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2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20362, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038263

RESUMO

Despite medical advances, heart failure remains a major public health issue and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal use of evidence-based therapies and lack of medication up-titration play important roles in this regard. Hyperkalaemia is a frequent and potentially harmful finding which hinders treatment optimisation in patients with heart failure. In this review, heart failure experts from two Swiss academic hospitals discuss the principles of general pharmacological therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and the different treatment options for chronic hyperkalaemia, focusing on patiromer, a recently available potassium binder. Patiromer has been accepted for reimbursement since 1 August 2020 in Switzerland, and has been shown in several clinical trials to safely reduce potassium levels over the long term, thereby allowing up-titration or maintenance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease, including those with heart failure. Whether this promising approach improves outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction is currently under investigation.

4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20341, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920793

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of drugs that reduce blood glucose levels by increasing urinary glucose excretion. On top of the glucose-lowering effect, they offer cardiovascular and renal benefits, the mechanisms of which are probably pleiotropic and include blood pressure reduction, volume depletion, weight loss and several metabolic effects (such as lipolysis and synthesis of ketone bodies). SGLT2 inhibitors are currently indicated in Europe and the USA, as first- or second-line treatments of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with established cardiovascular disease, high/very high cardiovascular risk, renal disease or heart failure. The use of dapagliflozin has recently been extended to patients with heart failure without T2DM, as new emerging data show benefits in this population. Despite an overall favourable safety profile, attention has to be paid to the increased risk of euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis and genital mycotic infections, as well as lower limb amputations and fractures, which have been inconsistently associated with SGLT2 inhibition. For the moment, cost related data for the Swiss setting is lacking but corresponding analyses from abroad suggest cost-effectiveness. Despite their numerous favourable cardiorenal implications, many physicians remain hesitant to use SGLT2 inhibitors. In this article, we present an up-to-date narrative literature review of the physiological mechanisms of action, current indications, therapeutic utility and side effects of SGLT2 inhibitors.

5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804821

RESUMO

AIM AND SCOPE: Our standard management is to operate isolated sagittal synostosis around 4 months of age because of morphological and cognitive outcomes. However, some patients present late and the likelihood of spontaneous remodeling is low in isolated sagittal craniosynostosis operated on after 12 months of age with a limited technique. The preliminary result of a modified technique for forehead remodeling and subtotal calvarial remodeling in nonsyndromic scaphocephalic children with late presentation is presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients older than 1 with isolated sagittal synostosis assessed between 2011 and 2015, over 1 year of age at the time of surgery, with available pre and postoperative computed tomography-scans, were retrospectively included into the study. The following parameters were collected: (1) age at surgery, (2) duration of the procedure, (3) surgical technique, (4) fronto-nasal angle before and after surgery and (5) forehead width before and after surgery. RESULTS: Ten patients aged between 15 months and 6 years were retrospectively included. Delayed surgery was due to late presentation or initial parental reluctance. All patients presented with a transversal narrowing of the forehead and an anterior bulge. Mean age at surgery was 28 months and mean follow up was 23 months (1-4 years). Measurements showed significant improvement of both the fronto-nasal angle and the width of the forehead. CONCLUSIONS: Late-presenting scaphocephalic patients operated on after 12 months of age require forehead remodeling to achieve satisfactory aesthetic results. Modified forehead remodeling by splitting the forehead sagittally into 2 symmetrical halves and adding a midline bone strip is a safe and feasible way to widen the forehead. Long term follow-up is needed to assess this modified technique.

7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(696): 1133-1139, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496701

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium caused by various etiologies with a dominance of viral infections and potential post-infectious autoimmunity. The clinical presentation ranges from chest pain to severe complications including cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmias, and progression to dilated cardiomyopathy. The diagnostic approach is challenging and includes several investigations, such as an ECG, an echocardiography, troponin testing and the exclusion of coronary artery disease. Although endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard, cardiovascular magnetic resonance is now the most valuable tool to accurately characterize myocardial tissue inflammation. The management is mainly symptomatic and consists in early detection and treatment of complications including heart failure and arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Miocardite , Biópsia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Troponina
8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(34): 3255-3268, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484517

RESUMO

AIMS: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.

9.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-5, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydrocephalus is a strong determinant of poor neurological outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In children, ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are the dominant cause of ICH. In a large prospective cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVMs, the authors analyzed the rates and predictive factors of hydrocephalus requiring acute external ventricular drainage (EVD) or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). METHODS: The authors performed a single-center retrospective analysis of the data from a prospectively maintained database of children admitted for a ruptured bAVM since 2002. Admission clinical and imaging predictors of EVD and VPS placement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical models. RESULTS: Among 114 patients (mean age 9.8 years) with 125 distinct ICHs due to ruptured bAVM, EVD and VPS were placed for 55/125 (44%) hemorrhagic events and 5/114 patients (4.4%), respectively. A multivariate nominal logistic regression model identified low initial Glasgow Coma Scale (iGCS) score, hydrocephalus on initial CT scan, the presence of intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH), and higher modified Graeb Scale (mGS) score as strongly associated with subsequent need for EVD (all p < 0.001). All children who needed a VPS had initial hydrocephalus requiring EVD and tended to have higher mGS scores. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVM, almost half of the patients required EVD and 4.4% required permanent VPS. Use of a low iGCS score and a semiquantitative mGS score as indicators of the IVH burden may be helpful for decision making in the emergency setting and thus improve treatment.

13.
Ann Phys Rehabil Med ; 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-lasting acquired disability, but little is known about functional outcome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to 1) study clinical recovery and functional outcome over 24 months after severe childhood TBI, 2) identify early sociodemographic and severity factors influencing outcome, and 3) examine the clinical utility of the Pediatric Injury Functional Outcome Scale (PIFOS) to assess functional outcome. METHODS: Children (0-15 years) consecutively admitted in a trauma centre after accidental severe TBI over 3 years were included in a prospective longitudinal study (Traumatisme Grave de l'Enfant cohort). We measured clinical/neurological recovery, functional status (Pediatric Injury Functional Outcome Scale, [PIFOS]), overall disability (pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS-Peds]) as well as intellectual ability (Wechsler scales) and educational outcome (mainstream school vs special education) of survivors at 1, 3, 12 and 24 months post-injury. RESULTS: For 45 children (aged 3 to 15 years at injury), functional impairments were severe within the first 3 months. Despite the initial rapid clinical recovery and significant improvement over the first year, substantial alterations persisted for most children at 12 months post-TBI, with no significant improvement up to 2 years. Up to 80% of children still had moderate or severe overall disability (GOS-Peds) at 24 months. The severity of functional impairments (PIFOS) at 12 and 24 months was mostly related to socio-emotional, cognitive and physical impairments, and was significantly correlated with clinical/neurological deficits and cognitive (intellectual, executive) and behavioural disorders. Initial TBI severity was the main prognostic factor associated with functional status over the first 2 years post-injury. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the significant impact of severe childhood TBI on short- and medium-term functional outcomes and overall disability. All patients should benefit from systematic follow-up. The PIFOS appeared to be an accurate and reliable tool to assess functional impairment evolution and clinically meaningful outcomes over the first 2 years post-injury.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(16): 1869-1877, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups. RESULTS: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168361

RESUMO

Today, falls constitute a substantial health problem, especially in the elderly, and the diagnostic tests used by clinicians present often a low sensitivity and specificity. This is the case for the Timed Up and Go test which lacks contextualization with regard to everyday life limiting the relevance of its diagnosis. Virtual reality enables the creation of immersive, reproducible and secure environments, close to situations encountered in daily life, and as such could improve falling risk assessment. This study aims to evaluate the effect of immersive virtual reality by wearing a virtual reality headset with a non-disturbing virtual environment compared to real world on the Timed Up and Go test completion. Thirty-one elders (73.7 ± 9 years old) volunteered to participate in the study and the mean times and number of steps to complete a Timed Up and Go were compared in two conditions: actual-world clinical and virtual reality conditions. The results showed that the mean completion times and most of the mean number of steps of the Timed Up and Go in virtual reality condition were significantly different to those in clinical condition. These results suggest that there is a virtual reality effect and this effect is significantly correlated to the time taken to complete the Timed Up and Go. This information will be of interest to quantify the potential part of virtual reality effect on the motor control, measured in a virtual task using virtual controlled disturbances.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Realidade Virtual , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Interface Usuário-Computador
16.
Eur Radiol ; 30(6): 3152-3160, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of persistent lumbar radicular pain (LRP) by CT-guided epidural steroid injection (ESI) is extensively used and associated with rare but serious complications. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which has recently been shown to favor healing and the anti-inflammatory process by delivering growth factors and cytokines, might be an alternative and potentially safer option. We compared the efficacy of interlaminar CT-guided epidural PRP injections (EPRPI) and ESI in the treatment of persistent LRP (> 6 weeks). METHODS: In this non-randomized comparative study, patients were prospectively assessed for pain using the numerical rating scale (NRS) and for function with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and 6 weeks after treatment. Related paired and independent t tests were used for intra- and inter-group comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were included in 2 groups (n = 30 EPRPI, n = 30 ESI). A statistically significant improvement was found in both groups at 6 weeks (mean NRS values 5.7 (± 2.36) at D0 and 3.7 (± 2.3) at 6 weeks (p < 0.01); mean ODI values 30 (± 11) at D0 and 21 (± 13) at 6 weeks (p < 0.01)). No significant difference was observed in the decrease in NRS and ODI scores between the 2 groups at 6 weeks (p = 0.848 and p = 0.314 for the NRS and ODI, respectively). No major complications were noted. CONCLUSION: The results of CT-guided interlaminar EPRPI are similar to ESI for the treatment of persistent LRP and could be a safer option. KEY POINTS: • Treatment of persistent lumbar radicular pain by CT-guided epidural steroid injections is associated with rare but serious complications. • By promoting an anti-inflammatory process, epidural platelet-rich plasma injections might be an alternative treatment of persistent radicular pain. • Platelet-rich plasma CT-guided epidural injections are similar to steroid for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain at 6 weeks post-procedure and could be a safer option.

17.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(6): 936-942, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943493

RESUMO

AIM: The aims of the study are to evaluate the impact of a 4% chlorhexidine (CHG4%) bathing on the occurrence of central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and to identify risk factors (RFs) for CLABSI in our population. This is a retrospective monocentric cohort study in the paediatric surgical intensive care unit at the Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France. METHODS: All hospitalised patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) in 2015 were included. CHG4% bathing was prescribed in CLABSI high-risk patients, defined by the presence of exposition factors (EFs): constitutive or acquired immunosuppression, presence of an invasive medical device (IMD) and the carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. The overall 2015 CLABSI incidence rate was compared with 2014 CLABSI incidence rate (before CHG4% bathing). RESULTS: In all, 775 patients were analysed. Some 182 had at least one EF, and 49 received CHG4%. The incidence rates of CLABSI in 2014 and 2015 were, respectively, 6.1 and 2.3/1000 days CVC (P < 0.01). The presence of at least one EF was associated with the CLABSI's occurrence: odds ratio = 15.13 (95% confidence interval: 4.26-53.71; P < 0.0001), particularly acquired immunosuppression, IMD and S. aureus colonisation. Other RFs were age <1 year and carrying duration >16 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant reduction in incidence of CLABSI after introduction of a targeted CHG4% bathing protocol. Presence of IMD, S. aureus colonisation, immunosuppression, age <1 year and carrying duration >16 days were CLABSI RFs. Regarding the literature, the presence of IMD seems to be underestimated in CLABSI prevention.

18.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 35(2): 104-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate presence of and factors associated with self- and parent-reported fatigue 7 years after severe childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the prospective longitudinal study TGE (Traumatisme Grave de l'Enfant-severe childhood trauma). METHODS: Self-reports and/or parent reports on the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale were collected for 38 participants (aged 7-22 years) 7 years after severe childhood TBI, and 33 controls matched for age, gender, and parental educational level. The data collected included sociodemographic characteristics, age at injury and injury severity scores, overall disability (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended), intellectual outcome (Wechsler scales), and questionnaires assessing executive functions, health-related quality of life, behavior, and participation. RESULTS: Fatigue levels were significantly worse in the TBI than in the control group, especially for cognitive fatigue. Correlations of reported fatigue with age at injury, gender, TBI severity, and intellectual ability were moderate and often not significant. Fatigue was significantly associated with overall level of disability (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended) and with all questionnaires completed by the same informant. CONCLUSION: High levels of fatigue were reported by 30% to 50% of patients 7 years after a severe childhood TBI. Reported fatigue explained more than 60% of the variance of reported health-related quality of life by the same informant (patient or parent).

19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(1): 279-287, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction, which can contribute to intraventricular thrombus and embolism. Still, prevalence and clinical impact of thrombus formation and embolic events on outcome of TTS patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Additionally, factors associated with thrombus formation or embolism, as well as predictors for mortality, were identified. Approach and Results: TTS patients enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry at 28 centers in Australia, Europe, and the United States were dichotomized according to the occurrence/absence of intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Patients with intraventricular thrombus or embolism were defined as the ThrombEmb group. Of 1676 TTS patients, 56 (3.3%) patients developed intraventricular thrombus and/or embolism following TTS diagnosis (median time interval, 2.0 days [range, 0-38 days]). Patients in the ThrombEmb group had a different clinical profile including lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher prevalence of the apical type, elevated levels of troponin and inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of vascular disease. In a Firth bias-reduced penalized-likelihood logistic regression model apical type, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, previous vascular disease, and a white blood cell count on admission >10×103 cells/µL emerged as independent predictors for thrombus formation or embolism. CONCLUSIONS: Intraventricular thrombus or embolism occur in 3.3% of patients in the acute phase of TTS. A simple risk score including clinical parameters associated with intraventricular thrombus formation or embolism identifies patients at increased risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.


Assuntos
Embolia/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Eletrocardiografia , Embolia/diagnóstico , Embolia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Incidência , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ventriculografia com Radionuclídeos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(4): 515-520, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745584

RESUMO

The critical shoulder angle (CSA) constitutes a straightforward and highly reproducible tool. Degenerative rotator cuff tears (RCT) are associated with a significantly larger CSA. In this review, the most relevant features of the CSA are summarized: (1) the relationship between the CSA and RCT pathophysiology, (2) accurate measurement of the CSA according to various imaging modalities, (3) the contribution of the CSA in predicting the occurrence of RCT, and (4) RCT recurrence after surgical repair.

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