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1.
Harefuah ; 158(9): 607-611, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507114

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excoriation (Skin-Picking) disorder is a clinically recognized condition which was recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM) - fifth edition, as OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) related disorder. The disorder's official status has been achieved due to its high frequency and unique clinical picture involving both mental and physical impairment. In this article, we would like to present a concise review of the literature together with an illustrative case. Epidemiological surveys show a prevalence of 3% to 5% for the general population, with heterogeneous gender and age distribution. In recent years the disorder has been categorized under the family of BFRB's (Body Focused Repetitive Behaviours). However, there are some elements associated with movement suppression and tic disorders, as well as disorders belonging to obsessive-compulsive spectrum. The treatment of this disorder may be pharmacological and/or psychological. There is some evidence for the benefit of some SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) agents as well as for N-Acetyl-Cysteine. Various psychological treatments have been investigated and some of them have proven to be effective. These include cognitive behavioural protocols, some of which have been developed specifically for this disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Prevalência , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 118, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915200

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and serious psychiatric disorder. Although subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been studied as a treatment for OCD patients the underlying mechanism of this treatment and the optimal method of stimulation are unknown. To study the neural basis of subthalamic nucleus DBS in OCD patients we used a novel, implantable DBS system with long-term local field potential sensing capability. We focus our analysis on two patients with OCD who experienced severe treatment-resistant symptoms and were implanted with subthalamic nucleus DBS systems. We studied them for a year at rest and during provocation of OCD symptoms (46 recording sessions) and compared them to four Parkinson's disease (PD) patients implanted with subthalamic nucleus DBS systems (69 recording sessions). We show that the dorsal (motor) area of the subthalamic nucleus in OCD patients displays a beta (25-35 Hz) oscillatory activity similar to PD patients whereas the ventral (limbic-cognitive) area of the subthalamic nucleus displays distinct theta (6.5-8 Hz) oscillatory activity only in OCD patients. The subthalamic nucleus theta oscillatory activity decreases with provocation of OCD symptoms and is inversely correlated with symptoms severity over time. We conclude that beta oscillations at the dorsal subthalamic nucleus in OCD patients challenge their pathophysiologic association with movement disorders. Furthermore, theta oscillations at the ventral subthalamic nucleus in OCD patients suggest a new physiological target for OCD therapy as well as a promising input signal for future emotional-cognitive closed-loop DBS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
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