple Sclerosis Society is the patron of the course. This article presents the study program in detail.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (ALE) is characterized by memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and epileptic seizures. Though, the neuropsychological profile of ALE is not yet well defined. However, there is some evidence that neuropsychological impairments might exceed those related to the limbic system and that different autoantibodies (AABs) are associated with distinguishable pattern of neuropsychological impairments. We provide a comprehensive presentation of neuropsychological performance of ALE in an immune therapy-naïve sample. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 69 immunotherapy-naïve ALE-patients (26 seropositive-[8 LGI1-, 4 CASPR2-, 2 GABAB-R-, 3 Hu-, 4 GAD65-, 2 Ma2-, 2 unknown antigen, and 1 Yo-AABs] and 43 seronegative patients, mean age 56.0 years [21.9-78.2], mean disease duration 88 weeks [0-572]). Neuropsychological evaluations comprised of the domains memory, attention, praxis, executive functions, language, social cognition, and psychological symptoms. We compared these functions between seronegative -, seropositive patients with AABs against intracellular neural antigens and seropositive patients with AABs against surface membrane neural antigens. RESULTS: No effect of AAB group on neuropsychological performance could be detected. Overall, ALE predominantly presents with deficits in long-term memory and memory recognition, autobiographical-episodic memory loss, impairment of emotion recognition, and depressed mood. Furthermore, deficits in praxis of pantomimes and imitations, visuo-construction, and flexibility may occur. CONCLUSION: ALE shows a wide spectrum of neuropsychological impairments, which might exceed the limbic system, with no evidence of differences between AAB groups. Neuropsychological assessment for diagnosing ALE should include long-term memory, memory recognition, autobiographical-episodic memory, emotion recognition, and a detailed investigation of depression.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination has proven to be effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and severe disease courses. However, immunocompromised patients have not been included in clinical trials and real-world clinical data point to an attenuated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study including 59 ocrelizumab (OCR)-treated patients with MS who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody titres, routine blood parameters and peripheral immune cell profiles were measured prior to the first (baseline) and at a median of 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose (follow-up). Moreover, the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response and peripheral B cell subsets were analysed at follow-up. Finally, vaccination-related adverse events were assessed. RESULTS: After vaccination, we found anti-SARS-CoV-2(S) antibodies in 27.1% and a SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response in 92.7% of MS cases. T cell-mediated interferon (IFN)-γ release was more pronounced in patients without anti-SARS-CoV-2(S) antibodies. Antibody titres positively correlated with peripheral B cell counts, time since last infusion and total IgM levels. They negatively correlated with the number of previous infusion cycles. Peripheral plasma cells were increased in antibody-positive patients. A positive correlation between T cell response and peripheral lymphocyte counts was observed. Moreover, IFN-γ release was negatively correlated with the time since the last infusion. CONCLUSION: In OCR-treated patients with MS, the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is attenuated while the T cell response is preserved. However, it is still unclear whether T or B cell-mediated immunity is required for effective clinical protection. Nonetheless, given the long-lasting clinical effects of OCR, monitoring of peripheral B cell counts could facilitate individualised treatment regimens and might be used to identify the optimal time to vaccinate.

14.
J Neurol ; 269(5): 2806-2818, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999925

RESUMO

A critical issue in the management of relapsing MS (RMS) is the discontinuation of disease-modifying treatments (DMT) due to lack of efficacy, intolerability or impending risks. With new therapeutic agents introduced into the treatment of RMS, immediate- and long-term consequences of sequential drug use, as well as the effect of the sequence in which the drugs are given, are unclear but may affect efficacy, adverse events, and long-term immunocompetence. In the absence of clinical studies specifically addressing these concerns, observations from clinical practice are of particular value in guiding current management algorithms. Prompted by a study published by Ferraro et al. in this journal, we set out to provide an overview of the published real-world evidence on the effectiveness and safety of switching from fingolimod to another DMT in patients with active RMS. Seventeen publications reporting relevant information were identified. The literature suggests that immune cell depletion induced by alemtuzumab or ocrelizumab is associated with an increased risk of relapse and worsening disability in patients switching from fingolimod compared to patients switching from other therapeutic agents. However, the evidence reported for natalizumab and cladribine is inconclusive. While shortening of the washout period may limit early disease reactivation after fingolimod discontinuation, there is no strong evidence that the duration of the washout period or the absolute lymphocyte count at baseline are predictors of attenuated long-term efficacy. Further real-world studies are required to better understand outcomes among patients who are under-represented in controlled trials.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/induzido quimicamente , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab/uso terapêutico , Recidiva
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076711

RESUMO

A consensus is yet to be reached regarding the exact prevalence of epileptic seizures or epilepsy in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, the underlying pathophysiological basis of the reciprocal interaction among neuroinflammation, demyelination, and epilepsy remains unclear. Therefore, a better understanding of cellular and network mechanisms linking these pathologies is needed. Cuprizone-induced general demyelination in rodents is a valuable model for studying MS pathologies. Here, we studied the relationship among epileptic activity, loss of myelin, and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inducing acute, generalized demyelination in a genetic mouse model of human absence epilepsy, C3H/HeJ mice. Both cellular and network mechanisms were studied using in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological techniques. We found that acute, generalized demyelination in C3H/HeJ mice resulted in a lower number of spike-wave discharges, increased cortical theta oscillations, and reduction of slow rhythmic intrathalamic burst activity. In addition, generalized demyelination resulted in a significant reduction in the amplitude of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih) in thalamic relay cells, which was accompanied by lower surface expression of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, and the phosphorylated form of TRIP8b (pS237-TRIP8b). We suggest that demyelination-related changes in thalamic Ih may be one of the factors defining the prevalence of seizures in MS.

16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051021

RESUMO

Under continuous long-term treatment with abo- or onabotulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A), ~10 to 15% of patients with cervical dystonia (CD) will develop neutralizing antibodies and reduced responsiveness over an ~10-year treatment period. Among the botulinum neurotoxin type A preparations so far licensed for CD, incobotulinum toxin A (incoBoNT/A; Xeomin®) is the only one without complex proteins. Whether CD patients with treatment failure under abo- or onaBoNT/A may still respond to incoBoNT/A is unknown. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study, 64 CD patients with secondary treatment failure after abo- or onaBoNT/A therapy who were switched to incoBoNT/A were compared to 34 CD patients exclusively treated with incoBoNT/A. The initial clinical severity of CD, best outcome during abo- or onaBoNT/A therapy, severity at the time of switching to incoBoNT/A and severity at recruitment, as well as all corresponding doses, were analyzed. Furthermore, the impact of neutralizing antibodies (NABs) on the long-term outcome of incoBoNT/A therapy was evaluated. Patients significantly improved after the switch to incoBoNT/A (p < 0.001) but did not reach the improvement level obtained before the development of partial secondary treatment failure or that of patients who were exclusively treated with incoBoNT/A. No difference between abo- and onaBoNT/A pretreatments or between the long-term outcomes of NAB-positive and NAB-negative patients was found. The present study demonstrates significant long-term improvement after a switch to incoBoNT/A in patients with preceding secondary treatment failure after abo- or onaBoNT/A therapy and confirms the low antigenicity of incoBoNT/A.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Torcicolo/tratamento farmacológico , Toxinas Biológicas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento
17.
Cell Res ; 32(1): 72-88, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702947

RESUMO

It remains largely unclear how thymocytes translate relative differences in T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength into distinct developmental programs that drive the cell fate decisions towards conventional (Tconv) or regulatory T cells (Treg). Following TCR activation, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is the most important second messenger, for which the potassium channel K2P18.1 is a relevant regulator. Here, we identify K2P18.1 as a central translator of the TCR signal into the thymus-derived Treg (tTreg) selection process. TCR signal was coupled to NF-κB-mediated K2P18.1 upregulation in tTreg progenitors. K2P18.1 provided the driving force for sustained Ca2+ influx that facilitated NF-κB- and NFAT-dependent expression of FoxP3, the master transcription factor for Treg development and function. Loss of K2P18.1 ion-current function induced a mild lymphoproliferative phenotype in mice, with reduced Treg numbers that led to aggravated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, while a gain-of-function mutation in K2P18.1 resulted in increased Treg numbers in mice. Our findings in human thymus, recent thymic emigrants and multiple sclerosis patients with a dominant-negative missense K2P18.1 variant that is associated with poor clinical outcomes indicate that K2P18.1 also plays a role in human Treg development. Pharmacological modulation of K2P18.1 specifically modulated Treg numbers in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we identified nitroxoline as a K2P18.1 activator that led to rapid and reversible Treg increase in patients with urinary tract infections. Conclusively, our findings reveal how K2P18.1 translates TCR signals into thymic T cell fate decisions and Treg development, and provide a basis for the therapeutic utilization of Treg in several human disorders.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Humanos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B , Timócitos , Timo
18.
Neurosci Lett ; 769: 136376, 2022 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852287

RESUMO

TWIK-related spinal cord potassium (TRESK) and TWIK-related potassium (TREK) channels are both subfamilies of the two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel group. Despite major structural, pharmacological, as well as biophysical differences, emerging data suggest that channels of these two subfamilies are functionally more closely related than previously assumed. Recent studies, for instance, indicate an assembling of TRESK and TREK subunits, leading to the formation of heterodimeric channels with different functional properties compared to homodimeric ones. Formation of tandems consisting of TRESK and TREK subunits might thus multiply the functional diversity of both TRESK and TREK activity. Based on the involvement of these channels in the pathophysiology of migraine, we here highlight the role as well as the impact of the interplay of TRESK and TREK subunits in the context of different disease settings. In this regard, we focus on their involvement in migraine and pain syndromes, as well as on their influence on (neuro-)inflammatory processes. Furthermore, we describe the potential implications for innovative therapeutic strategies that take advantage of TRESK and TREK modulation as well as obstacles encountered in the development of therapies related to the aforementioned diseases.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais de Potássio/química , Canais de Potássio/genética , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/química , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Multimerização Proteica
19.
Mult Scler ; 28(2): 257-268, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cladribine has been approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) yet real-world evidence regarding its effectiveness and safety remains scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes of MS patients following induction of cladribine. METHODS: We evaluated our prospective cohort of cladribine-treated MS patients from two tertiary centres in Germany. Relapses, disability worsening and occurrence of new or enlarging T2-hyperintense magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions were assessed as well as lymphocyte counts and herpes virus infections. RESULTS: Among 270 patients treated with cladribine, we observed a profound reduction of both relapses and new or enlarging MRI lesions. Treatment appeared more efficacious, especially in patients without previous therapy or following platform substances. Patients switching from natalizumab were prone to re-emerging disease activity. Among patients following dimethyl fumarate pre-treatment, severe lymphopenia was common and associated with increased rates of herpes virus manifestations. CONCLUSION: Overall, we observed an efficacy and safety profile of cladribine consistent with data from the phase 3 clinical trial. However, patients switching from natalizumab experienced suboptimal disease control beyond rebound activity following cessation of natalizumab. Furthermore, dimethyl fumarate pre-treatment was associated with a profound risk of developing severe lymphopenia and subsequent herpes virus infections.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Cladribina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/induzido quimicamente , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Transl Stroke Res ; 13(1): 197-211, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105078

RESUMO

Rag1-/- mice, lacking functional B and T cells, have been extensively used as an adoptive transfer model to evaluate neuroinflammation in stroke research. However, it remains unknown whether natural killer (NK) cell development and functions are altered in Rag1-/- mice as well. This connection has been rarely discussed in previous studies but might have important implications for data interpretation. In contrast, the NOD-Rag1nullIL2rgnull (NRG) mouse model is devoid of NK cells and might therefore eliminate this potential shortcoming. Here, we compare immune-cell frequencies as well as phenotype and effector functions of NK cells in Rag1-/- and wildtype (WT) mice using flow cytometry and functional in vitro assays. Further, we investigate the effect of Rag1-/- NK cells in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model using antibody-mediated depletion of NK cells and adoptive transfer to NRG mice in vivo. NK cells in Rag1-/- were comparable in number and function to those in WT mice. Rag1-/- mice treated with an anti-NK1.1 antibody developed significantly smaller infarctions and improved behavioral scores. Correspondingly, NRG mice supplemented with NK cells were more susceptible to tMCAO, developing infarctions and neurological deficits similar to Rag1-/- controls. Our results indicate that NK cells from Rag1-/- mice are fully functional and should therefore be considered in the interpretation of immune-cell transfer models in experimental stroke. Fortunately, we identified the NRG mice, as a potentially better-suited transfer model to characterize individual cell subset-mediated neuroinflammation in stroke.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout
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